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For general information respecting the Rhine below Cologne, read Rte. 11., pp. 84-89.

The steamer sets off on the ascent of the Rhine early in the morning, and reaches Cologne in about 18 hours. As there is nothing to see in the lower part of the Rhine, it is best to proceed as far as Arnbem by rail. A steamer leaves Arnhem every morning at 6 A. M., and reaches Cologne at 11 P. M., but arrives opposite Duisburg in time for the train which reaches Cologne at 6 P. M. The railway from Duisburg to Cologne occupies 2 hours. (The steamer which leaves Cologne at 7 A. M. reaches Arnhem in time for the last train to Amsterdam.) About 8 m. above Nymegen, and about the same distance above Arnhem, the two branches of the Rhine the Waal, and the Lower Rhine, or Lek, unite. Before entering the undivided stream, it is worth while to give some little attention to the hydraulic works erected on the apex of the delta. They consist of dams, dykes, and jetties, constructed of earth, and faced with wicker-work, which are thrown up, along the shore or into the Rhine, to regulate its course and the direction of its waters, the object in view being so to distribute its current, that in all scates of its flood, both when high and when low, of the water which it brings down may be conveyed into the Waal, and only into the Lek. It is the duty, therefore, of the water

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engineers to watch every variation of the current and level of the Rhine, and to guard against changes, and preserve the equilibrium, by constantly throwing out new works. These constructions are of the highest importance, since, in point of fact, the physical existence of Holland in a great degree depends on them: and had not the necessary precautions been taken to strengthen them in 1774, the country would, in all probability, have been overwhelmed by the inundations which occurred in


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At a place called Aart a dam is drawn across an ancient arm of the Rhine, strengthened by the Dutch with thick plantations of willows. intended that this abandoned channel should serve as a safety-valve in case of very great increase in the waters of the Rhine; and by a convention with the Prussian government, it is settled that, when the river attains a certain height at the gauge at Arnhem, it shall be allowed an outlet through this dam. This is by no means an impossible contingency; and were it to happen, the dam would be washed away in five minutes after the water had begun to flow over it, and a new passage would be opened for the Rhine to the.

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* POST ROAD -NYMEGEN TO DUSSELDORF, by the RIGHT BANK OF THE RHINE. 8 Dutch Posts, and 134 Prussian Miles=783 English Miles.

Dutch Posts

A diligence daily. This road is very bad; very little of it is chaussée.

14 Arnhem (R. 5.)

The Prussian territory is entered before reaching

Elten, a village with an old abbey - a pretty view a bad Inn.- M. (rt.) Post road continued:

Prussian miles.

N. Germ.


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taken by Frederick Henry Prince of Orange, 1636, and by Turenne, 1672. It owed its importance to its position on the tongue of land formed by the forking of the Rhire, but the river has completely changed its bed in the course of centuries, and the separation of the Rhine and Waal now takes place considerably below the fortress, which has fallen to decay, and is now scarcely discernible.

(1.) The spires and towers of Cleves may be seen near this, at a little distance from the river. It takes 4 hrs. steam to reach.

(r.) EMMERICH.* Inn: H. des PaysBas, best. This is the first Prussian town; it is fortified, and has a garrison and 5000 inhab., and considerable manufactures. It has a Dutch character of cleanliness. At its upper end rise the stunted gothic towers of St. Aldegund's Ch.; at the lower appears the Minster, the oldest ch. on the rt. bank of the Rhine. The steamer is here boarded by the custom-house officers, who, however, are contented with a very slight inspection of the baggage of a traveller, and passports are visé by the police (§ 46, 47.), which usually causes a stoppage of 1 or 2 hours.

(r.) Rees. † A small town, with high walls.

(1.) Xanten, distinguished by its doubled-spired church (see p. 246.), lies at a short distance from the Rhine, which appears to have flowed close to it in former times. The ancient bed is distinctly traceable.

(r.) WESEL. Inn:



was made navigable. Much wood and salt are transported out of Westphalia by that river. The Rhine is here divided into two branches by the island of Büderich, also fortified by blockhouses, and is crossed by a bridge of boats.

A monument has been erected near Wesel, to the Prussian officers engaged in Schill's revolt at Stralsund, who were mercilessly shot here by the French, 1809. Rapin here wrote his History of England. He resided 17 years and died here.

(1.) Immediately opposite Wesel lies Fort Blucher, formerly called Fort Napoleon, while it belonged to the French. A small town was swept away to make room for it, and has since been rebuilt about 3 m. off.

(1.) Orsoy.

(r.) Ruhrort (Hacks Inn), at the opening of the Ruhr into the Rhine, serves as the depôt for the coals brought down the Ruhr from the coal-field on its banks. Nearly 3,000,000 tons are, it is said, extracted annually. The consumption of coals is enormously increased since the Belgian Revolution, as Holland now obtains from this quarter part of the supply which she previously derived from Liége. There are very large boat-builders' yards here. Near the lower (E.) end of the town is a considerable castle.

(rt.) DUISBURG. Inns: Post; Rheinischer Hof. (Drusibergum of the Romans.) A manufacturing town of 7000 inhab., near the Ruhr, which falls into the Rhine 3 m. below the town. St. Salvator's, (1415) 1 m, distant from the Rhine, is a fine ch. The University, founded here 1655, was suppressed 1802. The Minden and Cologne Railway connects this town with Cologne; trains take 2 hours. Rte. 66.

This is a fortress of the first class, forming the bulwark of Prussia on her N. W. frontier; it lies at the junction of the Lippe with the Rhine, and has 13,200 inhab. including the garrison. The citadel is situated S. of the town. The Rathhaus is a handsome build-guished not only for its active indusing. The town carries on a considerable trade with Holland, and its commerce has increased since the Lippe

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The Valley of the Ruhr is distin

try, its coal mines, &c., but also for its very picturesque scenery. It de serves exploring; the most interesting points being Hohen Syburg, Blankenstein, Werden, Kettwich, and Mühlheim.

(1.) Uerdingen, marked by the pop

lars round it.
this, the French revolutionary army,
under Lefebre, 25,000 strong, first
crossed the Rhine, 1795, and by vio-
lating the neutrality of the Prussian
territory on the opposite bank, turned
the position of the Austrians.

At Eichelskamp, near | market-place on horseback. The main
edifice, with many other buildings, was
destroyed by the bombardment of the
French, 1794, save one wing, and has
only recently been rebuilt.
It con-
tained, down to 1805, the famous col-
lection of pictures, now at Munich.
One large painting of inferior excel-
lence, the Ascension of the Virgin, by
Rubens, was left behind. The old
pictures which now fill the gallery are
not good for much. Tasso and the 2
Leonoras by Carl Sohn is a charming
modern work.

(r.) Kaiserswerth, originally, as its name implies, an island, was long the residence of the German emperors. Pepin d'Héristal built here a castle, now in ruins; from which the Emperor Henry IV., when a child 12 years of age, was secretly carried off from his mother Agnes, by Hanno Archbp. of Cologne. There still exist remains of a more recent Castle, built by the Emp. Frederick I. The Church (13th cent.), contains the shrine of St. Suibert, an English monk, who is said to have preached Christianity here in the 8th


(r.) DÜSSELDORF. Inns: Breidenbacher Hof, good, Hotel Domhard. Drei Reichskronen (3 Imp. Crowns), very comfortable. Hôtel de deux Ponts, or Zweibrücker Hof. These are in the town. Europaischer Hof and Prinz von Preussen close to the railway station.

Düsseldorf, capital of the Duchy of Berg, is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, here about 1200 feet broad, and traversed by a bridge of boats, at the junction of the small river Düssel, which gives its name to the town. It has 31,000 inhab., and was a fortified town down to the peace of Luneville; but at present is surrounded by gardens and pleasant walks in the place of ramparts.

It is the residence of Prince Frederick of Prussia, cousin of the King, and is the seat of the Provincial Estates, or Parliament of the Rhenish Provinces. It is divided into 3 quarters; the Altstadt, with narrow and dirty streets; the Carlstadt and the Neustadt, which are the finest quarters. Düsseldorf, though a neat town, contains nothing remarkable at present except its school of living artists, who occupy the Palace near the Rhine, built by the Elector John William, whose bronze statue stands in the

There is a very remarkable collection of drawings by the old masters, 14,280 in number, including several by Raphael, A. Mantegna, Giulio Romano, (designs for the Palazzo del T.), Domenichino, M. Angelo, Titian, &c. Also 300 drawings in water-colours, copies of the most remarkable works of Italian painters of all schools from the 4th century, by Ramboux. Below the gallery is the public Library.

The Düsseldorf school of painting, which, curiously enough, has had its rise since the removal of the picture gallery, was founded in 1828, under the direction of Cornelius (a native of the town), in whose studio many clever artists have formed themselves. In the historical branch of art it is particularly strong. Every summer, usually in July and August, there is an exhibition of paintings here by native and living artists, which continues open till the month of September, after which the pictures are dispersed. The studios of the artists, in a wing of the Palace, are shown from 12 to 2.

The Ch. of St. Andrew (Hofkirche) contains several pictures by Düsseldorf artists: in it and the Ch. of St. Lambert are several monuments of former princes. In the ch. of the Jesuits is a good specimen of Deger's painting. It is over the altar in the S. aisle, and represents the Virgin standing on clouds, supporting the infant Saviour.

The Hofgarten is one of the finest public gardens in Germany, much varied in surface, having groves and water, and commanding a good view

of the Rhine; it is a very agreeable promenade. There is a Theatre here, and music is very much cultivated.

Düsseldorf derives its chief importance and prosperity from its situation on the Rhine; it serves as a port for the merchandise sent from the industrious manufacturing districts of the Duchy of Berg. Cottons and cloths are brought down hither from Elberfeld, iron ware from Sohlingen, and limestone from Ratingen, to be shipped and exported.

Pempelfort, in the vicinity of the town on the E., was the residence of the philosopher Frederick Jacobi, and the resort of Goethe, Wieland, Herder, Stolberg, and a host of distinguished literary men of the last century.

The mansion of Count Spee, at Heltorf, about 12 m. from Düsseldorf, near the Calcum stat., on the railroad to Duisburg, contains Frescoes by modern German artists of great excellence : 1. The Interview of Pope Alexander III. and the Emperor, in St. Mark's, Venice, by Cornelius.-2. Henry the Lion, the head of the Guelphic party, submitting to the Emp. Barbarossa. 3. The Humiliation of the Milanese to Barbarossa, both by Mücke, and-4. Barbarossa seizing with his own hand the Saracen Standard, by Lessing; two other designs by Mücke and Lessing.

Dusselthal, 3 m. from Düsseldorf, is a sequestrated Abbey, converted into an asylum for destitute children by the benevolent exertions of Count von der Recke, who with his family resides on the spot, and devotes his time and attention to the institution. About 140 children of both sexes receive a plain, useful education, and are taught some trade by which they may maintain themselves respectably.

Railroads-from Düsseldorf to Cologne. Trains in 1 hr. (Rte. 66.)-to Elberfeld (Rte. 67.).

The Steamer takes 5 hrs. in ascending, 2 in descending the Rhine between Düsseldorf and Cologne. The Rhine winds so much as to render the distance by water about one fourth greater than that by land.

1. Soon after quitting Düsseldorf, the steeple of Neuss (p. 245.) is visible. Drusus is said to have thrown a bridge over the Rhine here: at present there is a flying bridge at Hetdorf.

(rt.) Benrath, a handsome château, built by the Electors of Cleve and Berg, and inhabited by Murat while grand duke, is seen at a distance.

(rt.) Mühlheim. Close to it is Stammheim, the seat of Count Fürstenberg, with its new Gothic chapel. (1.) Cologne (Rte. 36.).

In descending the Rhine from Cologne to Rotterdam, a steamer reaches Nymegen in 12 or 14 hrs. From Nymegen to Rotterdam 8 hrs. Some steamers take the Lek branch of the river by Arnhem (p. 89.), which is reached in 12 hrs. from Cologne. Railway thence to Amsterdam (Rte. 5.).



17 Pruss. m. = 82 Eng. m.; Schnellpost daily by Xanten and Geldern in 14 hrs.

About 6 m. from Nymegen the Dutch frontier is passed, and the Prussian custom-house (§ 43.) is reached at

1 Kranenburg. Before entering Cleves the road passes through the beautiful park called the Thiergarten. 1 CLEVES (Germ. KLEVE). Inns: Prinz Mauritz von Nassau, very good, fine view: Hotel zum Thiergarten, good and reasonable: Konig von Preussen. Cleves is about 2 m. from the Rhine, but is connected with it by a canal; it has 7500 inhab., and is capital of the duchy of Cleves, an ancient possession of the house of Prussia. It is built upon 3 gentle hills, and perhaps received its name from the Latin word clivum, a slope. The country around is charming from its beauty and fertility, and the pleasing variety of hills and valleys clothed with wood and verdure.

The old Castle, called the Schwanen

burg, formerly the residence of the Dukes of Cleves, in which the ill-fated Anne was born, whom Henry VIII. termed "a Flanders mare," is now converted into public offices. The oldest part of it is a massive and picturesque tower 180 ft. high, built 1439, on the top of a rock, and overlooking the country far and wide. There is a most extensive view from it. It derives its name of "the Swan's Tower," from a traditional story of a strange knight, who appeared to a Duchess of Cleves in a vessel drawn by a swan; she fell in love with him, and married him, but after ten years the swan returned, and bore him away from his wife, who never saw him more. The tale forms the subject of one of Mr. Southey's poems. The Church contains several monuments of the Counts of Cleves. The Prinzenhof is a handsome building, erected by John Maurice, Prince of Nassau Siegen, 1663, now occupied by the Count von der Lippe: and at Berg und Thal, 2 m. off, on the road to Xanten, within a grove of trees, is the prince's iron tomb. The Thiergarten is an agreeable pleasure ground, containing a mineral spring, and commanding a fine view. There is a fine panoramic view from Clevesberg, which is near the Hotel zum Thiergarten, and only a pleasant walk from the Hotel Prinz Mauritz.

produce of the looms amounts to
4,000,000 dollars.

Inns Römischer Kaiser: Rheinischer Hof. It is supposed to be the Novesium of the Romans, and to have been built by Drusus, who threw a bridge over the Rhine here. The Cologne gate, still called the Drusus Thor, is Roman in the lower part, the upper being of the 14th cent.: some cannon balls from the Siege of Charles the Bold have been built into it. The town is mentioned by Tacitus; in his time it lay close to the Rhine, which at present flows 1 m. from it. It has 7000 inhab.

The Ch. of St. Quirin, a splendid edifice, appears, from an inscription in the wall on the S. side of the interior, to have been built in 1208. It, especially the W. end and tower, is one of the most remarkable specimens of the transition from the round to the pointed style. Observe in the highly ornamented west end, the beginning of that fulness of ornament which was developed in the pointed style: also the trefoil and quatrefoil patterns taking the place of the plain panelling of the round style. The 4 pinnacles at the angles of the W. tower are evidently later additions. Inside, although most of the side arches are pointed, the vaulting of the nave is round. Observe the oblong cupola, and the peculiar

Cleves is about 4 m. from Em- form of the windows in the nave, aisles, merich.

13 Goch.

13 Kevelaer. 14 Geldern. der, 3600 inhab. 1 Aldekerk.

transepts, and cupola. This form seems
to have been adopted in order to give
more light where there was not sufficient

A bad road to Crefeld.
Inn: Schwarzer Al- space for a large circular window. The
cupola is ornamented with some early
paintings by Cornelius, in chiaro oscuro.
Leaving Neuss, the road traverses the
abandoned bed of the Rhine.
2 Dormagen.

2 CREFELD. Inns: Wilder Mann; Goldner Anker. A flourishing town of 25,897 inhab., with spacious streets and handsome houses, which, by their neatness, give to this place all the appearance of a Dutch town. It owes its prosperity to the manufactures of silk and velvet, which employ 6000 persons. Part of the silk goods introduced into England as French, are in fact manufactured here, and are equal in quality to the French. The annual

23 COLOGNE, in Rte. 36.

Between Cleves and Neuss the traveller has the choice of another post road, which is better (1838) than the preceding, but is also longer. It passes

13 Calcar. In the Ch. (14th cent.) are fine altar-pieces by John V. Calcar. 2 XANTEN (Inn: Nieder-Rheinischer

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