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N. transept, St. Apollinaris destroying, through prayer, the statue of Jupiter in the presence of the Roman Empr., by A. Müller. Figures of Saints, by Ittenbach. The Crucifixion, and beneath, the Passion of Christ, by Deger. Justice, Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance, by Ittenbach. Martyrdom of St. Apollinaris, by A. Müller. In the choir on the 1. the Resurrection of Christ, by Deger. Noli me tangere, and Delivery of the keys to Peter, by Ittenbach. On the arch of the apse, the Adoration of the Lamb, and the Sacraments, by C. Müller. In the apse, Christ among the Saints of the old and new Covenant, by Deger. On the r. of the choir, the Coronation of the Virgin, by C. Müller. In the S. transept, the Episcopal ordination of St. Apollinaris, by A. Müller. SS. Theodore, Sophia, Francis of Assisi, and V. Paula, patrons of the founder and his family, by Ittenbach. Annunciation, Marriage, and Visitation of the Virgin (close to the window), by C. Muller. Faith, Love, Hope, and Humility, by Ittenbach. St. Apollinaris raises the daughter of the Governor of Ravenna, by A. Müller. On the r. on entering by the W. door, Scenes from the Legends of the Virgin, by Ittenbach. There is a very good distant view of the 7 mountains from the Apollinarisberg. At the foot of the hill lies
1. 2 Remagen (Inns: König von Preussen; Preussischer Hof, the best between Andernach and Bonn), the Rigomagus of the Romans, is a town of 1400 inhab.; it has nothing to interest the traveller, except the Romanesque Gateway, part of the Palace of the Frankish kings, now leading to the Pfarrhof, close to the church, on which are sculptured the signs of the zodiac, executed probably at the end of the 11th cent. (these signs are seen on the portals of the Lombard churches in Italy): it may be seen while the horses are changing. During the construction of the high road, many Roman antiquities were dug up here. A most interesting excursion may be made hence by the Ahr valley (Route 39.). Landing here from the steamer, hire a
carriage with post horses at the post, sleep at Altenahr, and return next morning with the same horses. 'The cost is about 7 thalers for carriage and 3 horses, including driver, with an extra charge for horse-keep of 1 thaler at Altenahr.
rt. A little beyond Remagen, on the opposite bank, rise the basaltic precipices, 700 ft. high, called Erpeler Lei. The ingenuity of man has converted these barren rocks, which are almost inaccessible, into a productive vineyard. The vines are planted in baskets filled with mould, and inserted in crevices of the basalt. By this means alone can the earth be preserved from being washed away by every shower.
rt. The blackened walls of the ruined castle of Ockenfels. And a little further on is
rt. Linz. (Inn: Nassauer Hof, Rheinischez Hof, on the bank of the river); an ancient fortified town, partly surrounded by walls of basalt; it has 2200 inhab. An Archbp. of Cologne, in 1365, built the tower, still standing, near the Rhine gate, to enforce the payment of tolls on the river, and to defend the place from the Burghers of Andernach, who were engaged in almost perpetual feuds with him and the townspeople of Linz. The Pfarr Kirche, on the height behind, commands a fine view; it contains some curious monuments of the noble families of the neighbourhood, and 2 ancient pictures, each of 7 compartments, probably of the school of Cologne, bearing the date 1463; unfortunately almost destroyed. A cross 40 ft. high has been placed on the top of the Hummelsberg, a hill behind Linz, as a memorial of the Battle of Leipzig.
1. The river Ahr issues into the Rhine opposite Linz. As its mouth is passed, the black conical summit of the Landskrone is seen up the Ahr valley.
1. 1 Sinzig (Inns: Stern; Krone), about 1 m. from the Rhine, but traversed by the high road, was the Sentiacum of the Romans. Parish Church is an interesting building, of the time of the transition from the round to the pointed style, dating
probably from the beginning of the 13th cent. The decoration of the W. front, and of the ends of the transepts, resemble, on a smaller scale, those of the ch. at Neuss. The transition style is seen in the polygonal form of the choir, with a gable over each side. The interior resembles the ch. at Andernach, in having both pointed and circular arches, and over each aisle a gallery, called here the Mannhaus. According to an obscure tradition, near this spot the Cross appeared in the sky to Constantine, on his march to attack Maxentius. There is a rude painting representing this event in the church; and in an adjoining chapel, a natural mummy, called the Holy Vogt, carried to Paris by the French.
rt. The gable-fronted château of Argenfels or Ahrenfels, the Stammhaus, or cradle of the family von der Leyen, is seen in the distance behind the ancient village of Hönningen.
1. The village of Niederbreisig, and, further from the river, Oberbreisig, with a curious ch. of the 14th cent.
1. The castle of Rheineck, consisting of an ancient watch tower and a modern castellated residence adjoining, built, at a lavish expense, by Lassaulx, for Profr. Bethman Hollweg of Bonn. The architectural taste displayed in this edifice is very questionable; but it contains some modern pictures, and in its chapel are frescoes of the Beatitudes by Steinle. It is shown to strangers when the owner is absent. Its garden commands a fine view.
1. Brohl, a small village (Nonn's Inn, tolerable), at the mouth of the stream and valley of the Brohl. It possesses a paper-mill in which is a collection of Dutch pictures, and several others moved by the streams of the Brohl-Bach for grinding tuff-stone into trass (Dutch tiras—i. e. cement); and there are very singular cave-like quarries of tuff-stone about a mile up the stream. From the resemblance of this rock to the tufa formed at the present day by Etna, Vesuvius, and other active volcanoes, geologists conjecture that the tufa of Brohl has been formed either by a torrent of volcanic mud
discharged from some extinct crater into the valley, or by showers of pumice and ashes, thrown up by one of the volcanoes of the Eifel, falling into a lake, mixing with the mud at the bottom of it, and now consolidated into a soft stone. This, when quarried and ground into powder, is called trass, and from its possessing the valuable property of hardening under water is in great request as a cement. Large quantities are exported from this to distant countries, especially into Holland, where it is employed in the construction of the dykes; it resembles the puzzolana of Naples, and the imitation of it, Roman cement. The ancients made use of this kind of stone for coffins; and from its property of absorbing the moisture of the dead body, gave them the name of sarcophagi, i. e. flesh consumers. Votive tablets, bearing Roman inscriptions, have actually been discovered in the quarries, proving at how early a period they were worked. Trunks of trees reduced to the condition of charcoal, and even land-shells of various species, are embedded in the substance of the rock.
The mineral spring called Tönnisstein, lies 4 m. up the valley. R. 40. p. 307.).
The pleasant excursion to the Lake of Laach, described in Rte. 40., may be made from Brohl. The travelling carriage should be sent on to Andernach, and there rejoined. This excur sion may be made in one long day.
rt. On the summit of a bold, black, precipitous rock, opposite to an island in the river, stand the broken walls of Hammerstein castle, built in the 10th cent., the refuge in 1105 of the emperor Henry IV., when persecuted by his son. It was besieged by the Swedes in the 30 years' war, and destroyed by the Archbp. of Cologne in 1660. The small old church within it
1. Namedy has a pretty church. 23 (1.) Andernach.- Inn: (Zur Lilie, The Lily, good), -one of the oldest cities on the Rhine, 3000 inhab. was called by the Romans Antonacum, and originated in one of Drusus' camps
pitched on the spot. Most of the pre- | Laach. The Franciscan ch. 1414-63,
sent fortifications date from 1577-83. The picturesque telescope Watch-tower, at the lower end of the town, by the water side, round below, and eight-sided above (date 1520); and the Crane, a little lower down the stream, built 1554, add to its air of picturesque antiquity.
There are two articles of traffic peculiar to this spot: millstones obtained from very singular quarries near Nieder Mendig, and exported to England, Russia, the East and West Indies, and to other remote parts of the world. They were used by the Romans, and have been found among Roman ruins in England, and are spoken of as Rhenish millstones by Latin authors. The stone is a species of basaltic lava which separates into columns, and is used as door-posts, window-sills, and side-posts at the corners of the streets, &c. (Rte. 40.) Another volcanic production is the trass, or cement, brought from the neighbouring quarries of Brohl and Kruft. A species of pumice called Oven-stone, because, from its resisting heat, it is used for lining ovens, is also obtained from 14 quarries at Bell near Nieder-Mendig (p. 308.).
The Parish Ch. or Dom has 4 towers; those at the W. end tall and much ornamented; the greater part of it was built in the beginning of the 13th cent., but the choir, the tower on its N. side, and the lower part of that on its S. side, belong probably to a preceding church of the 10th, which so far escaped the destruction of Andernach by Philip of Hohenstaufen about 1200. A bas-relief over the S. door, the carvings of the capitals which support it, and the ornaments on the W. façade, are interesting specimens of sculpture. The interior is supported upon two tiers of arches of nearly equal height; behind the upper tier runs a spacious gallery, intended for the male part of the congregation, and called the männerchor, or mannshaus; the women sate below. It contains some curious carvings, and a Roman tomb, erroneously said to be of Valentinian II. The pulpit once belonged to the abbey ch. at
now a stable, has only 2 aisles.
Beneath the Rathhaus is a Jews' Bath, of considerable antiquity (perhaps Roman). It has not been used since the Jews were expelled from the town, 1596; they have never since been allowed to settle here.
The Coblenz Gate is an elegant Gothic portal, not a Roman work, as is commonly reported. Adjoining it, on the right of the road, are the extensive ruins of the castellated Palace of the Archbishops of Cologne, built about the end of the 15th centy. The Palace of the Austrasian kings stood either on this spot or close to the river, near an old gateway, which is possibly of Roman origin.
A short distance off, on the right of the road, are the noble ruins of the Abbey of St. Thomas, a convent for ladies of rank, which was burnt in 1795. It is now turned into a very extensive tannery, and partly into an asylum for incurable lunatics. The architecture of St. Michael's chapel, attached to it, is interesting: it was built in 1129.
The excursion to the lake and abbey of Laach (Rte. 40.) may be made in a carriage from hence, as a tolerable road leads thither through Wassenach (6 m.)
At Andernach, the mountains on both sides of the Rhine again approach the river, and form a majestic defile.
rt. At the water's edge stands the ruined castle of Friedrichsstein, or the Teufelshaus, i. e., Devil's House, so called, probably by the peasants or serfs, who were compelled to build it by forced labour. It was begun in the 17 centy. by a prince of Neuwied, but never finished.
rt. Just above the village of Irrlich the small river Wied issues out into the Rhine. A long avenue, partly of tall poplars, joins Irrlich with the town of
rt. Neuwied. Inns Rheinischer Hof: Anker: Wilder Mann, 2d class.- Cæsar's Hotel, good.
A neat and uniform town of straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, (5200 inhab.), is the capital of the principality of Wied, now media
tized, and attached to Prussia. founded only as far back as 1737 by a prince who invited colonists of all persuasions, from all parts, to come and settle, with the promise of perfect toleration. The wisdom of such liberality has been proved by the flourishing condition of the industrious manufacturing town which has sprung up in consequence, and by the harmony in which Jews, Catholics, Protestants, and Herrnhuters, live all together.
The Palace (Residenz Schloss) of the prince, overlooking the Rhine, possesses a collection of Roman antiquities discovered in this neighbourhood, and principally derived from the buried city of Victoria, near the village of Niederbiber, 2 m. N. of Neuwied. The objects brought to light comprise a bronze genius nearly 2 ft. high, ar mour, heimets, weapons, a ploughshare, locks and keys, tools of various trades, and a sacrificial knife, pottery and coins in great abundance, tiles, hand-mills; bones of deer, pigs, dogs, and a large quantity of oyster-shells, proving that the garrison of a remote colony in the 3d century sent all the way to the sea for the luxuries of the table. Many tiles have been found stamped with the names and numbers of the legions quartered here. No coins have come to light of a later date than the time of Valentinian the elder, who died A. D. 375, which fixes the date of the destruction of Victoria with an approach to precision. The remains of the city from which these curiosities were derived have long since been covered up, and crops of corn and grass again wave above its site.
In the building called the Pheasantry (Fasanerie Gebaude) is the Museum of Natural History, principally remarkable for the collections made by Prince Maximilian of Neuwied during his travels in Brazil and North America.
The Colony of Moravian Brothers exceeds 400, who occupy a distinct quarter of Neuwied: their establishment, church, schools, and workshops are worth seeing.
The park and gardens of the château of Monrepos, situated between the Wied and the Rhine, 6 m. N. N. E. from Neuwied, form a pleasant excursion, and afford beautiful prospects.
There is a flying bridge over the Rhine at Neuwied.
From Andernach to Coblenz the banks of the Rhine are flat.
(1.) Weissenthurm (White Tower), so called from the square watch-tower built by the electors of Treves to mark the frontier of their domain, is a small village (whose new church is decorated with modern frescoes,) through which the road passes, a little above Neuwied, on the opposite bank. It is remarkable as the spot where the French crossed the Rhine in spite of the opposition of the Austrians, in 1797. On on eminence behind, to the right of the road, stands an Obelisk, erected to the memory of the French general Hoche, who achieved that memorable exploit by throwing a bridge across to the island in the middle of the river. The monument bears the simple inscription, "L'Armée de Sambre et Meuse à son Général Hoche." Byron says of it, "This is all, and as it should be; Hoche was esteemed among the first of France's earlier generals, until Napoleon monopolised her triumphs. He was the destined commander of the invading army of Ireland." Cæsar, when leading his army against the Sicambri, 17 centuries before, crossed the Rhine at the same spot, and has described the very curious bridge which he constructed for the passage.
(1.) Beyond Weissenthurm the road quits the side of the Rhine, and continues out of sight of it till near to Coblenz.
(rt.) Engers, a small village, with an old-fashioned Château, built 1758 by the Elector of Treves, facing the river; a short way above this, the remains of a Roman bridge, built B. c. 38, are discoverable in the bed of the river.
(rt.) Mühlhofen, a village at the mouth of the river Sayn. A good road strikes up the valley behind the village of Bendorf, and leads in 3 m. from Engers, and about 8 m. from Coblenz,
to the village and modern Château of Sayn, belonging to the Count Boos, overlooked by the picturesque ruins of the old castle of Sayn, destroyed in the 30 years' war, above which rises the romantic Renneberg. Not far off are the Royal Cannon Foundry and Iron Works (Sayner Hütte), equal in extent to some of the most considerable iron works in England: very pretty castiron ornaments, similar to the black ware of Berlin, are made here. village of Sayn is a suppressed Præmonstrant abbey, founded 1202, with a church in the transition style, having a pointed arch, cupola, and a choir formed by 6 sides of an octagon, built 1400. At the upper extremity of the valley is the castle of the Counts of Isenburg, whence they used to sally forth and plunder the merchants upon the Rhine. The whole valley is beautiful; the stream of the Sayn gives it verdure; its woody sides afford a cool shelter even in summer, and are intersected with walks, and provided with seats and summer-houses. favourite excursion of the people of Coblenz. N. of the valley, about 1 m. N. of Sayn, and as far N. E. of Engers, on the slope of a hill, stands the noble abbey Rommersdorf. The church was consecrated in 1210: the chapterhouse and cloister were built between 1214-1236. The mouldings of the doors and arches, the quatrefoil openings, and pointed arches of the cloister show the approach of the pointed style. The abbey has become the property of a private individual, and is well preserved.
It is a
(rt.) Walls and buildings of the Castle of Ehrenbreitstein (p. 281.), on the top of its massive and commanding rock pedestal, are visible long before Coblenz appears behind the green slopes of the 1. bank.
only remarkable because it was the residence of the Bourbon princes and their supporters who were exiled from France during the 1st revolution. It became the head-quarters of the army of the Refugees and their allies, and their plans of invading France were here concocted. The part of the building now standing serves as an inn. The plain between Andernach and Coblenz becomes every 3 years the scene of very extensive military reviews of the Prussian army; 25,000 men are manoeuvred on these occasions, usually in August or September, for the space of one month.
(1.) Near the junction of the Moselle and Rhine stands the "Monument of the young and lamented General Marceau, killed at the battle of Altenkirchen, in attempting to check the retreat of Jourdan, on the last day of the 4th year of the French republic." (Sept. 21, 1796.)
Byron adds: "The inscriptions on his monument are rather too long, and 1. Neuendorf: here the comparatively not required: his name was enough. small timber rafts from the upper Rhine France adored, and her enemies adand its tributaries, and from the Mo-mired; both wept over him. selle, are formed into the large rafts which descend to Holland (see p. 265.). (1.) Near Kesselheim are remains of the château of Schönbornlust, originally a palace of the Elector of Treves, and
His funeral was attended by the generals and detachments from both armies." It was in allusion to the last circumstance, that the words of the Imperial captain, in whose arms Bayard breathed his last