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ing retirement, will find this a less expensive place of residence than Aix. Inns: Bain de la Rose (Rosenbad), tolerable baths, and a table-d'hôte:
Bain de l'Epée, an old castle converted into an hotel; board and lodging less than 5 fr. per day.
The principal source, called Fontaine bouillante, Kochbrunnen, is hotter than any at Aix (179° Fahrenheit); it resembles the Aix waters in its contents, but while they are nauseous from the taste of sulphur, this is almost tasteless: all that can be detected is a slightly saline flavour, by no means disagreeable. It rises in the open air, in the middle of the principal street. Burtscheid also contains springs of saline water not unlike that of Wiesbaden. The hot springs are so copious that the rivulet formed by the union of them runs warm;-das Warme Bach.
About half a mile N. of Aix, on the opposite side to Borcette, beyond the Sandkaul Thor, is the hill called the Louisberg, or Lousberg, 200 ft. high, surmounted by a pyramid or obelisk, raised for trigonometrical purposes, near which a beautiful view is obtained of Aix, of the line of the Railway, and along the rich valley (Süersthal) strewn with country houses. The white pilgrimage church on the Salvatorsberg is a conspicuous object. The summit of the Louisberg may be reached in hour by an easy carriage road, and between 4 and 5 crowds of people flock thither. On the lower slope stands a handsome Restaurant and Café, the Belvedere, with a saloon, commanding a noble prospect.
About 3 m. off is a very pretty garden, called Kaisersruhe. On the way thither is Tivoli, an agreeable pleasure ground. About 2 m. from Aix, on the road to Treves (Rt. 43.), is Schloss Schönforst, one of the finest ruins in the vicinity of Aix. A pleasant walk, by the side of the Warm rivulet, is to the Frankenburg, described below, 1 m. distant from the Adalbertsthor.
About 2 m. out of Aix, on the right of the post road to Cologne, is the château of Kalkofen, in which General Elliot, the brave defender of Gibraltar,
died, having killed himself, it is said, by an excessive use of the waters.
Carriages for hire are expensive at Aix; between 4 and 6 dollars are asked per diem. 21 francs an hour, with pour boire to driver. There are droskies and omnibuses at the railway, § 20. A.
Schnellposts ( 50 ) to Düsseldorf, Maestricht, and Treves (Rte. 43.), and Crefeld.
Railroads to Cologne, trains 4 times a-day in 21 hrs. ; to Liége, 4 times aday; to Brussels and Antwerp, 3 times, and to Ostend twice a-day, in 12 hrs. To Maestricht, begun; one direct to Dusseldorf is about to be constructed.
Railroad to Cologne, 9.33 G. m.= 71 kilomètres, or 431⁄2 Eng. m.
The Terminus stands midway between Aix-la-Chapelle and Borcette. A noble Viaduct, 892 ft. long, and 70 ft. high in the centre, consisting of 2 tiers of 15 small and 20 large brick arches, carries the railway from the station across the narrow valley of the Wurmbach, in which Borcette is built. A good view is obtained, a little beyond it, of Aix-la-Chapelle, and tne Lousberg behind.
(1.) Close by the side of the railway, 1 m. from Aix, rises on a projecting rock the Castle of Frankenberg, an ivyclad and ruined tower of considerable antiquity, to which a more modern edifice (date 1642) is attached. Charlemagne is said to have founded and inhabited a castle on this spot; and here, according to the legend, died his beloved queen Fastrada. He caused her body to be enclosed in a coffin of glass, and never quitted it day or night, neglecting the concerns of his empire, and abandoning himself wholly to grief, until Turpin the Wise, watching one day until he slept, opened the coffin, took off the golden wedding ring from the dead queen's finger, and thus released the emperor from the spell of sorrow. The lake which surrounded the castle, and into which the ring was thrown, has been partly drained and converted into gardens.
(1.) The village Nirm is seen just before we enter the cutting leading to the Nirmer Tunnel a costly work
though only 327 yards long, which carries the railway through the basin of hills which surrounds Aix. Traversing a beautiful wood called Reichswald, we reach
1.35 (rt.) Stolberg stat. (Hissels, and Welties Inns), a manufacturing town of 3000 inhab., lies about 3 m. S. of this, up a valley studded with mins, forges, and country seats. The town is surmounted by a picturesque old Castle on the top of the hill. The principal manufacture is that of brass, and the conversion of it into wire, &c. Zinc is obtained from mines in the vicinity. The district traversed by the railway, and in which Stolberg lies, is a productive coal-field, supplying numerous manufactories, of iron and glass, &c. It is scattered over with houses, steamengines, and chimneys.
(1. and rt.) The village Pumpe, which includes extensive iron-works, is inhabited chiefly by coal-miners, and receives its name from the steam-engines use to pump water out of the coal-mine near to which the railroad passes. Excellent coal is furnished hence, and is much used by the steam-boats on the Rhine. Some of the shafts are more than 1000 feet deep.
After crossing the Inde, the small stream flowing out of the vale of Stolberg, a second tunnel of no great length, driven through the rock of the Ichenberg in a curve, brings the railroad to
43 (1.) Eschweiler stat. Inn: Post. This is an industrious town of 3600 inhab., on the Inde, having manufactures of silk, iron, wire, &c. and an old picturesque Castle, close to the railway, on the left, restored in the ancient style, and rendered habitable, by a private gentleman.
The fortress of Jülich (p. 263.) is about 9 m. from this stat.
We next pass 1. the old Castle of Nothberg, flanked by 4 round towers. From the top of a high embankment, a good view is obtained of the pleasing vale of the Inde, which is finally concealed by the sides of the deep cutting leading to 1·05 Langerwehe stat. A viaduct of 7 arches conveys the railroad over the vale of the Wehe beyond this stat. On
the right, after coming out of the cutting beyond this, lie the village and castle Merode, with four towers at the angles, 2 high and 2 low, capped with irregularly shaped spires. This is the cradle of a family still existing in Belgium, one of whose ancestors, in the thirty years' war, was leader of a free corps in the Imperial army, distinguished above all others for its insubordination, habits of plunder, and brutality. The name "Merodeurer" became a by-word for a plunderer, and a name of terror so widely understood, that it has been adopted even in our own language in the word "marauder," properly applied to undisciplined soldiers, who desert their corps to steal.
The railway is carried through the midst of the village Dhorn, and a little to the 1. of Gürzenich, before it crosses, by a bridge of 6 arches, the Ruhr, a river well known in strategic history, especially in the revolutionary French campaign of 1792-3.
Less than 1 m. beyond the Ruhr lies 1.25 Düren stat. (Inns: Post (Pfälzer Hof), good: Bellevue, Esser's near the railroad, new and best,) is a town of 8000 inhab., devoted to manufactures, the chief of which are of cloth and paper. The church of St. Anne, with a high tower, possesses the head of that saint enclosed in a strong box. A Protestant church has been recently built. Charles V. was nearly killed by a shot fired from the walls by a townsman, as he was besieging Düren, which he took and destroyed, after an obstinate resistance, with a force amounting to 61,800 men, in the year 1543. Düren owes its origin and name to the Roman station Marcodurum, mentioned by Tacitus. There is nothing very remarkable in the town. A pleasant excursion may be made up the valley of the Ruhr to the picturesque village Niedeggen, 8 m. S. of Düren, seated on the summit of a lefty rock, commanding an extensive view, including the battle-field of Zulpich (Tolbiacum), where Clovis defeated the Alemanni, A. D. 496, and, becoming a convert to Christianity, was baptised, it is said, in
the font still preserved in the venerable crypt under the parish church. Zulpich is about 10 m. S. E. of Düren. A cutting nearly 3 m. long carries the railway through the high ground which separates the basin of the Meuse from that of the Rhine. It terminates a little way short of 1.25 Buir stat. The railroad is carried by a high embankment over the lowlands of the valley of the Erft, which river is crossed on 3 bridges, a little before reaching 1.5 Horrem stat.,
(1.) Beyond the village rises the Castle of Frenz, whose ancient owners were descended from one of the 15 noble families of Cologne who traced their descent from colonists established in that city by the Emperor Trajan, A. D. 108!
The railway passes from the valley of the Erft into that of the Rhine by the Königsdorfer tunnel, 1 m. long, carried through a hill of sand 136 ft. below the summit, and lined with brick.
67. Königsdorf stat.
Close beyond this the high road from Cologne to Jülich is crossed.
The low range of hills under which we have just passed is called Ville, a name derived, it is said, from the Roman inhabitants of Cologne, who built their villas on these genial slopes, above the Rheinthal.
88. Mungersdorf stat.
A fine view is presented of Cologne, with its many towers and steeples; conspicuous among which rises the octagon of St. Gereon. Just where the railroad arrives abreast of the walls, it passes, on the right, one of the detached forts, half-buried towers, à la Montalambert, each capable of mounting 100 guns, forming part of the defences of the city, and a second, on the left, shortly before reaching the
95. COLOGNE Terminus, which is on the left bank of the Rhine, below the city, and 3 m. distant from the stat. of the Bonn Railway. Omnibuses convey travellers to the several hotels. Cabs, called Droskies, Germ. Droschken, stand for hire. After passing along the winter harbour, Cologne is entered by
the Eigelstein Thor, an old fortified gate. way, which is inconveniently narrow,
COLOGNE (Germ. Köln, Dutch Keulen). Inns: On the Rhine Quay, close to the steamers are— Rheinischer Hof, good, clean, and well conducted, though dear; Grand Hotel Royal, very good:-Hôtel de Cologne, moderate and quiet:-Holländischer Hof: In the middle of the town are — the Hotel Disch, in the Brücken Strasse, kept by the former landlord of the Kaiserlicher Hof, and very highly recommended; Kaiserlicher Hof, near the Post-office. Mainzer Hof, near the diligence office. Inns in Deutz, on the opposite side of the Rhine. - Hôtel de Bellevue, excellent commanding from its front windows a fine view of Cologne, and not far from the station of the Minden, Hanover, and Berlin Railway: - Prinz Karl. These two inns have gardens overlooking the river, in which there is commonly music every evening in summer.
Droskies (cabs) 15-20 S. gr. the hour, a drive of 15-20 minutes, with 1 or 2 persons 5 S. gr., with 3 or 4, 10 S. gr.
Cologne is a fortified town on the left bank of the Rhine. Population 85,000 (7000 Protestants), including Deutz, its suburb, and Tête du Pont, on the rt. bank, with which it is connected by a boat bridge 1400 ft. long. It is the largest and wealthiest city on the Rhine, and a free port.
Cologne owes its existence to a camp pitched here by the Romans, under Marcus Agrippa, which was afterwards enlarged and rendered permanent by the removal, under Tiberius, of a native tribe, called the Ubii, from the r. bank of the Rhine (Tacitus Ann. I. 36.), and their settlement at the spot now occupied by Cologne. This first city was called Civitas Ubiorum. More than 80 years after, Agrippina, mother of Nero, sent hither a colony of Roman veterans, and gave to it her own name, calling it Colonia Agrippina. A part of its ancient appellation is still retained in the modern name of Cologne.
Cologne abounds in historical associations. Traces of the possession of