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under nearly similar circumstances, were inscribed on the monument. "Je voudrais qu'il m'eut couté le quart de mon sang, et vous tinse en santé mon prisonnier! Quoique je sais, que l'Empereur mon maître n'eut en ses guerres plus rude ni fâcheux ennemi.”. moires de Bayard. On another side of the monument were inscribed the words, "Qui que tu sois, ami ou ennemi, de ce jeune héros respecte les cendres.

the ice as far as Boppart! The fields between the 2 rivers were covered with ice, and all communication by the road cut off.

The vast Palace of the Electors of Treves (now the King's) (p. 280.), Mé-extending along the bank of the Rhine, is conspicuous, as the steamer reaches her moorings off

This injunction has not been exactly complied with. The monument originally stood where the fort Empr. Francis now stands, but was pulled down in 1817, to make room for it. Hoche was buried in the grave with Marceau, though his monument is at Weissenthurm. Whether the bodies were removed or not is not clearly ascertained; but some time after, the tomb was rebuilt at the command of the late King of Prussia, in a field to the right of the road from Cologne to Coblenz.

1. After passing under the works of the Fort Empr. Francis, which the French commenced, and called Fort Marceau, the road crosses the Mosel by a handsome stone bridge, a short distance above its confluence with the Rhine, and enters Coblenz.

The breaking up of the frost is sometimes attended with danger to the town of Coblenz. In the spring of 1830 the ice on the Mosel came down, while the Rhine was still frozen over; and being forced on by the current, while there was no outlet for its discharge, was raised into vast heaps near the junction of the river, so as to overtop the stone bridge across the Mosel, and the quays along its banks. Indeed, but for these quays, then recently built, it is probable some of the houses in the lower town would have been injured, as the icebergs were piled up against them to a height of 10 feet, and the boats moored in front of them were crushed by the weight. The water of the Mosel rose so high as to break over the tongue of land on its left bank, threatening destruction to the village of Neuendorf, whose inhabitants took to flight; and it even floated up the Rhine on the top of

21. COBLENZ.Inns: The 3 following face the Rhine; the Giaut (Riese), nearest to the landing place of the steamers, is very good and moderate. Charges, Table-d'hôte, with wine, 24 S. gr.; Tea, 10 S. gr.; Breakfast, 12 S. gr.; Beds, 15 S. gr. to 21 S. gr. H. Bellevue, and next door to it, the Trois Suisses; Trierischer Hof (Poste), in the great Square. Those who do not mind crossing the bridge to Ehrenbreitstein will find the White Horse, Zum Weissen Ross (Cheval blanc) one of the best managed hotels on the Rhine. The landlord is a cidevant major in the Wurtemberg army.

Coblenz is a strongly fortified town, on the 1. bank of the Rhine, and rt. of the Mosel. The Romans called it Confluentes, modernised into Coblenz, from its situation at the confluence of these 2 rivers. It is the capital of the Rhenish provinces of Prussia, and its population, including that of Ehrenbreitstein, and 4000 men in garrison, is 26,000.

The extensive fortifications, which occupied nearly 20 years to complete, connect the works on the 1. bank of the Rhine with the citadel of Ehrenbreitstein on the rt. bank, and render Coblenz the bulwark of Germany and Prussia on the side of France. These vast defences form a fortified camp capable of containing 100,000 men, and are unique in their way, combining the 2 systems of fortification of Carnot and Montalembert.

The works round the town, external and detached, are the Fort Kaiser Franz below it, on the left bank of the Mosel, which commands the approach from Cologne and Treves. The forts Alexander and Constantine, above the town, on the site of the convent of the Chartreuse, command the roads to

Mayence and that over the Hundsrück the Rhine, to aid him in his designs mountains, and lastly, the many- against France. mouthed batteries of Ehrenbreitstein, with some important works on neighbouring heights, sweep the stream of the Rhine, and the road to Nassau.

The presence of the military and civil government, and of an extensive garrison; the situation of the town in the centre of the great highway up and down the Rhine, nearly equi-distant from Cologne and Mayence, at the point of junction of the roads to Frankfurt and by Treves to Paris; its vicinity to the fashionable watering place, Ems; and the number of persons daily arriving and departing by coaches, carriages, and steam-boats, render Coblenz a lively and bustling place, especially in summer.

The objects worth notice in the Old Town are

The Church of St. Castor, at the very confluence of the 2 rivers, distinguished by its 4 towers, is remarkable for its very great antiquity, having been "built chiefly at the expense, and consecrated in the presence, of Louis the Pious (in 836), and is the earliest instance of the appearance of the Lombard style in the Rhenish provinces." G. K. It was the place where the grandsons of Charlemagne met (843) to divide his vast empire into Germany, France, and Italy. The oldest parts are the interior of the choir, and the lower walls of the western towers. In the 11th century it suffered from fire; the exterior of the choir dates from 1157 and 1201; the nave and transept from 1208; the vaulting from 1498. In 1830 the church was restored under the direction of Lassaulx. On the left of the chancel stands the beautiful tomb of Cuno of Falkenstein, Archbp. of Treves (d. 1388); it is of the 14th cent., and is ornamented with a painting of the Crucifixion, attributed to the old German master, William of Cologne.

In 1338, King Edward III. repaired to Coblenz to meet the Emp. Lewis of Bavaria, who installed him in front of this church Vicar of the Empire, in order that he might secure the succour of the Crown-vassals on the 1. bank of

In the square in front of this church stands a Monument, erected by the French in 1812. It is a Fountain bearing an inscription to commemorate the Invasion of Russia by the French, affixed to it by the French Préfet of the Département, at the time of Napoleon's expedition. This inscription had not stood many months, before the Russians, pursuing the army of Napoleon, arrived here on their way to Paris. Their commander, St. Priest, instead of erasing the obnoxious words, contented himself with the following sarcastic addition, which remains to the present time: "Vu et approuvé par nous, Commandant Russe de la Ville de Coblence, Janvier 1er, 1814."

The Liebfrauenkirche is very curious with early pointed arches and scalloped windows in the style of Cologne. It was originally built in 1259; the choir 1404-1431; the vaulting about 1500; the upper parts of the towers after the siege of 1688. The Protestant Church contains fine painted glass, very early, in the style of that in the Jerusalem Chamber at Westminster, brought from Nassau. The person who keeps the keys lives in one of the oldest houses in Europe, close to the Ch.— F. S.

The Mosel Bridge (b. 1344) commands a pleasing view up and down the river, and along the picturesque old buildings which line the quay. Below it, on the rt., rise the ancient Town Hall, and the original Castle of the Electors of Treves, built 1280, now a manufactory of Japan ware. One of the first buildings on the 1. hand, after passing through the archway from the bridge, is the "Stamm Haus" (family house) of Prince Metternich, the Austrian Prime Minister, who was born in it. There are many other seats of the ancient nobility of the empire, as that of the Princes von der Leyden, Counts Bassenheim, Elz, &c. The Hospital is under the exemplary management of the "Sœurs de la Charité."

The principal building in the New Town is the Palace of the King, who

has caused it to be fitted up for his summer residence. Its long and handsome façade extends along the Rhine, above the Bridge of Boats; its principal front is turned towards the Great Square, near which the parade is held between 12 and 1 o'clock, when the band plays. It was built by the last Elector of Treves, Clement Wenceslaus, Prince of Poland, Duke of Saxony, and uncle of Louis XVI., 1778-1788. The building was degraded by the French into barracks. It contains nothing worth notice.

The service of the Church of England is performed in the beautiful Palace Chapel by an English clergyman twice every Sunday. On the top of the palace stands a telegraph, the first of a line, which communicates a message to Berlin in about half an hour.

The new Palace of Justice contains the Law Courts, which are open to the public. Justice is administered by judges in gowns, but without wigs, and by trial by jury. The assizes are held every 3 months.

The Casino, or town club, is of chaste architecture; it has an elegant ball- and good reading-rooms, and gardens.

Close at hand is an ancient Convent of Jesuits, now the grammar school. The Cellars beneath it well deserve to be visited from their vast extent; they are so lofty and wide that a stage-coach loaded might easily drive round them. They belong to Messrs. Deinhard and Jordan, bankers and wine merchants here, and contain about 300 vats of Rhine and Moselle wines, each equal to 7 ohms, or altogether to about 400,000 bottles.

A very agreeable sparkling wine is made from the grapes of the Rhine and Moselle; and the vines which grow under the very guns of Ehrenbreitstein furnish, under skilful management, a highly flavoured wine, which is no bad substitute for Champagne.

Coblenz is a free port, and carries on an active commerce up and down the 3 rivers, Rhine, Moselle, and Lahn, supplying the country around with

colonial produce. From its vicinity to the wine districts, it forms the natural staple place of the Rhine and Moselle wines, going down the river to Great Britain, Holland, and other parts of the world. About a million jars of Seltzers, and other mineral waters from the Duchy of Nassau, are shipped annually from hence. Corn and the excellent iron of the neighbourhood are exported up the Moselle into France. The volcanic productions of this country form very peculiar articles of trade; such are the lava itself, in the shape of millstones, and the ashes, or pumice stone, ground to form Dutch tiras: these, as well as potter's clay from the Moselle, bark from the forests of the Eifel and Hunsdrück, and stone ware from the Sauerland, a mountainous and poor district of Westphalia, N. of the Duchy of Nassau, are much in request in Holland.

Neuendorf a little below Coblenz is the rendezvous for the great timber rafts.

No town on the Rhine surpasses Coblenz in the beauty of its situation: from whatever side you approach, by land or water, it presents a beautiful picture. The views from the centre of the bridge of boats, from the heights of Ehrenbreitstein, of Pfaffendorf, or of the Chartreuse, are all fine.

The most interesting object in the vicinity, on account of its towering and majestic appearance, for the glorious view of the junction of the Rhine and Moselle, and of the course of the Rhine from Stolzenfels down to Andernach, which it commands, and for the vast extent of its fortifications, is the rock and fortress of

(rt.) EHRENBREITSTEIN (honour's broad stone), the Gibraltar of the Rhine, connected with Coblenz by a bridge of boats. An order to see it must be obtained from the commandant in Coblenz (Regierungs gebäude), which a valet-de-place will easily procure, on presenting the passport.

This fortress, originally a Roman Castrum, was, during the middle ages, the refuge and stronghold of the Electors of Treves, who, in later times, oc

cupied the Palace (now a flour warehouse) at the foot of the rock, before the erection of their more princely residence on the opposite side of the Rhine. It was in vain besieged by the French in 1688, under Marshal Boufflers, notwithstanding the celebrated Vauban directed the works against it, and although Louis XIV. repaired hither, in order to be the eye-witness of its surrender. But it fell into their hands in 1799, after a siège in which the garrison was reduced to such extremities from want of food, that a cat was sold for 1 florin, and horse flesh rose to 30 kreutzers per pound. It was blown up by the French when they evacuated it after the peace of Luneville.

"Here Ehrenbreitstein, with her shatter'd


Black with the miner's blast upon her height,

Yet shows of what she was, when shell and ball

Rebounding idly on her strength did light
A tower of victory! from whence the flight
Of baffled foes was watch'd along the plain;
But Peace destroy'd what War could never

And laid those proud roofs bare to Summer's rain

On which the iron shower for years had pour'd in vain."- BYRON.

It is now no longer a ruin. Since 1814, the Prussians have spared no pains or cost in restoring it, and adding new works, which have been only recently brought to a conclusion, and it is considered to be stronger than ever. Prussia devoted to the re-construction of this fortress her share of the contribution which France was compelled to pay the Allies after the war; but more than 4 times that sum has probably been expended on it by the Prussian government. The entire cost of the works on both sides of the Rhine at Coblenz is estimated to have exceeded 5 millions of dollars, and although they may be converted into a fortified camp holding 100,000 men, yet a garrison of 5000 is enough to defend them. The magazines are capable of containing provisions for 8000 men for 10 years.

Ehrenbreitstein is defended by about 400 pieces of cannon. The escarped


rocks, or steep slopes, on 3 sides, would bid defiance to almost any assault: its weak point is on the N. W. Here, however, art has done its utmost to repair a natural defect, and 3 lines of defences present themselves one within another, which would require to be taken in succession before the enemy could enter in this direction. great platform on the top of the rock, serving as a parade, covers vast arched cisterns, capable of holding a supply of water for 3 years, furnished by There is, springs without the walls. besides, a well, sunk 400 feet deep, in the rock communicating with the Rhine: the Rhine water, however, is very unwholesome, from the quantity of vegetable matter decomposed in it.

Those who reach Coblenz too late to get an order to see Ehrenbreitstein, may content themselves with the view from the Pfaffendorfer Hohe (a hill on the same side of the Rhine), which is nearly as fine.

The (1.) Hill of the Chartreuse. view from Ehrenbreitstein is, perhaps, even surpassed by that from the heights of the Chartreuse (Karthauserberg), on the left bank of the Rhine, about 1 m. above Coblenz. It receives its name from an old convent, now removed to make way for Forts Alexander and Constantine. It is nearly as high as Ehrenbreitstein, and that stupendous rock and citadel form the grandest feature of the view from this point: while, by approaching the verge of the hill, on one side, the Rhine is seen, with the fortified heights of Pfaffendorf beyond it, and on the other side the Moselle flows at the gazer's feet.

There are so many interesting spots near Coblenz, to which Excursions may be made, that it deserves to be chosen as a halting place for some days. (a.) To the Castle of Stolzenfels, 3 m. up, on the 1. bank of the Rhine, on the road to Mayence, p. 284. vehicles (einspänner, with one horse) may be found near the Mainzer Thor to take you there and -with two horses back for one thaler 1 th. 10 S. gr.); (b.) to the top of the Kuhkopf, the highest hill near Coblenz ; (c.) to Lahnstein, on the r. bank of the

Rhine, p. 285.; (d.) to Sayn, and the Abbey of Rommersdorf, p. 278. Tours of a day may be made to the Abbey and Lake of Laach (Rte. 40.); to the Castle of Elz (Rte. 41.); to Neuwied, below Engers, p. 276.; to the Castle of Marksburg, p. 285.; which may be thus arranged:-Hire a carriage to Niederspay, opposite Braubach (2 dollars), stopping to see Stolzenfels and Königsstuhl. Cross the ferry at Niederspay, ascend to the Marksburg (2 hours required to see it). Descend the Rhine in a boat, which costs 20 S. gr., to Niederlahnstein and Coblenz.

To Ems and Nassau (Rte. 95.) A pleasant excursion of 2 days may be made to the Baths of Bertrich, returning by the Moselle, and in this short space the traveller may enjoy some of the most beautiful scenery that river presents. (See Rte. 42. ).

The numerous forests around abound in game, roes, stags, wild boar, and even wolves. The preserves of the Duke of Nassau and Prince of Wied are richly stocked, and they are known to be liberal in admitting foreigners to their shooting parties, so that Coblenz is good sporting quarters in autumn and winter.

Hints for making the Tour of the Rhine, above Coblenz.-The direct road to the Brunnen of Nassau (Rte. 95.) strikes away from the Rhine at Coblenz; but as a great part of it is uninteresting, and as some of the finest scenery of the Rhine lies between Coblenz and Bingen, those who wish to explore its beauties will find it far preferable to adhere to the post road running along the left bank as far as Bingen, and there, crossing the river into the Rheingau, turn off to Wiesbaden. In this case it is advisable to make an Excursion from Coblenz to Ems, and the castle of Nassau, 6 m. beyond it. (See Rte. 95.). A carriage may be hired for 4 dollars to Ems.

Those who have a week to spare may make from Coblenz the tour of the beautiful Moselle to Treves (Rte. 41.), returning by the river in the Steamer (Rte. 42.). They who cannot

spare time to go all the way to Treves, will find it worth their while to devote 1 or two days to an excursion to Munster-Mayfeld, the castle of Elz, and the village of Alf, situated on the Moselle, at a spot where its scenery is most beautiful, and to the Baths of Bertrich. (Rte. 42.).

A good summer's day's excursion may be made by hiring a carriage from Coblenz, to go by the Treves post road through Metternich to Lonnig, where are the remains of a fine old Romanesque church, with semicircular apsis, colonnade, &c., then to MünsterMaifeld, p. 309., and so on to the hill above Elz, where leave the carriage to go to Gondorf, and cross the Moselle to Niederfell by the ferry, and refresh. Meanwhile the traveller can see Elz, walk to Moselkern, or to Hatzenport, there take boat and fall down the river to Gondorf or Cobern; after seeing which he can from either recross the river to his carriage at or near Niederfell, and back to Coblenz by the rt. bank, by a new, but bad, carriage road, p. 321. A long day and an early start are desirable, as it will be too late to return to Coblenz by the down boat, and the road is not to be recommended in the dark.

The young peasant girls in the country around Coblenz wear before marriage a very elegant cap richly embroidered, with a silver-gilt arrow or stiletto stuck through their hair.

First-rate physicians are Dr. Ulrich, Dr. Soest, and Dr. Baermann, who understand English. (For Fees see § 41.) The pharmacy of Mr. Mohr is excellent.

Baedeker, a very intelligent book. seller in the Rhein Strasse, 452, leading from the bridge, at the corner of the square, keeps a good assortment of English, French, and German books, guide-books, prints, maps, &c., and is the publisher of one of the best Travellers' Manuals of Conversation. He has also translated and printed a German edition of the Hand-books, and is personally acquainted with all parts of his own country.

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