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Hof), a town of 3400 inhab., the Castra Vetera of the Romans. Julius Cæsar is said to have built a fort here, and the Prætorian camp of Varus, from which he led the Roman legions across the Rhine, was on the neighbouring hill called Fürstenberg. According to one version of the legend, the Emp. Maximian, about 290 A. D., caused St. Gereon and the Theban legion, amounting to 6000 men, to be executed here, because they had become Christians. The scene of this legend is also placed at Agaunum, now St. Maurice, in the Canton Valais, Switzerland; but of course this version is not received at Cologne, where the traveller may see the bones of the legion in St. Gereon's Church. The Church of St. Victor is a very ancient and beautiful structure, well worth notice, in the Pointed style of architecture (date 1383), except the W. front, probably built 1128. The altar-piece is the best work of Barth. de Bruyn, a Cologne painter, 1534. The country around affords abundant traces of its ancient masters, in the variety of Roman antiquities every day brought to light. There is a very extensive collection of them here, belonging to Mr. Houben, a notary. At Xanten stood the castle of the Niebelungen, the heroes of the old German Epic, and here Siegfried, the slayer of the dragon, was born, according to it. Beyond Xanten the road is heavy sand and gravel; it passes by the scarcely distinguishable site of a Roman amphitheatre.
1 Rheinburg, former.y a strong fortress, had the honour to be captured by Louis XIV. in person, 1672.
11 Uerdingen. There is a direct road from this to Neuss, leaving Crefeld on one side, to
3 Neuss. Hence to Cologne, 43 Germ. m., as above.
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE TO COLOGNE.
9 Prussian miles =43 Eng. miles. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (Germ. Aachen): Inns: Grand Monarque, chez Dremel; first-rate to those who travel in firstrate style, and not bad for others; table d'hôte at 4;-Nuellen's Hotel is recommended as capital, in a good situation, close to the Fountain; H. d'Empereur ; O Grand Hotel, good and moderate, close to the Baths; - Bellevue, good and well situated; Couronne Impériale, very good and quiet; -H. des Quatre Saisons, good; - Dragon d'Or, good; -H. de la Rose (or Aigle Noir), good.
The passports of travellers who have just entered Prussia from the Belgian frontier are sometimes examined here, and viséd by the authorities. The passports taken from travellers by the Railway remain 2 days at the station
if not reclaimed thence within that time, they are forwarded to the H. de Ville. Passports of travellers not stopping here are returned immediately.
Aix-la-Chapelle, a town, in 1847, of 47,518 inhab. (1973 Protestants), was known to the Romans under the name of Aquis Granum. The warm springs were a sufficient inducement to fix that bath-loving people on the spot, and remains of their baths are constantly found in digging. It is to Charlemagne, however, that the city owes its eminence. He was born here, as some conjecture, and without doubt died here, 814. He raised it to the rank of second city in his empire, and made it capital of his dominions N. of the Alps, appointing it the place of coronation for the German emperors, his successors, 37 of whom, and 11 empresses, were crowned here between 814 and 1531.
In the middle ages it flourished with the privileges of a Free Imperial City, and attained great eminence in its manufactures, especially in that of cloth, for which it is celebrated even to the present day.
It was the scene of many Diets of the Empire, and of several councils of
the Church; and in later times it has | smaller room was occupied by Sir been distinguished by the Congresses Thomas Lawrence as a painting-room, held here:- 1. In 1668, when a treaty in 1818, while taking the portraits of of peace was concluded between France the sovereigns and other eminent perand Spain; -2. In 1748, when a ge- sons then assembled, for the gallery at neral peace was signed by the sovereigns Windsor. of Europe; and-3. In 1818, at which the Emperors of Austria and Russia, and King of Prussia, were present in person, and Ambassadors were sent from George IV. and Louis XVIII. to decide on the evacuation of France by the Allied armies.
After the Peace of Paris, Aix was separated from France, to which it had been united by Napoleon, and added to the dominions of the King of Prussia. The handsome new streets and fine buildings erected since that event, as well as the increase of population, show a return to its ancient prosperity. Indeed it has rapidly risen into importance as a manufacturing town. The huge chimneys starting up on all sides, and the clouds of smoke, are evidence of this. Since the days of the Romans and Charlemagne, it has been celebrated as a watering-place, and is annually frequented by many thousand visitors.
The Hôtel de Ville (Rathhaus), in the market-place, is a large and somewhat imposing building, erected 1353, on the site of the Palace of the Frankish Kings, in which Charlemagne was born. The Tower of Granus, at the E. end (where the Passport and Police Office is), said erroneously to be of Roman origin, was built 1215. The semicircular tower on the W. side belonged to the Carlovingian Palace. The Rathhaus is remarkable as the place of meeting of the two Congresses of 1748 and 1818. the grand saloon (Kaisersaal), on the 3rd floor, where the conferences were held, are some modern frescoes,-scenes from the Life of Charlemagne, by Rethel; and in a small room on the lower floor, some bad pictures of the members of the Congress collectively, and some equally bad portraits of the ministers and sovereigns who assisted at them; among them, that of Lord Sandwich, the English minister, is conspicuous; also Napoleon's portrait, presented by himself to the town.
In the centre of the square is a fountain surmounted by the bronze statue of the Empr. Charlemagne, erected 1620. A turreted house opposite the Rathhaus, and the Old Prison, having a good front with statues, are remarkable.
The Dom Kirche ( Cathedral) consists of two parts, erected at different times, in different styles. The nave, an octagon within, but having externally 16 sides, with round arches, stands on the spot where Charlemagne had erected (796— 804) "the chapel," after which the city was named. He designed it to be a burial-place for himself, causing it to be constructed in the form of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. It was consecrated by Pope Leo III., "with a ceremony worthy of its splen. dour; 365 archbishops and bishops were to be present at the solemnity, but, unluckily, 2 were missing; and there is no knowing what might have resulted if 2 reverend prelates of Tongres, quietly reposing in their graves at Maestricht, had not been so kind as to walk out and supply the vacant seats at the ceremony. So says the tradition of the place." The original church was destroyed by the Normans, and rebuilt in its present form by the Empr. Otho III. in 983, no doubt partly in conformity with the ancient plan, and perhaps with the old materials; it is decidedly one of the oldest buildings in Germany. On the right hand side of the great door is the figure of a she-bear which has puzzled antiquarians. The brass doors and rails of the church are very ancient.
The position of the Tomb, in which once reposed the mortal remains of Charlemagne, is marked by a large slab of marble under the centre of the dome, inscribed with the words "CAROLO MAGNO." A massive brazen chandelier (the candlesticks are modern) hangs above it, the gift of the Emp. Frederic Barbarossa. The vault below,
The only paintings worth notice in the Dom are an ancient piece in an upper chapel, by William Kalb, and a fine altar-piece, in compartments, said to be by Albert Durer (?), in the sacristy.
now empty, was opened by him intains a pulpit, covered with plates of 1165. It had already been opened silver gilt, richly ornamented with A. D. 997, by Otho III., after Pope carvings in ivory and precious stones: Paschal III. had made Charlemagne this is concealed by a wooden case, a saint. He found the body of Charle- which the sacristan will remove. Mary magne not reclining in his coffin, as is Queen of Scots presented the image of the usual fashion of the dead, but seated the Virgin over the altar with a crown in his throne as one alive, clothed in of gold, which was stolen in 1843, and the imperial robes, bearing the sceptre all traces of it are lost. The Emp. in his hand, and on his knees a copy of Otho III. is buried beneath the high the Gospels. On his fleshless brow altar. Full musical mass every Sunwas the crown, the imperial mantle day, at 10 A. M. covered his shoulders, the sword Joyeuse was by his side, and the pilgrim's pouch, which he had borne always while living, was still fastened to his girdle. All these venerable relics were removed, and used in the coronation ceremonies of succeeding Emperors of Germany. They are now deposited at Vienna. The throne, in which the body of Charlemagne was seated, alone remains here it is placed in the gallery (Hoch Münster) running round the octagon, facing the choir. It is an arm-chair, in shape somewhat like that of Edward the Confessor, in Westminster Abbey, but made of slabs of white marble, which, during the coronation, were covered with plates of gold. It is protected by wooden boards, which the sacristan will remove to satisfy a stranger's curiosity. The arches of the gallery are now once more adorned with some of the 32 pillars of granite and porphyry, brought by Charlemagne from the Exarch's Palace at Ravenna, and partly from the East: these were somewhat wantonly removed by the French: a part of them only were returned from Paris, the rest have been replaced by modern pillars given by the King of Prussia. In the side chapel of St. Nicholas stands an antique Sarcophagus of Parian marble, the work of Roman or Greek artists, ornamented with a fine bas-relief of the Rape of Proserpine: the feet of the dead Charlemagne originally rested in it, within his tomb.
The Choir, a more modern addition, begun in 1353, finished 1413, "is of prodigious height (114 ft.) and lightness, having the appearance of a stupendous lantern all of glass." It con
The Treasury or Sacristy of the church is very rich in relics. These are divided into the Lesser and the Greater relics. Among the former are the skull of Charlemagne, enclosed in a silver case, something like a barber's block, and his arm-bone, both taken, it is said, from his grave. It is recorded of Charlemagne that he was of tall stature, and this is believed to be confirmed by the immense length and thickness of this arm-bone; unluckily it has been discovered by one whose knowledge of anatomy leaves no room for doubting the fact, that the bone is no arm at all, but a leg-bone, or tibia! The case for the arm was the gift of Louis XI. of France, who had it made 1481.
The rest of the bones of Charlemagne were discovered here, in 1847, in a chest, put away in a dark closet. Besides these are the hunting-horn of Charlemagne, formed of an elephant's tusk; also a locket of the Virgin's hair, and a piece of the true cross, two relics which he wore round his neck, in his grave, as well as while alive. The leathern girdle of Christ (on which may still be seen the impression of Constantine's seal), the cord which bound the rod which smote him, a nail of the Cross, the sponge which was filled with vinegar; that arm of Simeon, on which he bore the infant Jesus; some of the blood and bones of St. Stephen, some manna from the Wilderness, and some bits of Aaron's rod, are still preserved here! It was
upon these relics that the Emperor of Germany swore at his coronation.
The Grandes Reliques are shown only once in 7 years, from the 15th to the 27th of July. The next exhibition will take place in 1853. So sacred was this ceremony held, and so high was the privilege esteemed of obtaining a glimpse of them, that in former times no fewer than 150,000 pilgrims resorted to the spot from all parts on this occasion; and in 1846, the last anniversary, the number exceeded 180,000. These relics were presented to Charlemagne by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Haroun king of Persia. They are deposited in a rich shrine of silver gilt, the work of artists of the 9th century, and consist of-1. The robe worn by the Virgin at the Nativity; it is of cotton, 5 feet long.—2. The swaddling clothes in which Jesus was wrapped; they are of cloth, as coarse as sacking, of a yellow colour.-3. The cloth on which the head of John the Baptist was laid. 4. The scarf worn by our Saviour at the Crucifixion, bearing stains of blood. Intermixed with these religious relics are many curious antique gems, some Babylonian cylinders, and the like, which serve as jewels to ornament the saintly treasury. The church plate and articles of goldsmith's work, shrines, ampuls, reliquaries, crosses, chalices, &c., preserved in this sacristy, render it a perfect museum, and a real treasure of the best period of Gothic art, deserving attention for the inventive skill shown in the designs, and the excellent execution of the ornaments. Those who despise the relics will at least be gratified by the sight of the cases in which they are enshrined. "It is perhaps the richest collection of the kind remaining, and gives a vast idea of the wealth of the ch. in former days. The most remarkable pieces are 2 large shrines of silver gilt enamelled, with figures and inscriptions, said to be gifts of Otho III. and Frederick II.; the golden plates that covered the throne of Charlemagne impressed with figures in the Byzantine style; a fine ivory
cup; 2 pure Gothic reliquaries of gold, of the most beautiful workmanship, gifts of the Emp. Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain, but evidently of much earlier date. All these well deserve the attention of the architectural student." - F. S.
The plate and the lesser relics are shown by the treasurer for a fee of 1 dollar or 4 fr.; and the throne, sarcophagus, and pulpit, by the verger, who expects a dollar from a party.
The other churches are scarcely worth notice. St. Nicholas, or the Recollets, contains over the high altar 3 good pictures, by Diepenback, of the Crucifixion. In St. Michael's, or the Jesuits', is a fine Descent from the Cross, by G. Honthorst. The Kornhaus is a curious building of the 12th cent., near the Dom, having statues of the 7 Electors in front.
A very handsome wide new street leads from the Railway to the handsome Theatre, and to the Fountain of Elisa (Elisenbrunnen) a fine building with a Doric colonnade; it serves the purpose of a pump-room, and has a café attached to it, elegantly fitted up. The guests, or visiters, repair hither early in the morning to drink the water, which, though conducted in pipes direct from the emperor's spring, retains a temperature of 43° Réaumur. band of excellent music plays at the spot until the middle of September, from 6 to 8 A. M., which is considered the end of the season; and breakfasts or dinners are provided in the apartments adjoining the spring. The building is named after the Q. of Prussia.
The Mineral Springs of Aix rise in the centre of the town; they are of two classes. The upper, which are the strongest and hottest; the lower, which are weaker and cooler. In the first class the principal spring is the Source de l'Empereur; it contains a larger quantity of sulphur than any other known in Europe; and when the vapour arising from it is confined, and not allowed to escape, it deposits crystals of sulphur. It has a temperature of 143° Fahrenheit, and owes its dis
agreeable taste to the presence of supersulphuretted hydrogen gas.
This and the two contiguous sources supply-1. The Bain de l'Empereur, situated in the street called the Büchel, and containing 20 baths. 2. The Bain Neuf, comfortable, and better lighted than No. 1. The charge for the sulphureous bath is 1 fr.; for the vapour bath 4 fr. -3. Bain de la Reine d' Hongrie. -4. Bain St. Quirin, having only 38° Réaumur. So great is the heat of these springs that the waste water allowed to escape through the sewers of the town is employed by the common people to wash their linen; and not only saves them the expense of fuel, but also of soap, since the natron or alkaline salt contained in it supplies its place. It may be observed, that linen washed in the water acquires so disagreeable an odour, that strangers will repent if they allow their clothes to be subjected to it.
The baths supplied by the lower spring, situated in the street called Comphausbad are 1. Le Bain de la Rose.-2. Bain St. Corneille.-3. Bain St. Charles. 4. Comphausbad, appropriated to the use of the poor.
Besides the warm spring there are also sources of chalybeate water, to reIceive which a Bath House and Hotel are erected in the Neue Strasse.
The bath-houses are the property of the town, and are let to tenants: they contain lodgings, and are pretty much
on a par.
The Redoute, or Gaming-house, in the Comphausbad-Strasse, corresponds with what in other watering places is called the Kursaal. The lower story is occupied by print and music shops, by a restaurant, and a reading-room, where the principal European newspapers are to be found. In the grand suite of apart ments, balls are given once or twice aweek, during the season, but they are principally devoted to gambling. Games of hazard, rouge-et-noir, roulette, &c., are carried on in them, not only by night but by day, from 11 in the morning till 2, and from 9 in the evening till 12. The tables are open to all comers, except the inhabitants of
the town and officers in the Prussian army, who are expressly forbidden by a police order to play at the tables, and a police officer is stationed in each room to prevent the infringement of this law; but it is evaded nevertheless. The rooms are principally frequented at noon, and after the theatre is over. Before 10 P. M. the lowest stake allowed is a thaler. Public gaming-tables are tolerated in no other spot in the Prus. sian dominions; and are only suffered here, in consideration of the benefit which the town derives from the number of strangers whom they annually attract, and who would resort elsewhere if gaming were prohibited. The tables are let out to a company, who are compelled to apply a large portion of their gains to the improvement of the town, and the walks in the neighbourhood.
The Manufacture of Cloth, the most important in Aix-la-Chapelle, employs 3000 persons in the town; and more than 12,000 in it and its immediate neighbourhood are occupied in preparing the wool. There are about 2000 needlemakers in the town, and it contains a large manufactory of spinning machinery. Nearly 50 large factories are in activity at Aix and Burtscheid.
At Mayer's Library a book is kept, in which the addresses of English visiters to Aix are entered. Here are to be found English newspapers. Benrath has a well furnished library, and music-shop. He keeps the subscription book for the English Church.
The Boulevard above alluded to is a pleasant promenade, occupying the place of the levelled ditch and walls of the town, prettily laid out, shaded by fine trees. The Environs of Aix abound in beautiful walks. A pleasant walk of
of a mile from the gates of Aix leads by an avenue of trees to Borcette (German, Burtscheid), a small town of 5000 inhab. and a watering-place, with a very good inn, recently opened, called the St. Charles. the noble viaduct is passed, which carries the Cologne railway (p. 249.) over the valley of Burtscheid. Persons intending to take the waters, and desir.
On the way