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engineers to watch every variation of

the current and level of the Rhine, and THE RHINE (B): ARNHEM OR NYMEGEN to guard against changes, and preserve

the equilibrium, by constantly throwing

out new works. These constructions For general information respect- are of the highest importance, since, in ing the Rhine below Cologne, read Rte. point of fact, the physical existence of 11., pp. 84–89.

Holland in a great degree depends on The steamer sets off on the ascent of them : and had not the necessary prethe Rhine early in the morning, and cautions been taken to strengthen them reaches Cologne in about 18 hours. As in 1774, the country would, in all there is nothing to see in the lower probability, have been overwhelmed part of the Rhine, it is best to proceed by the inundations which occurred in as far as Arnbem by rail. A steamer 1784. leaves Arnhem every morning at 6 A. M., At a place called Aart a dam is and reaches Cologne at 1] P. M., but ar- drawn across an ancient arm of the rives opposite Duisburg in time for the Rhine, strengthened by the Dutch with train which reaches Cologne at 6 P. M. thick plantations of willows. It is The railway from Duisburg to Co- intended that this abandoned channel logne occupies 2 hours. (The steamer should serve as a safety-valve in case of which leaves Cologne at 7 A. M. reaches very great increase in the waters of the Arnhem in time for the last train to Rhine ; and by a convention with the Amsterdam.) About 8 m. above Ny- Prussian government, it is settled that, megen, and about the same distance when the river attains a certain height above Arnhem, the two branches of the at the gauge at Arnhem, it shall be Rhine the Waal, and the Lower allowed an outlet through this dam. Rhine, or Lek, unite. Before entering This is by no means an impossible the undivided stream, it is worth while contingency; and were it to happen, to give some little attention to the hy- the dam would be washed draulic works erected on the apex of five minutes after the water had begun the delta. They consist of dams, dykes, to flow over it, and a new passage and jetties, constructed of earth, and would be opened for the Rhine to the . faced with wicker-work, which are thrown up, along the shore or into the The frontier of Holland and Prussia Rhine, to regulate its course and the is marked by the situation of directio:1 of its waters, the object in (r.) Lobith, the station of the view being so to distribute its current, Dutch custom-house. The steamer, in that in all scates of its Aood, both when descending the river, brings-to here for high and when low, of the water an hour or more, and is boarded by the which it brings down may be conveyed officers. Opposite Lobith stood Scheninto the Waal, and only į into the Lek. kenschanze, once a strong fortress, and It is the duty, therefore, of the water- considered the key of the Netherlands,

away in



8 Dutch Posts, and 131, Prussian Miles=785 English Miles. A diligence daily. This road is very bad ; very little

of it is chaussée. Dutch Posts

1: Arnhem (R. 5.)
The Prussian territory is entered before reaching

Elten, a village with an old abbey - a pretty view - a bad Inn.-M.
(řt.) Post road continued :
Prussian miles.
N. Germ.


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taken by Frederick Henry Prince of was made navigable. Much wood and Orange, 1636, and by Turenne, 1672. salt are transported out of Westphalia It owed its importance to its position by that river. The Rhine is here dion the tongue of land formed by the vided into two branches by the island forking of the Rhire, but the river has of Büderich, also fortified by blockcompletely changed its bed in the course houses, and is crossed by a bridge of of centuries, and the separation of the boats, Rhine and Waal now takes place con- A monument has been erected near siderably below the fortress, wbich has Wesel, to the Prussian officers engaged fallen to decay, and is now scarcely dis. in Schill's revolt at Stralsund, who cernible.

were mercilessly shot here by the (1.) The spires and towers of Cleves French, 1809. Rapin here wrote his may be seen near this, at a little dis- History of England. He resided 17 tance from the river. It takes 4 hrs. years and died here. steam to reach.

(1.) Immediately opposite Wesel lies (r.) EMMERICH. * Inn : H. des Pays- Fort Blucher, formerly called Fort NaBas, best. This is the first Prussian poleon, while it belonged to the French. town;

it is fortified, and has a garri- A small town was swept away to make son and 5000 inhab., and considerable room for it, and has since been rebuilt manufactures. It has a Dutch cha- about 3 m. off. racter of cleanliness. At its upper end (1.) Orsoy. rise the stunted gothic towers of St. (r.) Ruhrort (Hacks Inn), at the Aldegund's Ch. ; at the lower appears opening of the Ruhr into the Rhine, the Minster, the oldest ch. on the rt. serves as the depôt for the coals brought bank of the Rhine. The steamer is down the Ruhr from the coal-field on here boarded by the custom-house of. its banks. Nearly 3,000,000 tons are, ficers, who, however, are contented with it is said, extracted annually. The cona very slight inspection of the baggage sumption of coals is enormously inof a traveller, and passports are visé by creased since the Belgian Revolution, the police ($ 46, 47.), which usually as Holland now obtains from this causes a stoppage of 1 or 2 hours. quarter part of the supply which she

(r.) Rees. + A small town, with previously derived from Liége. There high walls.

are very large boat-builders' yards here. (1.) Xanten, distinguished by its Near the lower (E.) end of the town doubled-spired church (see p. 246.), lies

is a considerable castle. at a short distance from the Rhine, (rt.) DUISBURG. Inns : Post; Rhei. which appears to have flowed close to nischer Hof. (Drusibergum of the Roit in former times. The ancient bed mans.) A manufacturing town of is distinctly traceable.

7000 inhab., near the Ruhr, which (r.) WESEL. † Inn : Dornbusch's;

falls into the Rhine 3 m. below the best.

town. St. Salvator's, (1415) 1} m. This is a fortress of the first class, distant from the Rhine, is a fine ch. forming the bulwark of Prussia on her The University, founded here 1655, was N. W. frontier; it lies at the junction suppressed 1802. The Minden and Coof the Lippe with the Rhine, and has logne Railway connects this town with 13,200 inhab. including the garrison. Cologne; trains take 2 hours. Rte. 66. The citadel is situated S. of the town. The Valley of the Ruhr is distin

The Rathhaus is a handsome build- guished not only for its active indusing. The town carries on a consider- try, its coal mines, &c., but also for able trade with Holland, and its com- its very picturesque scenery.

It de merce has increased since the Lippe serves exploring; the most interesting

points being Hohen Syburg, Blanken* 1 Emmerich.

stein, Werden, Kettwich, and Mühl† 24 Rees. Inn, Krone.

1 34 Wesel
2 Dinslaken.

(1.) Uerdingen, marked by the pope


lars round it. At Eichelskamp, near | market-place on horseback. The main this, the French revolutionary army, edifice, with many other buildings, was under Lefebre, 25,000 strong, first destroyed by the bombardment of the crossed the Rhine, 1795, and by vio- French, 1794, save one wing, and has lating the neutrality of the Prussian only recently been rebuilt. It conterritory on the opposite bank, turned tained, down to 1805, the famous col. the position of the Austrians.

lection of pictures, now at Munich. (r.) Kaiserswerth, originally, as its One large painting of inferior excel. name implies, an island, was long the lence, the Ascension of the Virgin, by residence of the German emperors. Rubens, was left behind. The old Pepin d'Héristal built here a castle, pictures which now fill the gallery are now in ruins; from which the Em- not good for much. Tasso and the 2 peror Henry IV., when a child 12 years Leonoras by Carl Sohn is a charming of age, was secretly carried off from bis modern work. mother Agnes, by Hanno Archbp. of There is a very remarkable collection Cologne. There still exist remains of of drawings by the old masters, 14,280 a more recent Castle, built by the Emp. in number, including several by RaFrederick I. The Church (13th cent.), phael, A. Mantegna, Giulio Romano, contains the shrine of St. Suibert, an (designs for the Palazzo del T.), DoEnglish monk, who is said to have menichino, M. Angelo, Titian, &c. preached Christianity here in the 8th Also 300 drawings in water-colours, cent.

copies of the most remarkable works (r.) DÜSSELDORF. Inns : Breiden- of Italian painters of all schools from bacher Hof, good, Hotel Domhard. the 4th century, by Ramboux. Below Drei Reichskronen (3 Imp. Crowns), the gallery is the public Library. very comfortable. Hôtel de deux The Düsseldorf school of painting, Ponts, or Zweibrücker Hof. These which, curiously enough, has had its are in the town. Europaischer Hof rise since the removal of the picture and Prinz von Preussen close to the gallery, was founded in 1828, under railway station.

the direction of Cornelius (a native of Düsseldorf, capital of the Duchy of the town), in whose studio many clever Berg, is situated on the right bank of artists have formed themselves. In the the Rhine, here about 1200 feet broad, historical branch of art it is particularly and traversed by a bridge of boats, at strong. Every summer, usually in the junction of the small river Düssel, July and August, there is an exhibiwhich gives its name to the town. It tion of paintings here by native and has 31,000 inhab., and was a fortified living artists, which continues open till town down to the peace of Luneville; the month of September, after which but at present is surrounded by gardens the pictures are dispersed. The stuand pleasant wilks in the place of ram- dios of the artists, in a wing of the parts. It is the residence of Prince Palace, are shown from 12 to 2, Frederick of Prussia, cousin of the The Ch. of St. Andrew (Hofkirche) King, and is the seat of the Provincial contains several pictures by Düsseldorf Estates, or Parliament of the Rhenish artists : in it and the Ch. of St. LamProvinces. It is divided into 3 quar- bert are several monuments of former ters; the Altstadt, with narrow and princes. In the ch. of the Jesuits is a dirty streets; the Carlstadt and the good specimen of Deger's painting. It Neustadt, which are the finest quarters. is over the altar in the S. aisle, and re

Düsseldorf, though a neat town, con presents the Virgin standing on clouds, tains nothing remarkable at present supporting the infant Saviour. except its school of living artists, who The Hofgarten is one of the finest occupy the Palace near the Rhine, public gardens in Germany, much vabuilt by the Elector John William, ried in surface, having groves and whose bronze statue stands in the water, and commanding a good view

of the Rhine; it is a very agreeable 1. Soon after quitting Düsseldorf, promenade. There is a Theatre here, the steeple of Neuss (p. 245.) is visible. and music is very much cultivated. Drusus is said to have thrown a bridge

Düsseldorf derives its chief import- over the Rhine here : at present there ance and prosperity from its situation is a flying bridge at Hetdorf. on the Rhine ; it serves as a port for (rt.) Benrath, a handsome château, the merchandise sent from the indus- built by the Electors of Cleve and trious manufacturing districts of the Berg, and inhabited by Murat while Duchy of Berg. Cottons and cloths grand duke, is seen at a distance. are brought down hither from Elber- (rt.) Mühlheim. Close to it is feld, iron ware from Sohlingen, and Stammheim, the seat of Count Fürstlimestone from Ratingen, to be shipped enberg, with its new Gothic chapel. and exported.

(1.) Cologne (Rte. 36.). Pempelfort, in the vicinity of the town In descending the Rhine from Cologne on the E., was the residence of the to Rotterdam, a steamer reaches Nymephilosopher Frederick Jacobi, and the gen in 12 or 14 hrs. From Nymegen resort of Goethe, Wieland, Herder, to Rotterdam 8 hrs. Some steamers Stolberg, and a host of distinguished take the Lek branch of the river by literary men of the last century. Arnhem (p. 89.), which is reached in

The mansion of Count Spee, at 12 hrs. from Cologne. Railway thence Heltorf, about 12 m. from Düsseldorf, to Amsterdam (Rte. 5.). near the Calcum stat., on the railroad to Duisburg, contains Frescoes by modern German artists of great excel.

ROUTE 35. lence: -1. The Interview of Pope Alexander III. and the Emperor, in St. Mark's, Venice, by Cornelius.-2. Hen- NYMEGEN TO COLOGNE, BY CLEVES, AND ry the Lion, the head of the Guelphic party, submitting to the Emp. Barbarossa. - 3. The Humiliation of the 17 Pruss. m.=

82 Eng. m.; SchnellMilanese to Barbarossa, both by Mücke, post daily by Xanten and Geldern in and — 4. Barbarossa seizing with his 14 hrs. own hand the Saracen Standard, by About 6 m. from Nymegen the Lessing ; two other designs by Mücke Dutch frontier is passed, and the Prusand Lessing.

sian custom-house (§ 43.) is reached at Dusselthal, 3 m. from Düsseldorf, is 11 Kranenburg. Before entering a sequestrated Abbey, converted into Cleves the road passes through the an asylum for destitute children by the beautiful park called the Thiergarten. benevolent exertions of Count von der 11 Cleves (Germ. KLEVE). Inns : Recke, who with his family resides on Prinz Mauritz von Nassau, very good, the spot, and devotes his time and fine view: Hotel zum Thiergarten, attention to the institution. About good and reasonable: Konig von Preus140 children of both sexes receive a Cleves is about 2, m. from the plain, useful education, and are taught Rhine, but is connected with it by a some trade by which they may main- canal ; it has 7500 inhab., and is capitain themselves respectably.

tal of the duchy of Cleves, an ancient Railroads -- from Düsseldorf to Co- possession of the house of Prussia. It logne. Trains in 1 hr. (Rte. 66.)—to is built upon 3 gentle hills, and perhaps Elberfeld (Rte. 67.).

received its name from the Latin word The Steamer takes 5 hrs. in ascending, clivum, a slope. The country around 24 in descending the Rhine between is charming from its beauty and ferDüsseldorf and Cologne. The Rhine tility, and the pleasing variety of hills winds so much as to render the distance and valleys clothed with wood and by water about one fourth greater than verdure. that by land.

The old Castle, called the Schwanen



It, espe

burg, formerly the residence of the produce of the looms amounts to Dukes of Cleves, in which the ill-fated 4,000,000 dollars. Anne was born, whom Henry VIII. 2. Neuss. Inns : Römischer Kai. termed “a Flanders mare," is now ser : Rheinischer Hof.

It is supposed converted into public offices. The to be the Novesium of the Romans, oldest part of it is a massive and pic- and to have been built by Drusus, who turesque tower 180 ft. high, built 14:39, threw a bridge over the Rhine here. on the top of a rock, and overlooking The Cologne gate, still called the Drusus the country far and wide. There is a Thor, is Roman in the lower part, the most extensive view from it. It de- upper being of the 14th cent. : some rives its name of “the Swan's Tower,” cannon balls from the Siege of Charles from a traditional story of a strange the Bold have been built into it. The knight, who appeared to a Duchess of town is mentioned by Tacitus; in his Cleves in a vessel drawn by a swan ; time it lay close to the Khine, which at she fell in love with him, and married present flows li m. from it. It has him, but after ten years the swan re

7000 inhab. turned, and bore him away from his The Ch. of St. Quirin, a splendid wife, who never saw him more. The edifice, appears, from an inscription in tale forms the subject of one of Mr. the wall on the S. side of the interior, Southey's poems. The Church contains to have been built in 1208. several monuments of the Counts of cially the W. end and tower, is one of Cleves. The Prinzenhof is a handsome the most remarkable specimens of the building, erected by John Maurice, transition from the round to the pointed Prince of Nassau Siegen, 1663, now style. Observe in the highly ornaoccupied by the Count von der Lippe : mented west end, the beginning of and at Berg und Thal, 2 m. off, on the that fulness of ornament which was road to Xanten, within a grove_ of developed in the pointed style : also trees, is the prince's iron tomb. The the trefoil and quatrefoil patterns Thiergarten is an agreeable pleasure taking the place of the plain panelling ground, containing a mineral spring, of the round style. The 4 pinnacles at and commanding a fine view. There is the angles of the W. tower are evia fine panoramic view from Clevesberg, dently later additions. Inside, although which is near the Hotel zum Thier- most of the side arches are pointed, the garten, and only a pleasant walk from vaulting of the nave is round. Observe the Hotel Prinz Mauritz.

the oblong cupola, and the peculiar Cleves is about 4} m. from Em- form of the windows in the nave, aisles, merich.

transepts, and cupola. This form seems li Goch. A bad road to Crefeld. to have been adopted in order to give 1 Kevelaer.

more light where there was not sufficient 11 Geldern. Inn : Schwarzer Al- space for a large circular window. The der, 3600 inhab.

cupola is ornamented with some early 1} Aldekerk.

paintings by Cornelius, in chiaro oscuro. 21 CREFELD. Inns : Wilder Mann; Leaving Neuss, the road traverses the Goldner Anker. A flourishing town abandoned bed of the Rhine. of 25,897 inhab., with spacious streets 2 Dormagen. and handsome houses, which, by their 24 Cologne, in Rte. 36. neatness, give to this place all the appearance of a Dutch town. It owes Between Cleves and Neuss the traits prosperity to the manufactures of veller has the choice of another post silk and velvet, which employ 6000 road, which is better (1838) than the persons. Part of the silk goods intro- preceding, but is also longer. It passes duced into England as French, are in 18 Calcar. In the Ch. (14th cent.) fact manufactured here, and are equal are fine altar-pieces by John V. Calcar. in quality to the French. The annual 2 XANTEN (Inn: Nieder-Rheinischer

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