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reach Moselkern in time for the steamer | tributary valleys of the Moselle, stands descending to Coblenz. 2. The high the very interesting old castle of Elz, post-road to Treves and Coblenz (Route described in Route 42. The castle is 41.). 3. If he take an interest in geo- about 3 m. distant from the Moselle. logy, he may proceed by a rough cross- About 3 m. higher up the valley is road to the mountain called "Hohe another castle, Pyrmont, in ruins, having Acht," near Kaleborn, 2200 feet above been burnt by the Swedes in 1641; the sea, commanding from its summit a near it is a cascade.] most extensive view. He will find a road leading thence to Lützerath and Bertrich (p. 309.) to Ahrweiler (p. 305.), and to the Upper Eifel (p. 325.).



15 Pruss. miles = 71 Eng. miles. Schnellpost daily in 16 hours; with extra post the distance may be travelled easily in 12. The road, though very hilly, is good, and the country (especially in the neighbourhood of Lützerath) not unpicturesque. Within a short distance, between the road and the Moselle, there are some charming scenes. As there is no post-road along the banks of the Moselle, the best way to explore its beauties is to ascend or descend it in the steamer (p. 315.).

Upon the first stage from Coblenz to Treves lie many unimportant villages; but the first of them, Metternich, gives its name to a family now known all over Europe.

[Twice a week the schnellpost, instead of passing through Polch, makes a slight detour by the little town of Mayen, 3 G. m. (Route 40.) to Kaisersesch, 13 m.]

31 Polch.

[The small town of Munster-Maifeld (Inn, Bey Canaris) lies on the left of the road, about 5 m. off, in a beautiful situation. By some it is said to have been the birth-place of Caligula (?). The Ch. of St. Martin, standing on a Roman foundation, "is handsome in the interior, though plain. It contains a marble group, nearly life-size, of the Deposition, and 2 fine sculptured Tryptychs or folding altar-pieces, painted. The W. end is quite castellated.". F. S. About 3 m. distant, in the midst of one of the most picturesque of all the

Halfway between Kehrig and Dungenheim the road crosses the picturesque valley of the Elz.

The traveller coming from Treves, and wishing to explore the Lower Eifel (Route 40.), would turn off to the left at Kehrig, towards Mayen, instead of proceeding at once to Coblenz.

2 Kaisersesch. Cross the picturesque Martenthal.

2 Lützerath. Inn, Post; not good. A public carriage goes daily from Lützerath to Alf on the Moselle : it belongs to the post-master, who is also post-master at Alf. He runs another carriage to Dreis. See Route 44.

This is the best starting-point for an excursion to the volcanoes of the Upper Eifel. (Route 45.)

An excellent road leads through most interesting scenery from Lützerath to Alf on the Moselle, about 10 m., passing the very retired Baths of Bertrich, nearly half-way. They lie in the depths of the narrow valley of the Ues, or Issbach, distinguished for its sinuosities, which present a succession of scenes, varying every few yards, and for the umbrageous foliage of the woods, which clothe its sides from top to bottom. Just before the road descends into the valley, it passes near the Falkenlei, a conical hill cut in two as it were, crested with basalt, in the crannies of which the falcons nestle. It was probably a volcanic crater, from which a stream of basalt, occupying the lower part of the valley above the slate rocks which form its sides, may have issued, though the lava current has not been absolutely traced to this source. Its gloomy crevices and grottoes, glazed with black, are well worth exploring. A mile farther, at the junction of a little rivulet with the Iss, another basaltic current enters the valley. It appears to have been cut through by the stream, which, falling in

a small cascade, has laid open a singular
grotto, the sides, roof, and floor of
which consist of small basaltic columns,
worn away at the joints, so as to re-
semble cheeses. This has obtained for
the cave its common name of cheese.
cellar (Käsekeller). The junction of
the clay-slate and lava is very distinctly
seen in the bed of the rivulet.
Baths of Bertrich consist of an assem-
blage of inns and boarding-houses,
(among which Werling's Inn, the Kur-
haus, is very good) in a romantic and
retired spot, shut in by hills, and al-
most canopied by woods, intersected by
agreeable walks. The waters are warm
(90° Fahr.) and sulphurous. The sea-
son lasts till August; but Bertrich is a
quiet rather than fashionable water-
ing place, and its accommodations are
homely compared with Baden or Wies-
baden. It is well situated as head-
quarters for travellers intending to ex-
plore the Moselle. The steamboat from
Coblenz to Treves touches daily at Alf,
a village at the junction of the Issbach
and Moselle, 5 m. below the Baths.
(Route 42.) A capital road leads
thither. From Bertrich to Treves, a
rough but picturesque road, over the
mountains, falls into the high road at
Wittlich (8 m.); see below.

2 Hetserath.

Beyond Schweich, the Moselle is crossed by a ferry, and the road proceeds by the rt. bank to Treves, passing, near the entrance of the town, the Porta Nigra or Black Gate (p. 313.).

23 TREVES (German, Trier).—Inns: Trierischer Hof; - Das Rothe Haus (the red-house), comfortable and well situated; Luxemburger Hof.

This very ancient city stands on the rt. bank of the Moselle, in a valley of exuberant richness, surrounded by low, vine-clad hills; it has 16,000 inhab. An inscription on the wall of the Rothe Haus (formerly the Town-hall) asserts that Treves was built before Rome "Ante Romam Treviris stetit annis MCCC." Without giving credit to this, it may fairly be considered the oldest city in Germany. Julius Cæsar, when he first led the Roman armies into this part of Europe, found Treves (B. C. 58) the flourishing capital of a powerful nation, the Treviri, who, as allies of the Romans, rendered them great assistance in conquering the neighbouring tribes. The Empr. Augustus established here a Roman colony, under the name of Augusta Trevirorum, and bestowed on it the privileges of having a senate and magistrates of its own. became the capital of First Belgic Gaul (which, it must be remembered), comprised not only Gaul, properly so called, but the whole of Spain and Britain); and in later times it was the residence of the emperors Constantius, Constantine the Great, Julian, Valentinian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius, and became so eminent in commerce, manufactures, wealth, and extent, and withal so advanced in learning and the arts, that Ausonius the poet, who lived here, calls it the second metropolis of the empire. It was indeed the capital of the Roman empire N. of the Alps. Although almost annihilated during the It is altogether a sin-invasion of the Goths, Huns, and Van

About 2 miles out of Lützerath the road crosses what is called the Lützerather Kehr (from kehren, to turn), one of the valleys peculiarly characteristic of the Eifel district, and remarkable for their wonderful windings and contortions.

Every projection on the one side of it corresponds with a bay or recess on the other, so that the stream of the Ues or Iss-bach, which flows through it, driven from one side to the other, by these advancing and retreat ing buttresses, is seen at one time in 7 different bends or turns, taking at every bend which it makes an exactly opposite direction to that in which it had previously flowed. gular scene.

23 Wittlich (Inn, Post; good), a town of 2200 inhab. An extremely bad cross-road leads hence to Bertrich baths, (8 m.). The descent into the glen on this side is very fine.


dals, it arose to a height of splendour nearly equalling its former state, under the rule of the Archbishops of Treves, who were Princes and Electors of the empire. Many of them seem to have aimed more at temporal than spiritual

sway. They maintained large armies, which, after the fashion of the times, they did not scruple to lead in person, clad in armour. The ambition and talents of many of these episcopal rulers increased their dominions so much, as to obtain for them considerable political influence in Germany. Treves was taken by the English under Marlborough in the War of the Succession, 1702-4; and at the French Revolution suffered the usual fortune of having its churches and convents stripped of their wealth, and the buildings turned into stables or warehouses. Before that event Treves boasted of possessing more ecclesiastical buildings than any other city of the same size.

Treves is at present a decayed town, owing the chief interest it possesses for the traveller to the Roman remains still existing in and about it. No other city of Germany or northern Europe possesses such extensive relics of the masters of the world. They are not, it is true, in the best style of art, and are remarkable rather for vastness than beauty; and in this respect bear no comparison with the Roman remains in the S. of France or in Italy. They have like. wise suffered severely, not only from the Vandalism of the Vandals themselves, but from the prejudices of the early Christians, who believed they were doing good service to their religion by effacing all traces of Paganism from the earth. Many of the buildings have been demolished, to furnish materials for modern constructions.

In the market-place stands a pillar of granite, surmounted by a cross, raised to commemorate the appearance of a fiery cross in the sky, seen, according to an obscure tradition, in 958.

The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Helen is an irregular building, chiefly in the earliest Romanesque or Byzantine style. The semicircular terminations both of the E. and W. ends are full of Roman bricks. Indeed the nucleus of the building is supposed to have been of Roman construction, and to have been built by the empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who deposited in it the supposed relic, our

Saviour's Coat without seam; which, after an interval of 34 years, was exhibited for 8 weeks in 1844 to 1,100,000 pilgrims! The first historical mention of it is in 1190; a full account has been published by Prof. Marx, of Treves. The original building of Helena is supposed to have consisted of 9 arches, supported in the centre by 4 colossal pillars of granite; S of these still exist in their place; indeed, all the 4 Corinthian capitals are visible in the interior of the church. The fourth gave way,

and, to prevent the total destruction of the building, its place was supplied by a square pier of masonry, and the others were walled up by Archbp. Poppo, who repaired the church in the 11th cent. This fractured column lies at present on the outside of the church; it must have been brought from a distance, perhaps from the Odenwald. The E. choir was added in the latter half of the 12th cent., and is an instance of the latest and lightest Romanesque. The church was roofed and altered about 1200, at which time additions in the pointed style were introduced. Within the church are numerous monuments of Electors of Treves, including that of the warlike prelate Richard von Greifenklau, who defended the city in person against Franz of Sickingen. "A marble bas-relief, on the tomb of Archbp. Hugo, of the Adoration of the Magi, is worthy of observation.”—D. J. of the marble pulpit is good, as far as the mutilations caused by the French leave the means of judging. The seats of the choir are singularly inlaid with ivory and wooden mosaic (Marquetrie). A portion of the large funds derived from the exhibition of the Holy Coat are being applied to the restoration of the Cathedral, which is carried into effect by painting over the marble and wood carving, and whitewashing the stonework. The cloisters date from a very early period.

The carving

Adjoining the cathedral stands the far more graceful Church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), built in the most elegant Pointed style, between 1227 and 1243; and, being one of the earliest specimens of pure Gothic, to be com

pared with the similar and contem-
poraneous churches of Marburg in
Hesse, Altenberg near Cologne, and
the cathedrals of Amiens, Salisbury, and
Cologne. The semicircular portal is
richly ornamented with sculpture, and
the interior, in the shape of a Greek
cross, is supported by 12 pillars, each
bearing the picture of an apostle.
little black stone in the pavement near
the door is the only spot whence all

The monu

these can be seen at once.
ment of Archbp. Jacob von Sirk is a
fine work of an unknown sculptor. A
doorway in the N. Transept also is well
worth attention. The Portal of the
Jesuits' Church is very good.

The Palace of the Electors and Bishops,
a very handsome and extensive build-
ing, is now a barrack. The principal
staircase displays much rich and elabo-
rate carving. This palace stands partly
upon the site of an enormous Roman
edifice, only a fragment of which re-
mains; the larger portion having been
demolished to make way for the epis-
copal edifice, erected in 1614. This co-
lossal fragment has been included in the
palace, and goes with the vulgar by the
name of the Heathens' Tower (Heiden-
thurm). It was probably the Basilica
or imperial hall attached to the Palace,
the semicircular termination or apse at
the E. end having been the tribunal;
and the whole perhaps at one time turned
into a church; as was the case with si-
milar halls in Rome. Be this as it may,
the gigantic proportions of this Roman
edifice, whose walls are more than 90
feet high, and 10 feet thick, give a very
good idea of the vast dimensions of the
whole when entire. It is at the same
time a master-piece of architecture; as
the bricks and tiles, of which it is
wholly composed, remain to this day
perfectly smooth on the surface, solid
and compact, and the walls, after the
lapse of ages, are without a crack or
seam; but the King of Prussia has
caused it to be cleared out and restored
in its original condition, and to its
former use as a Ch. Additional interest
attaches to these old walls, if we con-
sider them as the favourite residence of
Constantine, and that out of them issued

the decrees which governed at the same time Rome, Constantinople, and Britain.

In front of this building extends an open space of ground, now used for drilling troops; at its further extremity stand the shattered remains of the Baths, Thermæ (Büder-Pallast). Until within a few years, they were included in the S. E. angle of the fortifications of the town, and were half buried in the earth; so that the windows on the first story being on a level with the ground, served as an entrance into the town, and were barbarously broken away at the sides, in order to admit the market carts of the peasantry: from this the building got the name of the White Gate. Under the direction of the Prussian government these ruins have been laid bare. They resemble, on a small scale, the Thermæ of Caracalla and Domitian at Rome. Vaulted rooms, reservoirs, remains of a hypocaust, earthen pipes, and channels for the passage of hot as well as cold water, have been brought to light, and seem to explain the original destination of the building. The massiveness of the well-turned arches, and the thickness of the walls, will excite admiration at the skill of the builders who raised them, and surprise at the violence which has reduced them to so utter a state of dilapidation.

Aboutm. to the E. of the baths, outside the walls, on the road to Olewig, is the Roman Amphitheatre. It comes unexpectedly into sight, being scooped out of the side of the Marsberg, a hill covered with vineyards, which but a few years ago extended over the arena itself. The late king of Prussia purchased the ground, and cleared away the earth which covered it to the depth of 20 ft. It is interesting in an historical as well as an antiquarian point of view, as it was upon this spot that Constantine entertained his subjects with a spectacle, which he called Frankish sports (Ludi Francici), and which consisted in exposing many thousand unarmed Frankish prisoners to be torn in pieces by wild beasts. He twice exhibited these diversions (A. D. 306 and 313), and the fawning chroniclers of the time have not

scrupled to call it a magnificent sight, "magnificum spectaculum, famosa supplicia." So great was the number

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The BLACK GATE, Porta Nigra (Schwartzes Thor), called also Porta Martis, is the most interesting monument of antiquity in Treves; and has all the massive simplicity of the Roman style. Neither its age nor use has been satisfactorily ascertained, but it is reputed (with much probability) to have been built in the days of Constantine the Great, between 314 and 322. Kugler, indeed, regards it as a work of the Franks, dating not from classic times, but from the middle ages. Its front is decorated with rows of Tuscan columns, its lower story is very massive, and it may have originally been the entrance gate on the N. line of the city wall.

Some have fixed the date of the building prior to the arrival of the Romans, and have called it the Forum, Capitol, or Council-house, of the Belgæ; but the style of architecture favours the belief that it was a work of the Lower Empire.

in those places where it passed under ground; it was 3 or 4 ft. broad, and nearly 6 ft. high. The part which was of victims, that the savage beasts de-supported upon pillars across the valsisted of their own accord from their leys has entirely disappeared. work of destruction, and left many alive, fatigued with slaughtering. Those who survived were made to fight as gladiators against one another; but they are said to have spoilt the amusement of the hard-hearted spectators, by voluntarily falling on each other's swords, instead of contending for life. The arena itself, excavated out of the solid rock, and carefully levelled, is 234 ft. long and 155 broad: deep channels for water run round and through the centre: they were supplied by an aqueduct from the stream of the Ruwer. Horns, tusks, and bones of various wild animals have been discovered in digging, and one or two cave-like vaults in the side walls were, it is supposed, the dens in which they were confined previously to exhibition. This Amphitheatre, capable of holding about 6000 persons, was of humble pretensions in comparison with those of Nismes, Verona, or the Coliseum, as, instead of being surrounded by several ranges of vaulted arcades of masonry, the sloping banks of earth, thrown up in excavating the arena, served to support the seats for the spectators. All traces of these have disappeared. The stones were probably used for building houses, as the amphitheatre was long regarded no otherwise than as a quarry. Archways of solid masonry flanked by towers (no part of which now remain) formed the main entrances to the arena at the N. and S. E. extremity; in addition to which, 2 vaulted passages (vomitoria) bored through the hill, led into the arena from the side of Treves, and still remain in tolerable preservation. One of them has been converted into a cellar, and contains the wine which grows immediately over it. It is commonly called the Kays Keller (Cæsar's cellar), because it is supposed to have led to the Roman emperor's private box. The other is not yet cleared out. Roman aqueduct, which conveyed water to Treves from the Ruwer, still exists N. Germ.



In the 11th cent., an anchorite named Simeon of Syracuse, who had been a monk in the convent of Mount Sinai, on his return from the Holy Land, posted himself on the top of the building, in imitation of his namesake Simeon the Stylite. His ascetic and eccentric life gained for him the reputation of sanctity; and in consequence he was enrolled in the calendar. long after his death, the building was consecrated and dedicated to St. Simeon by Archbp. Poppo. To fit it for the service of religion, he added a semicircular apsis to one end, which still remains a curious specimen of architecture, and formed 3 churches in it one above the other, in which service was regularly performed down to the beginning of the present century. Like most ancient structures, the lower part of it, as far as the tops of the gateways, had become buried beneath earth and rubbish, so that the entrance to it was by a long flight of steps, leading to the first floor. In this state Napoleon found it


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