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admitted to the Golden Chamber, encased in silver, along with a number of other relics, such as one of the stone vessels which held the water that was turned into wine at the Marriage in Cana, &c. A bad picture in the church represents the landing of this female army of Saints at Cologne. Some, who have been staggered at the number of Ursula's maiden train, have supposed that the legend arose from confounding the name of one of her attendants, Undecimilla, with the number undecim millia (11,000). But it is hardly worth while to try to reduce the childish tales of the monks to the limits of probability, more especially as in the cyclical revolution of opinions they have again found admirers. The church contains a curious series of old German pictures of the Apostles painted on slate, 1224.
The Church of the Jesuits (Maria Himmelfahrt) dates from 1636, and, like others erected by the order, is overloaded with gorgeous decorations of marble, sculpture, &c. It contains the crozier of St. Francis Xavier, and the rosary of St. Ignatius Loyola. Its bells were cast out of the cannon taken at Magdeburg by Tilly, and presented by him to this church.
Travellers interested in architecture will find in Cologne many excellent examples of the round style, with some specimens of the transition style from the round to the pointed. Romanesque has been adopted as a general term to denote the round style; Lombard, Norman, and Saxon, when speaking of it as varied in the countries to which those names refer. "The east end of these [Romanesque] churches look like those of the Greeks, or the mosques of Constantinople."-Hope. The architects who designed these earliest churches at Cologne, and many similar along the Rhine, had evidently studied the Lombard churches of Pavia, which became familiar to the inhabitants of the banks of the Rhine by the residence of the Carlovingian emperors in that capital of their Italian dominions (Hbk. for N. Italy, p. 208.; Gally Knight, Eccles. Archit. of Italy, vol. i..; Boisserée, Denkmale der Baukunst am
Nieder-Rhein). The architectural traveller will visit St. Maria in Capitolio, the Ch. of the Apostles, St. Gereon, St. Martin, St. Cunibert, and St. Pantaleon.
Santa Maria in Capitolio, so called from its occupying the site of the ca pitol of the Roman city, stands on a height surmounted by a flight of steps. The Frankish kings had a palace here, to which, in 696, Plectrudis, the wife or Pepin of Héristal, retired, having separated from her husband on account of his attachment to Alpais, the mother of Charles Martel. She, in 700, removed the capitol, and built a church and a nunnery on its site. It has been contended that the existing church is nearly entirely of that period. It is more probable that the greater part at least was built about 1000. Observe the upper circuit of the choir, both inside and outside. Inside, the coupled columns, with their rich arabesque capitals, are in the style of the 11th or 12th century; outside, the wall is crowned by a row of arches on small pillars. The transepts are in an older and plainer style. The lower windows of the choir have been filled with tracery of the latest period of the pointed style. The pointed vaulting of the nave is apparently a restoration of the latter part of the 14th century. "Externally, in the same style with the Ch. of the Apostles; internally resembling a Greek church still more, and, in fact, a counterpart of one existing among the ruins of Seleucia, since round its semicircular absides and east end run internally semicircular rows of columns supporting round arches.”- - Hope. The effigy of Plectrudis, a very early work (10th century), is let into the wall, outside of the choir. The doors of the N. transept, carved with scriptural subjects in relief, executed at the end of the 12th cent. at the latest, are very curious (compare the doors at Hildesheim). The walls of the Hardenrath chapel are covered with paintings by an old German master (1466); and the windows have some good stained glass. That of the Schwarz family, with groined vaulting, contains the brass font (1594),
surmounted by a figure of St. Martin | churches in Cologne. The decagonal
on horseback. A picture attributed to Albert Durer is shown here, but is certainly not by him. The walls of the crypt, now a salt depôt, are covered with ancient paintings nearly effaced. The tower was built after 1637, when the old one fell. The convent has disappeared. A cloister of the 10th century remains.
The Apostles' Church, in the Neumarkt, was begun in 1020, and finished in 1035. It suffered from fire in 1098 and 1199, and was partly rebuilt in the beginning of the 13th century. It has a double transept. To the earlier building belong the choir, the eastern transept, and octagonal cupola, the two small towers, the lower part of the nave, and the great tower. The western transept and upper part of the nave are the parts rebuilt in the 13th cent. The vaulting of the nave, which had become ruinous, has been lately restored in wood, after the old pattern. This church has "3 absides, or circular cupolas, with slim octagonal steeples between them, rising undiminished to the top, from the transepts and the choir. Their common centre is crowned by an octagonal cupola, which, as well as the three absides, is belted, imme. diately under the cornice, by galleries of small arches, on small columns, coupled in the depth of the arch, resting on a panelled balustrade, such as is displayed by all the other churches here and on the Rhine, of the same period, and covered with a low ribbed roof of lead, so as to present a striking resemblance to some of the oldest Greek churches in some of the remotest parts of Asia Minor; and at the same time in its proportions, as airy and elegant, and calculated to magnify its apparent size, as the heavy, clumsy, English, Saxon roof often does the contrary.” Hope.
St. Gereon's Kirche, another ossuary, since it is lined with the bones of the Theban Legion of 6000 Martyrs, slain, according to the legend told here, either on this spot or at Xanten (see p. 246.) during the persecution of Diocletian, is one of the finest and most ancient
portion dates from 1212; the rest of the church, including the choir and the crypt, was built 1066-69. The earlier building is in the round style, except where some repairs were executed, as is thought, after a storm in 1434: the latter shows a preponderating mixture of the pointed. "By a singular and theatrical arrangement, arising out of these various increments, its body presents a vast decagonal shell and cupola, the pillars of whose internal angles are prolonged in ribs, which, centering in a summit, meet in one point, and lead by a high and wide flight of steps, rising opposite the entrance, to an altar and oblong choir behind it; whence other steps again ascend to the area between the 2 high square towers, and to the circular east end, belted as well as the cupola by galleries with small arches and pillars, on a panelled balustrade in the style of the Ch. of the Apostles. The entrance-door, with square lintel, low pediment, and pointed arch, is elegant; and the crypts show some remains of handsome mosaics.". Hope. The baptistery is a very elegant building, in the transition style of the decagonal church. It contains a font of porphyry, said to be a gift of Charlemagne. The sacristy, in the pointed style, is apparently of the 14th century. It contains some painted glass.
St. Martin. In 977, Archbp. Warinus entirely rebuilt this church; that founded by Pepin d'Héristal having fallen into decay. Of this building, the choir, the transepts, the central tower, and the aisles, remain. The tower was not, however, completed until the next century, and the 2 small towers on the E. side of it were added in 1072. The upper part of the nave and the vestibule are in the oldest pointed style; having been built by the Abbot Gotschalk about 1172. The interior was modernised in 1790. In the church is an octagonal font of white marble, a Roman work of the time of the empire, and having apparently been a labrum of a bath. "St. Martin likewise shows, internally, the Greek distribution."- Hope.
Near St. Gereon's is the Arrest haus, or new prison, built on the radiating panopticon plan.
St. Cunibert, finished in 1248, the year the Dom was begun, but in a style totally different from it, is a remarkable instance of the adherence to the older style, after the pointed style had become prevalent and perfect. The largest tower was burnt in 1376, and rebuilt in 1388, in the pointed style. It fell down in 1830, while undergoing repairs, and destroyed the vaulting of the adjoining parts of the nave and transepts: these have been restored. It contains the oldest painted glass in the country, of most glowing hues, and has an elegant portal.
St. Pantaleon is in part, perhaps, the oldest Christian structure in Cologne, since the lower part of the great tower, and the walls connected with it, are probably not later than 980. It was built by Archbishop Bruno, with the materials of the Roman bridge, and Castle of Deutz. The greater part of the present ch. is of the year 1622. It is now the Evangelic Garrison church, and its tower supports a telegraph.
In the Ch. of the Minorites (13th century) is the tomb of Duns Scotus.
St. George, 1060-74. The vaulting is later the choir is higher than the nave: there is a crypt; and a baptistery of 1200.
The Museum (Trankgasse, No. 7. close to the cathedral, admittance fee 10 S. gr. each person; on Sundays and holidays it is open free from 10-12) is chiefly occupied with works of art, bequeathed by Prof. Wallraff to his native city, consisting of early specimens of the School of Cologne*, which, however, are unnamed and uncatalogued. Among the more remarkable are- the Last Judgment, by Master Stephan (1410), (the angels are painted of the brightest ultra-marine by this master and others of the same school); the Death of the Virgin, by Schoreel, and a Descent from the Cross, by Israel von Mechenen (1488); also a Virgin and Child, and
* See Kugler's Handbook of Painting, § xi.
several others, by Master William of Cologne (1380).
These pictures deserve attention, as monuments of a school whose very existence was almost unknown till the present century. We are now aware that, nearly simultaneously with the revival of painting in Italy, there sprung up a race of artists on the banks of the Rhine, and in the Netherlands, who succeeded in raising art from the degradation into which it had fallen in the hands of the Byzantine painters, to a comparative state of excellence; and maintained that peculiar style which is seen in the greatest perfection in the works of Van Eyck, Hemling, and Schoreel. In order to appreciate thoroughly the works of the early German painters, it is necessary to see the Boisserée Collection, now in the Munich Gallery, which was itself formed at Cologne.
Among the pictures by modern artists, observe the Captive Jews at Babylon, by Bendemann, "no less remarkable for the simple beauty of the composition, than for the depth and earnestness of feeling it expresses;" the Convent Court, in a snow-storm, by Lessing, is also good.
In the lower story are many Roman antiquities, some of which are curious as having been found in or near Cologne; besides these are several busts and statues, and one specimen of sculpture, distinguished as a work of Grecian art, of great beauty and value-it is the Head of Medusa, resembling the famous Medusa Rondonini, in the Glyptothek at Munich, but larger, and it is said to be even finer.
Those who take interest in Art will find many private collections of pictures here; the most interesting being those of Messrs. Kerp (Johannes Strasse), Merlo (Unter Fettenhennen), Baumeister, F. Zanoli, &c. &c.; they are, however, for the most part, limited to works of the old German masters.
The Rathhaus (Town-hall) is a curious building, erected at different periods; the Gothic tower containing the Archives, in 1414; the marble portal,
or double arcade, in the Italian style, in 1571; the ground-floor in the 18th cent. The interior contains nothing remarkable, but in the Gothic Hansa Saal, now closed, were held the meetings of that mercantile confederation which at one time carried on the commerce of the world.
In the ancient Kaufhaus or Gürzenich (so called from the person who gave the ground on which it stands), finished in 1474, several Diets of the Empire were held, and many German Emperors entertained at the hospitable board of the patrician magistrates, in the huge hall which occupies the 1st floor: here the carneval balls are given, and the Art-Union exhibition takes place in July. It has a remarkably fine Gothic fireplace. The House of the Templars, in the Rheingasse, No. 8., supposed to be of the 12th or 13th century, has lately been repaired, and now serves as the Exchange and Chamber of Commerce. The Casino is a handsome new building, near the theatre, provided with ball and reading rooms, where newspapers are taken in. The Regierungs
Gebaude is also a handsome edifice.
Maria de' Medici died, 1642, in the house, No. 10, Sternen Gasse; her remains, except the heart, were carried to France. RUBENS was born in the same house, 1577.
Eau de Cologne, so renowned all over the world, is an article of considerable commerce for the city. There are 24 manufacturers, and several who bear the same name; but the original Jean Marie Farina, the rightful heir of the inventor (1670-1680), the best fabricator of Eau de Cologne, is to be found opposite the Jülichs Platz. Zanoli, Hochstrasse, also may be recommended; a box (6 bottles) costs 2 Th. 10 S. gr. The value of this manufacture cannot fail to be appreciated on the spot. One of the peculiarities of Cologne, its filthiness, will not long escape the attention, or the nose, of the stranger; it occasioned the following verses of Coleridge ::
Ye nymphs, who reign o'er sewers and sinks,
But tell me, nymphs, what power divine
rt. Deutz (Hötel Bellevue), on the rt. bank of the Rhine, connected by the bridge of boats, nearly 1400 ft. long, with Cologne, and strongly fortified as a tête de pont, is a favourite place of resort in summer evenings. It has capital inns and many guinguettes, which afford the amusements of music, dancing, and beer-drinking to the citizens. A large barrack has been constructed here with magazines of artillery. Deutz is said to owe its rise to a castle built here by Constantine the Great. From the extremity of the bridge, the finest view of Cologne and its ranges of buildings, extending for 3 miles along the opposite bank, is obtained.
An exceedingly interesting excursion may be made from Cologne to the Cistercian Abbey of Altenberg, 14 m. distant, 2 hours' drive, off the post-road to Minden. The Abbey lies about a mile from the post-house at Strasserhof, to the S. of the road, in the midst of beech forests, buried in the pretty retired valley of the Dhun, and close to the rushing stream.. There is no carriage road to it, but a pathway turns off from the road, a little short of Strasserhof, through a glen. The distance is a very long mile, and parts of the way are ankle deep in very wet weather. The church is a most beautiful specimen of Gothic, the choir finished in 1265, the rest in 1379; it is 84 ft. high, and of graceful proportions. The windows contain some beautiful painted glass; and remains of frescoes may be traced on its walls. The high altar, richly ornamented with carvings, the pulpit, and numerous curious monuments of abbots and monks, knights and noble ladies, are in a tolerably perfect state. Among them are several of the Counts of Altena, and the Counts and Dukes of Berg, an ancient family allied to the reigning house of Brandenburg. has been supposed that this church was designed by the architect of Cologne
cathedral; but the simplicity and solidity of the columns seem to indicate an artist of an earlier style. Observe the free and natural foliage of the capitals; it is well executed, and with great taste. The choir windows are narrow, and tall out of all proportion; hidden on the outside by the projecting buttresses, and rather poor when seen within. The conventual buildings, from which the monks were turned out only about 50 years ago, were built about 1214 they were converted into a manufactory of Prussian blue, and were destroyed in 1815 by a fire which began in them, and reduced part of the church to a state of impending ruin. In 1836 the King of Prussia (then Crown Prince) undertook its restoration. This exquisite relic of Gothic architecture has thus been saved, though at a great cost, from the destruction which was imminent. A dinner, with trout from the Dhüm, may be had at the Inn (the Post) at Strasserhof.
Droskies (one-horse carriages) ply for hire in different parts of the town. The fare is fixed by a tariff hung up inside the vehicle, and the driver is bound to give a receipt for the money paid him, as a check to surcharge (See p. 253.).
to Aix-la-Chapelle (Rte. 36.); to Bonn (Rte. 37.);-to Düsseldorf (Rte. 66.).
Steamers several times a-day, up the Rhine to Coblentz (Rte. 37.), and down to Nymegen and Arnhem (Rte. 34.), and thence to Rotterdam (Rte. 12.).
Schnellposts (§ 50.) morning and evening to Coblentz (Rte. 37.), to Cassel (2); to Siegen (Rte. 45. a.); to Prüm and Treves; to Cleves, in 13 h., and Nymegen (Rte. 35.).
with 3000 Inhab., in the midst of a plain, surrounded by marshes and stagnant ditches, which render it very unhealthy. The surrounding district, however, is so fertile that it has received the name of the Granary (Kornkammer) of the Rhine land.
31 Feurth: a post house by the roadside.
"About 1 Germ. m. from Neuss, on this road, a by-road of 2 Eng. m. conducts to the ancient Schloss Dyck, residence of the family of Salm Dyck, which once bore the title Altgraf; the principality was mediatised in the late war. The Castle is modernised, and offers little for observation, but the gardens are famous for a curious and rare collection of succulent plants,"F. S.
2 Neuss. (p. 245.) The Rhine is crossed by a flying bridge. 1 Düsseldorf. (Route 34. p. 243.)
THE RHINE (c).
FROM COLOGNE TO COBLENZ.
rt. denotes the right, 1. the left bank of the Rhine, according as they would lie on the right or left of a person looking down the stream.
Delkescamp's pictorial Panoramas of the Rhine and Moselle are useful and ingenious helps to tourists; also Hendschel's excellent "Topographisches Rhein- Panorama," published by Jügel, Frankfort a. M.
"On the banks of the majestic Rhine, There Harold gazes on a work divine, A blending of all beauties; streams and dells, Fruit, foliage, crag, wood, cornfield, mountain, vine,
And chiefless castles breathing stern farewells
From grey but leafy walls, where Ruin greenly dwells.
And there they stand, as stands a lofty mind, Worn, but unstooping to the baser crowd, All tenantless, save to the crannying wind, Or holding dark communion with the cloud.