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suaded him to tear himself away. The villagers have twice risen up to prevent the removal of these cherished works of art; first by a Dutch picture-dealer to whom they had been clandestinely sold by the priest, and again by the French: they are both still preserved to the church.

13 Cortenberg. 11 Louvain.

b. The other road passes through 11 Tervueren —(Inns: Le Renard and L'Empereur), post horses are no longer kept here, the railroad having rendered them unnecessary. Here there is a Summer Palace of the late King of Holland. It was the gift of the nation to him when Prince of Orange, in gratitude for the bravery which he had displayed in the battle of Waterloo. Its extent is not great, and there are no paintings of note in it, but it is very elegantly fitted up, with gardens in the Italian style around it. The Church contains some tombs of the Dukes of Brabant.

Outside the walls of Louvain took place the memorable engagement of August, 1831, between the Dutch and the Belgians, in which the latter, commanded by Leopold in person, ran away and abandoned their king, who narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the Prince of Orange.

Louvain Station is outside the town; omnibuses and vigilantes. (§ 22 A.) The H. de Ville is only hr. walk from it through the Rue de Diest.

1 LOUVAIN. (Flemish LOVEN, German LöwEN).-Inns: H. de Suède, Place du Peuple, near to the Station, good and moderate; dinner in private, 3 fr., and other charges in proportion; - Cour de Mons; Sauvage, near the town hall. Louvain on the Dyle, with 24,000 inhab., is a city of very ancient origin: some have attributed its foundation to Julius Cæsar, and the old Castle, of which a small fragment remains outside the Mechlin gate, still goes by the name of Château de César, though it did not exist till 890, when the Emperor Arnold caused it to be built as a barrier against the invasion of the Normans. A high earthen ram

part encloses the town on one side, and is cut through by the roads to Brussels and Mechlin. It has a deep dry fosse on the outside, and is from 80 to 100 ft. high. The ruined bastions and casemates are probably the works of the Spaniards.

It is recorded that Edward III. of England lived for one year in the castle, and that the Emp. Charles V. was brought up in it. The citizens used to assert that their town had never been taken, though often besieged. General Kleber, however, at the head of the revolutionary forces of France, put an end to the boast, by making himself master of the place in 1792.

The Hôtel de Ville is one of the richest and most beautiful Gothic buildings in the world. Every part of the exterior is elaborately decorated by the chisel. It was finished in 1463. It has recently been repaired at the joint expense of the town and government. The deli cate and rich masonry of the exterior, which had suffered from time and the weather, has been renovated entirely. The decayed stones were removed one by one, and replaced by others, carefully copied and restored by the sculptor Goyers, in a style consistent with the original design,-and at least equal to the ancient workmanship. The subjects of the sculptured groups are, for the most part, taken from the Old Testament. The common council has decided that statues (in number about 250) shall be placed in the niches of the 3 façades and the towers. The niches on the ground floor will be reserved for celebrated persons born at Louvain, or who have been domiciled there, and likewise for persons who have rendered eminent services to the town on the 1st story will be placed figures emblematical of the ancient institutions of the commune; the Counts of Louvain, the Dukes of Brabant, and the sovereigns of the kingdom are to fill the niches of the upper story. All these statues will be the size of life, and are to be executed in a style in harmony with that of the building.

The pictures within the Town Hall are generally of little consequence: a few are curious from their antiquity.

The Cathedral of St. Peter, near to the Town-hall, is also well worth seeing. It was founded in 1040; but having been twice destroyed by fire, the existing building is not older than 1358. "What is stated to be an original drawing of the west front is preserved in the Town Hall, together with a very elaborate and beautifully executed model of the same in stone as it was executed, with a singularly lofty tower and spire in the centre, and another on either side of it only one of the side towers, however, is shown. The drawing is on vellum, 9 ft. high and 2 ft. 9 in. wide, and is coarsely but carefully executed. The model is about 24 feet high, and 7 ft. 6 in. wide at the base. The centre spire, which is said to have been above 500 ft. high (an extraordinary elevation, exceeding, by 100 ft., that of the spire of Salisbury Cathedral), was destroyed in 1606 by a storm, and in its fall ruined the side towers. The interior affords an excellent specimen of pointed architecture." G. Godwin, F. R. S. A highly decorated Rood-loft, between the choir and nave, is in the richest Flamboyant Gothic of the latter part of the 15th cent. Under the arch which separates the choir from its side aisle, on the north side of the grand altar, is an elaborate Tabernacle of sculptured stone to contain the host. It is a hexagon in plan, tapering upwards to a point, and is about 30 ft. high. Here are, among several nameless pictures of the old Flemish school, 2 altar-pieces by Hemling -the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, a horrible subject, but treated with great propriety by the painter; and the Last Supper, a work of high merit. A Holy Family, by Quentin Matsys, in a side chapel at the back of the high altar, is considered the great ornament of the church: it was carried to Paris during the Revolution. On the shutters are painted the Death of St. Anne, a beautiful composition, and the Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple. Another picture (artist unknown) represents a cook with his apron on, chosen bishop, in consequence of the miraculous descent of a dove upon his head. In the foreground he

appears to refuse the mitre; but behind, preparations are making for his installation. Sir Joshua Reynolds says of it, "It is a composition of near a hundred figures, many in good attitudes, natural and well-invented. It is much more interesting to look at the works of these old masters, than slight common-place pictures of many modern painters." The Pulpit of wood is an admirable specimen of carving, representing St. Peter on a rock, and the Conversion of St. Paul, surmounted by palm trees. The stricken horse and fallen rider are exquisitely executed: the form and expression of both are perfect. The carved woodwork of the main portals, in the inside, is remarkable as a work of art. "The font, situated at the W. end of the nave, has an elaborate Gothic crane of iron attached to the wall near it, for the purpose of supporting the cover, now removed. One of the cha pels on the N. aisle of the nave has a low screen of coloured marbles, exquisitely sculptured in the style of Louis XIV."-G. G. The chapels containing the pictures by Hemling and Matsys are locked; to see them, apply to the custode.

The University, suppressed by the French, was re-established by the King of Holland in 1817. Since 1836 it has once more become the nursing mother of Romish priests for Belgium. There are about 600 students. In the 16th cent. it was considered the first university in Europe, and being especially distinguished as a school of Roman Catholic theology, it was then frequented by 6000 students. There were formerly 43 colleges, variously endowed by pious founders, dependent upon the University of these only about 20 now remain, and their funds have been much reduced. The Colleges du Pape, des Philosophes, du St. Esprit, du Faucon, &c., are sumptuous edifices.

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The Guildhall, or Halle, of the weavers, erected in 1317, was appropriated to the service of the University, after its first owners were banished for their refractory conduct. It still exhibits traces of the opulence of its

founders, being decorated with carvings in wood, but is scarcely worth entering if the traveller be pressed for time. Far more interesting is

The Cabinet of Paintings, belonging to M. Vandenschrieck, Rue de Paris, No. 86. ; is one of the most select now in the Netherlands as regards native masters. It contains good specimens of Cuyp, Vandyck, v. der Heyden, the Ostades, Rembrandt, Rubens, Ruysdael, Teniers, the Van de Veldes, Wouvermans, and of other leaders of the Dutch and Flemish schools: besides some good works by modern artists.

The carved wooden stalls in St. Gertrude's Church, which was originally the chapel of the Dukes of Brabant, are reputed the finest in Belgium; they are of oak, in flamboyant style, with detached groups and statues, and beautiful bas-reliefs, The modern paintings by the Belgian artists Wappers, Matthieu, and de Keyser, in St. Michael's, also deserve mention.

The Tower of Jansenius, in which that celebrated theological writer composed the works which gave rise to those doctrines of grace and free-will, named after their author Jansenism, exists no longer.

Louvain may easily be seen in a day; and there is no inducement to remain longer, as the city has a deserted aspect, the more striking when contrasted with its ancient prosperity and swarming population. Its walls, now in part turned into boulevards, measured 7 m. in circumference; and in the 14th cent., when it was the capital of Brabant and residence of its princes, its inhabitants amounted to 200,000. Nearly half of them lived by the woollen manufactures established here. The weavers here, however, as elsewhere, were a turbulent race; and their rulers, being tyrannical and impolitic, banished, in 1382, a large number of them from the town, in consequence of a tumult in which they had taken part, and during which they had thrown 17 of the magistrates out of the windows of the Town-house. Many of the exiles took refuge in England, bringing with them their industry and independence; and, N. Germ.

very much to the advantage of our country, established in it those woollen manufactures which have left all others in the world far behind.

Louvain is famed at present for brewing the best beer in all Belgium, 200,000 casks are made here annually: a great deal is exported. It may be tasted at the Maison des Brasseurs, the Brewers' Guild, a fine mansion, in the Elizabethan style, opposite the H. de Ville.

The Railroad from Louvain leaves on the right the Abbey of Parc, still inhabited by monks, and furnished with 3 fish ponds.

11 Vertryk St.


7 Tirlemont. (Flem. Thienen.) — Inn Le Plat d'Etain; tolerable. A town of 8500 inhab.: formerly much more considerable. The space included within its walls S. of the railway includes, at present, very few houses: the gates are old. In the centre of it is a very extensive square. The Ch. of St. Germain, on a height visible from the railway, is one of the oldest in Belgium, built in the 9th cent. tains an altar-piece by Wappers. The massive tower is of the 12th cent. The Jesuit J. Bollandus, author of the Acta Sanctorum, was born here. Outside the gate leading to Maestricht are 3 large barrows, supposed to be the graves of some barbarian people in very remote times. They are visible from the railway, - to the left.

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The railroad, after leaving the station, overlooks the town from an embankment.

rt. The Lion on the Field of Waterloo, and the Prussian Monument, are visible at a great distance.

6 Esemael St.

On approaching Landen, the railway traverses the plain of Neerwinden, celebrated for 2 great battles: in 1693, when the English under William III. were beaten by Marshal Luxemburgh and the French; and in 1793, when the Austrians defeated the Revolutionary army, and drove it out of Belgium.

Léau, between Tirlemont and St. Trond, 5 m. to the N. of the railroad, was, in the middle ages, a fortified


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8 Ans Stat. is 450 ft. above the level of the Meuse, and the trains descend by two inclined planes, about 24 m. long, in 15 min., being drawn up by ropes attached to stationary engines, in 12 min. The view, looking down upon Liége, is most striking.

6 LIEGE Terminus is on the 1. bank of the Meuse, close to the Quai d'Avroy. The railway crosses the Meuse by the bridge of Val St. Benoit, of 7 arches. (Route 24.)

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Near the town, on the estate of Betho, there exists a mineral spring, mentioned by Pliny in these words:Tungri, civitas Galliæ, fontem habet insignem, pluribus bullis stillantem, ferruginei saporis quod ipsum non nisi in fine potûs intelligitur. Purgat hic corpora, tertianas febres discutit, calculorumque vitia. Eadem aqua, igne admoto, turbida fit, ac postea rubescit." It still retains its ancient properties, answering exactly to the description, and is known as the fontaine de Pline or de St. Gilles. The Tungri, according to Tacitus, were the first German tribe, who, crossing the Rhine, expelled the Gauls, and settled themselves in their country.

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Beyond Tongres the road is bad. 2 MAESTRICHT. Inns: Levrier (Greyhound); most comfortable. H. du Casque (Helmet); good.--Hof von Holland.

Maestricht, the capital of the Dutch portion of the province of Limburg, has 22,000 inhab. It lies on the Maas,

and is united by a bridge to the suburb
called Wyck. It is one of the strongest
fortresses in Europe; its works are very
extensive, and partly undermined, with
capabilities for laying under water
great part of the land around, by open-
ing the sluices.
Together with Ven-
loo and Roermonde, it still belongs to
the King of Holland, having been
ceded to him by the treaty of 1831;
it is numerously garrisoned by Dutch
troops. It was called by the Romans
Trajectum superius (the upper ford), or
Trajectum ad Mosam.

The great strength of this town has subjected its inhabitants to the misery of numerous sieges. Among the most memorable was that of 1579, when the Spaniards, under the Duke of Parma, took it by assault, at the end of 4 months, after having been repulsed in 9 separate attacks by the garrison, which included a few English and Scotch soldiers: they were all put to the sword, and nearly 8000 of the townspeople massacred to satisfy Spanish vengeance. It was taken by Louis XIV.; but William III. of England failed before it. There are few cities in Europe better fortified. There is an arsenal and a military magazine in the town.

the hire of a carriage is 6 fr.; the fee of a sworn guide 4 fr. Some of the passages are wide enough to admit horses and carts. They cover a space of 4 leagues by 2: the number of passages amount to 116,000, 20 to 50 ft. high and 12 broad, and a large part are now rarely explored. They are supposed to have been first worked by the Romans. The galleries, running generally at right angles, and lined by many thousand massive pillars, 40 feet square, left by the excavators to support the roof, cross and intersect each other so as to render it exceedingly difficult to find the way out; and it is dangerous to enter this singular labyrinth without a guide. Many lives have been lost from the want of this precaution; among others, 4 Recollet monks perished in 1640, in attempting to penetrate to a remote spot, where they were desirous of forming a hermitage. They had provided themselves with a clue, which they fastened near the entrance, but the thread on which they depended broke. They died of hunger, and their bodies, though they were diligently sought for, were not found till 7 days after. only person competent to conduct strangers through the maze are a few experienced labourers who have spent a large portion of their lives in these caverns, and who assist their memory by marks made on the pillars and sides. In time of war the peasantry of the surrounding country have frequently sought refuge in the caves, along with their flocks and herds. The rock is a soft yellowish stone, not unlike chalk, and of the same geological age. used for building, but is ill adapted for the purpose, being much affected by the atmosphere; it does not make good lime, but when reduced to sand is very serviceable as manure for the fields. It abounds in marine fossil remains. sides shells and crabs, large turtles are found in it, together with the bones of The most remarkable thing about a gigantic lizard-like reptile, more than Maestricht are the Subterranean Quar- 20 feet long, called the fossil Monitor. ries under the hill called the Petersberg, Some of these relics of animals which on which the Citadel or Fort St. Pierre do not now exist on the earth may be stands. The entrance is not quite 3 m. seen at Maestricht. The caverns are from the Inns, outside St. Peter's gate: very cold, but are remarkably free from

The Stadhuis, in the centre of the great market-place, is handsome, in a modern style of architecture (date 1662). The Church of St. Servais is a fine Romanesque edifice, ornamented with 5 towers, and dating probably from the 10th century. It has a splendid portal, with statues of kings (10th or 11th century), a cloister of the 15th century, and it contains a Descent from the Cross by Vandyck (?). The Ch. of Nôtre Dame rises from Roman substructions. The square called Vrythof, in which St. Servais stands, was the place where William de la Marck, nicknamed "le Sanglier des Ardennes," was beheaded, 1485. Some pretty Public Gardens were laid out in 1838.


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