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Each robber chief upheld his armed halls,
Than mightier heroes of a longer date. What want these outlaws conquerors should have?
But History's purchas'd page to call them great?
A wider space and ornamented grave? Their hopes were not less warm, their souls were full as brave.
"In their baronial feuds and single fields, What deeds of prowess unrecorded died! And Love, which lent a blazon to their shields,
With emblems well devis'd by amorous pride,
Through all the mail of iron hearts would glide;
But still their flame was fierceness, and drew
And Slaughter heap'd on high his weltering ranks;
Their very graves are gone, and what are
Thy tide wash'd down the blood of yesterday,
Thy waves would vainly roll, all sweeping as they seem.
"Adieu to thee, fair Rhine! How long delighted
The stranger fain would linger on his way! Thine is a scene alike where souls united Or lonely contemplation thus might stray; And could the ceaseless vultures cease to prey On self-condemning bosoms, it were here, Where Nature, nor too sombre, nor too gay, Wild but not rude, awful yet not austere, Is to the mellow earth as Autumn to the year.
"Adieu to thee again! a vain adieu !
Their cherish'd gaze upon thee, lovely
'Tis with the thankful glance of parting praise:
More mighty spots may rise-more glaring shine,
But none unite in one attaching maze The brilliant, fair, and soft,-the glories of old days.
"The negligently grand, the fruitful bloom Of coming ripeness, the white city's sheen, The rolling stream, the precipice's gloom, The forest's growth, and Gothic walls between,
The wild rocks shap'd as they had turrets been
In mockery of man's art; and these withal A race of faces happy as the scene, Whose fertile bounties here extend to all, Still springing o'er thy banks, though Empires near them fall." BYRON.
To the above accurate description of the poet is added another in prose, from the pen of a German, because it serves to illustrate the feelings of pride and almost veneration with which the Rhine is regarded in Germany; it is indeed looked upon as the national river.
"There are rivers whose course is longer, and whose volume of water is greater, but none which unites almost every thing that can render an earthly object magnificent and charming in the same degree as the Rhine. As it flows down from the distant ridges of the Alps, through fertile regions, into the open sea, so it comes down from remote antiquity, associated in every age with momentous events in the history of the neighbouring nations. A river which presents so many historical recollections of Roman conquests and defeats, of the chivalric exploits in the feudal periods, of the wars and negociations of modern times, of the coronations of emperors, whose bones repose by its side; on whose borders stand the two grandest monuments of the noble architecture of the middle ages; whose banks present every variety of wild and picturesque rocks, thick forests, fertile plains; vineyards, sometimes gently sloping, sometimes perched among lofty crags, where industry has won a domain among the fortresses of nature; whose banks are ornamented with populous cities, flourishing towns
and villages, castles and ruins, with which a thousand legends are connected; with beautiful and romantic roads, and salutary mineral springs; a river whose waters offer choice fish, as its banks offer the choicest wines; which, in its course of 900 miles, afford 630 miles of uninterrupted navigation, from Bâsle to the sea, and enables the inhabitants of its banks to exchange the rich and various products of its shores; whose cities, famous for commerce, science, and works of strength, which furnish protection to Germany, are also famous as the seats of Roman colonies, and of ecclesiastical councils, and are associated with many of the most important events recorded in the history of mankind;—such a river it is not surprising that the Germans regard with a kind of reverence, and frequently call in poetry Father, or King Rhine."- DR. LIEBER.
RAFTS ON THE RHINE. - Every traveller on the Rhine should have his attention called to the vast floating islands of timber which he will constantly meet with on that river. They are the produce of the forests which cover the remote hills and mountains traversed by the Rhine and its tribu taries, the Neckar, the Murg, the Main, the Mosel, &c. &c. They are first hurled down, in single logs, from the almost inaccessible heights where they have grown, and, having been felled, are committed to some rushing mountain rivulet, whenever its waters, swelled by rain or melting snow, suffice to float them. If the tree escape unshattered from the rocks, against which it is dashed by the stream, it is caught, bound together with other logs, and again set afloat, till it is conveyed by the tributary rivulet into the recipient river, and reaches other stations on its banks, where it is again enlarged, and entrusted to the care of boatmen to navigate. It may thus bear the same motto as the snow-ball, vires acquirit eundo, until, on reaching the lower part of the Rhine, it is carefully built into one prodigious fabric, which is then navigated to Dortrecht, and sold. These constructions have the appearance of a N. Germ.
floating village, composed of 8 or 10 little wooden huts, on a large platform of oak and deal timber. The rowers and workmen sometimes amount to 400 or 500, superintended by pilots, and a proprietor, whose habitation is superior in size and elegance to the rest. The captain places himself upon a raised platform or stage, from which he can survey the float from end to end, and direct, by words and signs, its movements. It is steered by means of anchors and the immense oars or sweeps of a quadruple row of rowers, placed fore and aft. The vast fabric bends and twists like a snake, when passing near dangerous eddies, and narrow straits, such as are met with in the Rhine under the Lurley Berg, and the Bingen Loch. The raft is composed of several layers of trees, placed one on the other, and strongly fastened together by chains and rivets, planked over with rough deals so as to form a deck, which is sunk nearly to the level of the water. Several smaller rafts are attached to it, by way of protection, besides a string of boats loaded with anchors and cables, and used for the purpose of sounding the river and going on shore. The domestic economy of an East-Indiaman, or an English manof-war, is hardly more complete. The boatmen are often accompanied by their wives and families, and spinning, knitting, tailoring, dressmaking, are carried on; poultry, pigs, and other animals are to be found on board and several butchers are attached to the suite. A well-supplied boiler is at work night and day in the kitchen; the dinner hour is announced by a basket stuck on a pole, at which signal the pilot gives the word of command, and the workmen run from all quarters to receive their messes. The consumption of provisions in the voyage is almost incredible. It has been stated to be, from the time the construction of the raft commences until it is sold at Dort, 45,000 lbs. of bread, 30,000 lbs. of fresh and dried meat, 15,000 lbs. of butter, 10,000 lbs. of cheese, 50 sacks of dried vegetables, 500 tuns of beer, 8 butts of wine, and several other articles
in proportion. The expenses are so great that a large capital is necessary to undertake a raft Their navigation is a matter of considerable skill, owing to the abrupt windings, the rocks and shallows of the river; and some years ago the secret was thought to be monopolised by a boatman of Rüdesheim and his sons.
At present the rafts are not so large as formerly; instead of 900 feet in length, they are now commonly not more than 600 or 700; they never exceed 250 in breadth, and are subjected to be measured at Caub, to ascertain that they do not exceed this width; if larger they could not pass through the narrow channel between the rocks at Oberwesel. They do not draw more than 2 or 3 ft. of water. The smaller rafts, which still often require 400 men to navigate them, are both more easily managed, and can also set out from a higher point up the river than the larger floats. A single float is commonly the property of a great number of shareholders. The timber is sold at the end of the voyage, and sometimes produces from 300,000 to 350,000 florins (25,000l. or 30,000l.). During the years 1839, 1840, and 1841, the average quantity of timber imported into Holland by the Rhine amounted annually to 110,500 tons Engl. weight, consisting principally of wood suited for ship and house building, wainscot logs, spars, weals, staves, and firewood; the whole of which is consumed in Holland, with the exception of some trifling quantity sent to the colonies. The value of the Rhenish timber consumed annually in Holland amounts to about 170,000l. The voyage from Bingen to Dort may be performed, under favourable circumstances, in 8 days; but it sometimes takes up 6 weeks. It is curious to find that the boatmen who navigate the Rhine still call the left bank of the river Frankreich (France), and designate the right | Hessenland, though these names no longer apply to the present possessors of either bank. "These rafts are nearly similar in construction to those I have seen floating down the St. Lawrence. In
fact, floating timber down the American rivers in large masses was first attempted on the Hudson and St. Lawrence, by the early Dutch and German settlers. The rafts on the St. Lawrence and Ottawa are necessarily, on account of the rapids, bound stronger together than those on the Rhine."— Macgregor Commerc. Statis.
STEAM-BOATS ON THE RHINE. (See Rte. 11.). 1. Cologne Company, plies between Cologne and Strasburg; 2. Düsseldorf Company, between Rotterdam and Manheim; 3. the Netherlandish or Dutch Company, between Rotterdam and Manheim. At the rate of 10 or 12 m. against the stream, and of 15 m. with it.
As the hours of departure and arrival are constantly changing, the traveller is referred to the Companies' printed Bills, which he may obtain at their offices, and find in every inn or steamboat he enters; or to the numerous little books, with time tables, fares, distances, &c., published in France, Belgium, and Germany. The best are those compiled by Hendschel, and published by Jügel, at Frankfort a. M., and that of Haase at Prag.
Carriages are embarked and landed free of charge.
The steam-boats are divided into 3 cabins:-1. The pavilion — 2. The chief-cabin-3. The after-cabin, for servants and inferior persons. The pavilion differs from the second cabin only in being more expensive; and unless a person wishes to be very exclusive, he has no occasion to take any other place than the second cabin.
Meals are provided on board, at prices fixed by a printed tariff hung up in the cabin. Dinner at the tabled'hôte, at 1 o'clock, 17 S. gr.; at other times, apart, 1 dollar; half a bottle of wine, 6 S. gros.; tea or coffee, with bread and butter, 7 S. gr.
Caution." Places are booked at all parts of the Rhine and at Frankfurt direct for London, daily, but the tickets so issued are available only for one set of steamers plying between Rotterdam and London, One of the Rhenish companies corresponds with
the Batavier, which sails only once aweek; consequently the unwary_traveller may be detained 7 days at Rotterdam, unless he choose to sacrifice the money which he has paid, and take a passage in one of the other companies' steamers. P. F. Even upon the Rhine it is scarcely worth while, for the sake of a small saving, to bind one's-self down to go by the boats of a particular company. If the hour of departure happen not to suit the traveller, or he arrive too late for the boat to which he is engaged, he must either forfeit his money, or wait till the next day. If he pay the money in advance, he has probably only one chance in a day; if he is free, he has 3 or 4 up and down the river.
In 1827, when the Cologne company commenced, 18,000 passengers were conveyed up and down, between Cologne and Mayence; the number increased to a million yearly, until travellers were kept at home by the events of 1848.
The traveller who confines himself to the Rhine and the routes contiguous to and branching off from it, will find that, with very few exceptions, he may make his way very well without knowing any other language than French, which is generally spoken in the inns, passport, and coach-offices, and public conveyances, from Cologne to Mayence and Frankfurt, and thence to Baden.
The money current upon the Rhine is, in Prussia, Dollars and Groschen ($48.); higher up, in Nassau, Frankfurt, and Baden, Florins and Kreutzers. (Section VII.)
SCENERY OF THE RHINE. - The glories of the Rhine commence about 20 m. above Cologne with the beautiful cluster of mountains called the Siebengebirge; and the banks of the river afford, nearly up to Mayence, a succession of scenes of equal beauty and variety. English travellers are often under the erroneous impression that they have seen the Rhine in passing up and down in a steam-vessel, and they hurry onwards to something beyond the Rhine. It may be said of h
them, in the words of a homely phrase,
The line runs through a plain of
1. Kalscheuren St.
5. Brühl Stat., in front of the Chateau, built by the Episcopal Elector, Clement Augustus, 1728, now belonging to the Prussian Government. The King of Prussia received Q. Victoria here in 1845, during the Beethoven festival at Bonn. It contains some portraits of Electors and old German princes, and has a garden and an old-fashioned park attached to it.
The ancient Franciscan convent is now a seminary for schoolmasters. Brühl contains about 2000 inhab..
*Post-road.-Bonn to Coblentz.
8 Pruss. m. 38 Eng. m. along the bank of the Rhine.
Schnellpost every morning and evening, in 5 hours. It takes rather longer to post.
Several steamers start every morning from Cologne to Coblenz, making the voyage in 8 hours, descending in 5. You may reach Mayence in 14hrs. from Cologne, and in two more Frankfurt.
At the upper end of Cologne, at the margin of the river, rises the Bayenthurm, a stately and picturesque Gothic tower, of the 14th cent. From its position, projecting into the river, it serves in winter to stave off the ice-shocks from the city below.
From Cologne to Bonn the banks of the Rhine are as flat and uninteresting as in Holland, and the villages which lie on them do not require any notice. On nearing Bonn, the picturesque outline of the Siebengebirge (7 mountains) on the rt. bank, rivets the attention.
rt. The castle of Siegburg, rising conspicuously on an eminence above the Sieg, about 3 m. E. of the Rhine, is now a lunatic assylum.
rt. Mouth of the river Sieg. The Sicambri (Sieg-ambri), an ancient people, lived upon its banks.
rt. At Schwartz-Rheindorf, opposite Bonn, about m. below the bridge of boats, there is a curious architectural monument a church of two stories. It was erected by Arnold Von Weld, Archbishop of Cologne, in 1151, yet it is entirely in the Romanesque style, showing no traces of the pointed Gothic. The upper church, now restored for
divine worship, is surrounded by an open gallery or arcade, supported by more than 100 little pillars, whose bases and capitals exhibit a prolific variety of ornament. It will interest none but architects and antiquaries. 1. BONN. Inns: Der Stern (the Star), good and comfortable; Trierischer Hof (Cour de Trèves), also good and moderate; both in the market-place; Cölnischer Hof (Cour de Cologne); Bellevue; Königlicher Hof; both in the new part of the town, outside the Coblenz gate; both have gardens down to the water side: Rheineck, on the Rhine; 2nd rate. The red wines called Walportzheimer and Ahrbleichart, produced in the neighbouring valley of the Ahr, are very good here: the Roisdorf mineral water is used as a substitute for the Seltzer water.
Bonn, a town of 15,500 inhab., on the 1. bank of the Rhine, is chiefly remarkable for its University, established by the King of Prussia, in 1818, which has attained a high reputation on the Continent, owing to the improved discipline maintained among the students, and to the discernment exercised by the government in the appointment of professors. Albert was a student here. those who have already filled chairs here, the most distinguished are Niebuhr and Aug. W. Schlegel, both dead.
The Electors of Cologne formerly resided here, having removed their court hither from Cologne in 1268. Their huge palace, built 1730, nearly m. long, now serves to contain the University; and includes the Lecturerooms, Library of about 150,000 vols., and the Academical Hall, decorated with modern frescoes, painted under the direction of Cornelius, by his pupils. The subjects are the four faculties, Philosophy, Jurisprudence, Medicine, in which Cuvier and Linnæus are conspicuous, and Theology, where Luther, Calvin, Wickliffe, St. Jerome, and the Fathers, and Ignatius Loyola, and other divines, both Catholic and Protestant, are introduced.
The same building contains the Museum of Rhenish Antiquities, a very