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sure in architecture are the Churches, very pure specimens of the Romanesque style, derived doubtless from Cologne. The oldest of these, a small building, supported by 2 rows of slender columns, is probably part of the first foundation of St. Bernard, erected 1131. It is now occupied by wine-presses, and some of the best Rhine wines are made in it. The larger Church, a spacious edifice, was built 1186: it is of severe architecture. There are many curious monuments, especially of the Katzenellenbogen, and von Stein (de Lapide); one of a knight "amicus fidelis hujus monast" MCCC.; also of Abbots and Archbishops of Mayence, Gerlach (1371), and Adolph II. von. Nassau (1474). The long dormitory, in the Pointed Gothic of the 14th cent. imposed on Round work, and the Chapter-house of the 15th, also merit notice.

The vaults under these buildings are used by the Duke of Nassau as cellars, to contain what he calls his Cabinet of Wines, comprising a collection of the choicest productions of the vineyards of the Rheingau.

The celebrated Steinberg vineyard, once the property of the monks of Eberbach, now of the Duke of Nassau, lies upon the slope of the hill, close to the convent. The wine produced from it is esteemed quite as much as Johannisberg; and the culture of it is managed with even greater care and cost than that vineyard, It consists of about 100 valuable acres enclosed within a ring fence; the high wall is passed in going to Hattenheim or Erbach. In the spring of 1836 half of the finest wines in the Duke's cellars were sold by public auction. The cask which was considered the best, the flower, or, as the Germans call it, the Bride (Braut) of the cellar, being cabinet Steinberger of 1822, was purchased for the enormous sum of 6100 fl. about 500l., by Prince Emile of Hesse. contained 3 ohms, about 600 bottles; and the price was therefore equivalent to 16s. 4d. a bottle.

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From the Moss-house on the Boss, a neighbouring height, a view is obtained

which the author of the Bubbles calls "the finest he had witnessed in this country."

1. In the distance, on the top of the hill, nearly opposite, or on a line with Hattenheim, may be discerned Ingelheim, the favourite residence of Charlemagne, now a poor village. (Rte. 98.)

Charlemagne used to resort to the low islands in the middle of the Rhine from Ingelheim to fish. His unfortunate son Lewis, pursued by his own impious sons, ended his days (840) on one of them (the Sandau, opposite Hattenheim), a fugitive.

rt. The large building between Erbach and Elfeld is the Draiser Hof, once an appendage to the convent of Eberbach,

rt. Elfeld or Eltville (Alta villa)

Inns: Hirsch (Stag);-Engel ;-is the only town of the Rheingau; it has 2000 inhab.; is conspicuous from its situation, and picturesque from its Gothic towers. The lofty watch-tower surmounted by 4 turrets, at the upper end of the town, is part of the castle built in the 14th century. Here Gunther of Schwarzburg, besieged by his rival Charles IV., resigned the crown, 1349, and died, probably of poison. Around the town are many handsome villas and country seats of the German noblesse. In that of Graf von Elz are some good pictures,- -a fine Domenichino, Susanna in the Bath. In the pretty valley behind Eltville lies the village of Kidrich, with a beautiful Gothic chapel of St. Michael, built 1440, conspicuous for its turret open-work. In the Ch. is curious woodwork, and original galleries coeval with the building. The tower of Scharfenstein, once the residence of the bishops of Mayence, rises above Kidrich. The Gräfenberg wine is produced here. Schlangenbad is reached from this by a bridle-path through the woods, 6 m. long.

rt. Nieder-Walluf: at the end of the Walldaffthal, about 4 m. N. W., lies Rauenthal, famous for its wine.

rt. Schierstein is a village with more than 1300 inhab. The Picture Gallery of M. Habel contains many

works by the old masters. Here ends the Rheingau, "the Bacchanalian Paradise," which, bounded by the Taunus hills on one side, and by the Rhine on the other, extends along the right bank of the river as far down as Lorch. It was given to the Archbishops of Mainz by a Carlovingian king, and was protected by a wall and ditch, some portion of which may still be seen near Biberich. A road turns off here to Schlangenbad, 8 m. (Rte. 95.) rt. About 4 m. behind Schierstein is the village of Frauenstein, with a ruined castle, and an enormous lime

tree.

rt. Biberich (Inns: H. Bellevue; Rheinischer Hof), the Château of the Duke of Nassau, of stucco, ornamented with red sandstone, with a circular building in the centre, is one of the handsomest palaces on the Rhine, though now somewhat dilapidated; the interior is remarkable only for the splendour and taste with which it is fitted up, and for the exquisite prospects up and down the Rhine. The gardens behind are of great extent and very pretty, and are liberally thrown open to the public. They are famous for their white and red chesnuts, and contain some fine ornamental timber. In the miniature castle of Mosbach, within their circuit, on the bank of a small artificial lake, a number of Roman antiquities are preserved.

Biebrich stands on the limits of the Duchy of Nassau. Above this, the rt. as well as the 1. bank of the Rhine belongs to Hesse-Darmstadt. The Rail. way from Wiesbaden to Frankfurt by Castel passes by Biberich, where there is a station. Passengers bound for Frankfurt or Wiesbaden may disembark here, and take the train to Wiesbaden in 10 minutes, and to Frankfurt in 14 hr., saving thereby an hour's detour and detention at Mayence. Tariff for porterage from steamer to railway station, and vice versâ at Biebrich :- For trunks and large and heavy parcels, 6 kreutzers each, for small do., 3 kr. each. The train is drawn by horses along a short branch from Biebrich to the main line. R. 95,

The red towers of Mayence (1.) now appear in sight, surrounded by fortifications, connected by a bridge of boats over the Rhine, with

rt. The fortified suburb of Castel; (Bahrdt's Inn, large and good, close to the Rly.), which forms the tête du pont.

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1. MENTZ (Fr. Mayence; Germ. Mainz). Inns: Rheinischer Hof, best; - Europäischer Hof; - Hessischer Hof, good and quiet; — Holländischer Hof, good; -H. d'Angleterre, pretty good; all on the Quay close to the Rhine, but separated from it by a wall; - Drey Reichs-Kronen (Three Crowns); -at Castel, on the rt. bank of the Rhine, near the Railway Station, Bahrdt's Hotel. The landing-places ot the steamers of the Upper and Lower Rhine are nearly a mile apart from each other. Porterage is very exorbitant. Florins and kreutzers here come into use (Sect. VIII.); but Prussian dollars are also current.

Mayence, the Moguntiacum of the Romans, belongs to the Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt, and is the most considerable and important town in his dominions; but, as the chief and strongest fortress of the German Confederation, it is garrisoned by Prussian and Austrian troops in nearly equal numbers, and is commanded by a governor elected alternately from either nation for a period of five years. It lies on the left bank of the Rhine, nearly opposite the junction of the Main; it has 36,600 inhab., and 8000 men garrison.

Upon the Quai, where the steamer stops, are 3 large red buildings ; — the Kurfürstliche Schloss, or ancient Palace of the Electors of Mayence, now converted into a Museum. The Grossherzogliche Schloss, originally Deutsches Haus (Teutonic House); it served as a residence for Napoleon, and has now become the Palace of the Governor of the fortress and the Arsenal.

The most remarkable objects in Mainz are the Cathedral, a vast building of red sandstone, blocked up on all sides but the E. by mean houses, less interesting for any beauty of architec

ture (as it is built in the massive, round-arched style) than for its great antiquity, having been begun in the 10th, and finished in the 11th cent.; but the date of the oldest parts now remaining, viz. the E. choir, transept and nave, may be referred to the period intervening between 978 and 1137. The building, however, has suffered so much at different times from conflagrations, from the Prussian bombardment of 1793, and afterwards (1813) from having been converted into a barrack and magazine by the French, that the only portion of the original structure remaining in a tolerably perfect state is that behind the altar at the E. end (978-1009). The octagonal tower (Pfarrthurm) at the E. end has been surmounted with a cupola of cast-iron 70 ft. high, designed by Moller. This church, as well as those of Worms, Treves, and Spire, has a double choir, and high altars both at the E. and W. ends, and 2 transepts. The western choir dates from 1200-1239: the side chapels on the N. side were added 1291: those on the S. 1332. The cloister 1397-1412. The most beautiful of them, that of All Saints, containing a very fine window, was built 1317. The double chapel of St. Gothard, adjoining the N. W. transept, is a particularly interesting specimen of Gothic, on account of the period at which it was built (1136). It is therefore to be regretted that, for the sake of a few paltry dollars' rent, it should be let as a leather warehouse. The interior of the cathedral is filled with Monuments of Episcopal Electors of Mainz; the greater number, placed upright against the piers and walls, are interesting illustrations of the progress and decay of the temporal power of the German church. The Archbishops of Mainz had the right of placing the crown on the head of the German Emperors, and are sometimes represented on their tombs in that act. That of Archbishop Peter von Asfeldt (1305-1320) bears, in addition to his own effigy rudely carved, those of the Emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian, and John King of Bohemia, all of whom he had crowned:

but while his figure is on a scale as large as life, theirs are only half the size, and appear like children beside him. The Egyptians in their sculpture resorted to the same method of giving importance to their chief personages, and Sesostris appears a giant among pigmies.

Three

The monuments best worth notice in point of art are the following, executed at the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th cent. Prince Albert of Saxony, 1484; Canon Bernhard von Breidenbach, 1497, executed with great truth of expression and most delicate finish; Archb. Berthold von Henneberg (1504), still more pure in style; Archb. Jacob of Liebenstein (1508), and Uriel von Gemmingen. Among those of later date we may mention that of Baron Dalberg (1606), the oldest Baron in Germany. other monuments deserve mention on account of the persons whose memories they record. One is that of Fastrada, 3rd wife of Charlemagne (794), by the side of the Beautiful Doorway leading into the cloisters, lately restored. She was not buried here, but in a church now destroyed, from which the monument was removed. Another is the tomb of the Minstrel or Minnesänger Frauenlob, "Praise the Ladies," so called from the complimentary character of his verse. His real name was Henrich von Meissen. He was a canon of Mainz cathedral, and so great a favourite of the fair sex, that his bier was supported to the grave by 8 ladies, who poured over it libations of wine at the same time that they bathed it with their tears. His monument, a plain red tombstone, stands against the wall of the cloisters. It bears his portrait in low relief, copied (1783) from the original, which was destroyed by the carelessness of some workmen. A more worthy monument from Schwanthaler's chisel was erected in 1843 to the "Ladies' Minstrel" by the ladies of Mayence. On the 1. side of the nave is a red sandstone monument, erected 1357, to St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, and first Archbishop of Mayence. He was an Englishman,

named Winfried, born at Crediton in | Devonshire, of noble and wealthy parents; and became a monk in the Benedictine Abbey of Nutsall, near Winchester, in which, in the beginning of the 8th cent., he taught poetry, history, rhetoric, and the Holy Scriptures. He left his country with 11 other monks, to preach the gospel to the barbarous nations of Germany; in the course of his mission he converted more than 100,000 heathens; his missionary labours, interrupted only by 3 short visits to Rome, lasted more than 30 years, and extended from the Elbe to the Rhine, and from the Alps to the ocean. He was created a bishop, but without a diocese, by Pope Gregory II. Archbp. and Primate of all Germany by Gregory III. And by Pope Zachary, Archbp. of Mentz, then first constituted the metropolis of the German churches.

The attention of travellers should also be directed to the pulpit, a modern restoration; the figures of the apostles are copied from those by Peter Vischer at Nürnberg. An ancient font of lead, formerly gilt (1328), behind the eastern altar, and the brazen doors opening into the Market-place (called Speise Markt), on the N. side of the cathedral, also deserve notice; they were brought from the ruined Liebfrauenkirche, and are as old as the 10th century. In 1135 Bishop Adalbert I. caused to be engraved on the upper valves of the doors an edict, by which he conferred various important privileges upon the town, in consideration of the aid which the citizens, his subjects, had afforded him, in rescuing him out of the hands of the emperor. They procured his release from prison by seizing on the person of the emperor, and detaining him as a hostage until their own sovereign was delivered up.

In the Sacristy are preserved two very ancient chalices, probably of the 10th century; one, the gift of Archbishop Willigis, is a curious sample of Byzantine art.

The Elector of Mentz, who was also Archbishop, was premier prince in the German empire; he presided at

Diets, and at the Election of Emperor, where he exercised very powerful influence; so that one Primate, Werner, on proposing a candidate, is reported to have added, "I have others in my pocket." His dominions comprehended 146 German square miles, with a population of 400,000 souls, and a revenue of 1 million of florins. He maintained a body-guard of 2000 men, and a squadron of hussars.

The canons of the Cathedral, supported by its enormous revenues, lived a jovial life, as may be gathered from the answer they returned to the Pope, who had reproved them for their worldly and luxurious habits: "We have more wine than is needed for the mass, and not enough to turn our mills with."

St. Stephen's Ch. (in the S. W. part of the town), built 1317, has a nave and 2 aisles of nearly equal height: the cloister is of the 15th cent. It con

tains some old paintings on gold grounds and numerous monuments.

Museum, in the ancient Kurfurstliche Schloss (about the middle of the long street called Die grosse Bleiche in the N. part of the town). The collections consist of, 1., Paintings, of no great excellence. The best works are, 1. Christ and the Four Penitents, David, the Magdalen, the Prodigal Son, and the Penitent Thief, by Otto Vennius; 2. a Carmelite Monk receiving the dress of his order from the Virgin, A. Caracci; 3. St. Francis receiving the Stigmata (five wounds), Guercino; 16. Virgin and Child, Lorenzo da Credi, the gem of the collection; 17. St. Apollonia, Domenichino; 18. St. Andrew and St. Ursula, by Lucas van Leyden, or some old German master, and 20-28. The Life of the Virgin, by M. Grünewald, are curious: also Adam and Eve by Albert Durer, but so much injured and painted over as to show few traces of the master. 2. Antiquities, curious, because for the most part found in the neighbourhood, such as Roman altars, votive tablets, and inscriptions, in which the names of the legions stationed on this spot are commemorated. There are also several

capitals of columns from the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim, in the style of Roman architecture; being in fact the plunder of ancient buildings in Italy: some fragments of sculpture from the venerable Kaufhaus, pulled down without cause in 1805; and a model of the double stone bridge which Napoleon proposed to throw over the Rhine here. The Town library is a very respectable collection, where are preserved some interesting specimens of the earliest printing.

The Theatre is a handsome building designed by Moller, after the classical model of the theatres of the ancients, in which the outer form bears some relation to the interior.

The Public Gardens (die Neue Anlage) outside the fortifications, on the S., beyond the Neue Thor, and nearly opposite the mouth of the Main, are highly deserving of a visit, on account of the beautiful view they command of the junction of the Main and Rhine, of the town of Mayence, the Rheingau, and the distant range of the Taunus. They occupy the site of the suburban Palace of the Electors, called the Favourite. To add to the attractions of this charming spot, the excellent military bands of the Austrian and Prussian regiments play here once a-week, Friday, between 4 and 8 P. M. There is a café at one extremity of the garden, forming the favourite evening resort of the inhabitants in summer.

Another good view may be had from the top of the Tower of Drusus, an ancient Roman structure, believed by some to be the tomb of Drusus, sonin-law of Augustus, the founder of Mayence, whose body was brought hither after his death. From mutilation or decay, its base is now reduced to smaller dimensions than the upper part, which may have produced in it a fanciful resemblance to an acorn, and perhaps have given rise to the name, Eichelstein, acorn, by which it is vulgarly known. All the external and well-fitted masonry has long since been stripped off, and the passage for the staircase leading to the top was drilled through the solid mass in 1689.

It

stands within the citadel, but is readily shown by one of the soldiers. Excava tions made in forming new fortifications have laid bare the foundations of the original Roman Castellum Moguntianum of Drusus, and show that it was an oblong square, with flanking towers, planted on the eminence overlooking the confluence of the Main.

The music of the Austrian and Prussian military bands, which may be heard on parade almost every day in the week during summer, is remarkably good.

Mayence has been from very early times a frontier fortress. It owes its existence to the camp which Drusus pitched here, which he immediately afterwards converted into a permanent bulwark against the Germans. It soon became the most important of that chain of fortresses which he built along the Rhine, and which were the germs of most of the large towns now existing on that river. Though reduced from its former wealth and splendour by the fortunes of war, and still showing, in its irregular streets and shattered and truncated buildings, the effects of sieges and bombardments, it ought not to be regarded merely as a dull garrison town. Europe is indebted to this city for two things which have had the greatest influence in effecting human improvement-the liberation of trade from the exactions of the feudal aristocracy, and the Printing Press. It was a citizen of Mayence, named Walpolden, who first suggested the plan of freeing commerce from the oppression of the knightly highwaymen, with whose strongholds the whole Continent was overspread at the beginning of the 13th century, by a confederation of cities which led to the formation of the Rhenish, and afterwards of the more famous Hanseatic League. This same Walpolden deserves to be held in grateful remembrance by every Rhine tourist; since many of the ruined castles which line its banks were reduced to their present picturesque condition at his instigation, and under the energetic rule of the Emperor Rudolph of Habsburg, as being the

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