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beautiful. It does not lie in an attitude, or in any peculiar expression, but in the general effect, in the genius which pervades and illuminates the whole.
“ The works of Rubers have that peculiar property always attendant on genius, to attract attention, and enforce adıniration in spite of all their faults. It is owing to this fascinating power that the performances of those painters with which he is surrounded, though they have, perhaps, fewer defects, yet appear spiritless, tame, and insipid ; such as the altar-pieces of Crayer, Schut, Segers, Huysum, Tyssens, Van Balen, and the rest. They are done by men whose hands, and, indeed, all their faculties, appear to have been cramped and confined ; and it is evident that every thing they did was the effect of great labour and pains. The productions of Rubens, on the contrary, seem to flow with a freedom and prodigality, as if they cost him nothing; and to the general animation of the composition there is always a correspondent spirit in the execution of the work. The striking brilliancy of his colours, and their lively opposition to each other; the flowing liberty and freedom of his outline; the animated pencil with which every object is touched, - all contribute to awaken and keep alive the attention of the spectator ; awaken in him, in some measure, correspondent sensations, and make him feel a degree of that enthusiasm with which the painter was carried away. To this we may add the complete uniformity in all the parts of the work, so that the whole seems to be conducted and grow out of one mind : every thing is of a piece, and fits its place. Even his taste of drawing and of form appears to correspond better with his colouring and composition than if he had adopted any other manner, though that manner, simply considered, might have been better. It is here, as in personal attractions, there is frequently found a certain agreement and correspondence in the whole together, which is often more captivating than mere regular beauty.
“ Rubens appears to have had that confidence in himself which it is necessary for every artist to assume when he has finished his studies, and may venture in some measure to throw aside the fetters of authority ; to consider the rules as subject to his control, and not himself subject to the rules; to risk and to dare extraordinary attempts without a guide, abandoning himself to his own sensa-tions, and depending upon them. To this confidence must be imputed that originality of manner by which he may be truly said to have extended the limits of the art. After Rubens had made up his manner, he never looked out of himself for assistance: there is, consequently, very little in his works that appears to be taken from other masters. If he has borrowed any thing, he has had the address to change and adapt it so well to the rest of his work that the thief is not discoverable.
“ Besides the excellency of Rubens in these general powers, he possessed the true art of imitating. He saw the objects of nature with a painter's eye; he saw at once the predominant feature by which every object is known and distinguished : and as soon as seen, it was executed with a facility that is astonishing: and, let me add, this facility is to a painter, when he closely examines a picture, a source of great pleasure. How far this excellence may be perceived or felt by those who are not painters, I know not: to them certainly it is not enough that objects be truly represented ; they must likewise be represented with grace, which means, here, that the work is done with facility and without effort. Rubens was, perhaps, the greatest master in the mechanical part of the art, the best workman with his tools, that ever exercised a pencil.
“ This power, which Rubens possessed in the highest degree, enabled him to represent whatever he undertook better than any other painter. His animals, particularly lions and horses, are so admirable, that it may be said they were never properly represented but by him. His portraits rank with the best works of the painters who have made that branch of the art the sole business of their lives ; and of these he has left a great variety of specimens.
The same may be
said of his landscapes ; and though Claude Lorraine finished more minutely, as becomes a professor in any particular branch, yet there is such an airiness and facility in the landscapes of Rubens, that a painter would as soon wish to be the author of them as those of Claude, or any other artist whatever.
“ The pictures of Rubens have this effect on the spectator, that he feels himself in nowise disposed to pick out and dwell on his defects. The criticisms which are made on him are, indeed, often unreasonable. His style ought no more to be blamed for not having the sublimity of Michael Angelo, than Ovid should be censured because he is not like Virgil.
“ However, it must be acknowledged that he wanted many excellences which would have perfectly united with his style. Among those we may reckon beauty in his female characters; sometimes, indeed, they make approaches to it; they are healthy and comely women, but seldom, if ever, possess any degree of elegance : the same may be said of his young men and children.
His old men have that sort of dignity which a bushy beard will confer; but he never possessed a poetical conception of character. In his representations of the highest characters in the Christian or the fabulous world, instead of something above humanity, which might fill the idea which is conceived of such beings, the spectator finds little more than mere mortals, such as he meets with every day.
“ The incorrectness of Rubens, in regard to his outline, oftener proceeds from haste and carelessness than from inability: there are in his great works to which he seems to have paid more particular attention, naked figures, as eminent for their drawing as for their colouring. He appears to have entertained a great abhorrence of the meagre, dry manner of his predecessors, the old German and Flemish painters; to avoid which, he kept his outline large and flowing: this, carried to an extreme, produced that heaviness which is so frequently found in his figures. Another defect of this great painter is his inattention to the foldings of his drapery, especially that of his women ; it is scarcely ever cast with any choice of skill. Carlo Maratti and Rubens are, in this respect, in opposite extremes: one discovers too much art in the disposition of drapery, and the other too little. Rubens's drapery, besides, is not properly historical; the quality of the stuff of which it is composed is too accurately distinguished, resembling the manner of Paul Veronese. This drapery is less offensive in Rubens, than it would be in many other painters, as it partly contributes to that richness which is the peculiar character of his style, which we do not pretend to set forth as of the most simple and sublime kind.
“ The difference of the manner of Rubens from that of any other painter before him, is in nothing more distinguishable than in his colouring, which is totally different from that of Titian, Correggio, or any of the great colourists, The effect of his pictures may be not improperly compared to clusters of flowers : all his colours appear as clear and as beautiful; at the same time he has avoided that tawdry effect which one would expect such gay colours to produce; in this respect resembling Barocci more than any other painter. What was said of an ancient painter, may be applied to those two artists, that their figures look as if they fed upon roses.
It would be a curious and a profitable study for a painter to examine the difference, and the cause of that difference, of effect in the works of Correggio and Rubens, both excellent in different ways. The difference, probably, would be given according to the different habits of the connoisseur: those who had received their first impressions from the works of Rubens would censure Correggio as heavy; and the admirers of Correggio would say Rubens wanted solidity of effect. There is lightness, airiness, and facility in Rubens, his advocates will urge, and comparatively a laborious heaviness in Correggio, whose admirers will complain of Rubens's manner being careless and untinished, whilst the works of Correggio are wrought to the highest degree of delicacy; and what may be advanced in favour of Correggio's breadth of light, will, by his censurers,
be called affected and pedantic. It must be observed, that we are speaking solely of the manner, the effect of the picture ; and we may conclude, according to the custom in pastoral poetry, by bestowing on each of these illustrious painters a garland, without attributing superiority to either.
“ To conclude, - I will venture to repeat in favour of Rubens, what I have before said in regard to the Dutch school ($ 14.), - that those who cannot see the extraordinary merit of this great painter, either have a narrow conception of the variety of art, or are led away by the affectation of approving nothing but what comes from the Italian school." Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Belgium possesses at the present day a School of Living Painters, whose works bare high claims to attention, and may be seen at the yearly exhibitions at Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels, as well as in the palaces, museums, and churches of the principal towns. The historical pictures of Wappers, de Keyzer, Biefve, Maes, Gallait, Brakelaer, the animals of Verboekhoven, the woody landscapes of Hellemans, are worthy of being placed by the side of the best productions of any existing school.
ROUTES THROUGH BELGIUM.
CALAIS TO BRUSSELS BY LILLE, -RAIL
be obtained at any of the frontier custom houses. If the carriage is not new, and is laden with luggage, and
accompanied by the owner, and is to Many persons, especially in the be taken out of the country within six winter season, prefer the shortest sea- days, it is exempted from this deposit voyage between England and the con. of a third of its value. This remis. tinent, on which account the following sion, however, can only be obtained route is given here. Besides which, on condition that some respectable Calais is now connected by railway French householder will guarantee that with Brussels, and all the principal the carriage shall quit France within towns of Belgium.
the six days specified. The landlord of CALAIS. Inn : H. Dessin; good, the inn at which the traveller puts up but dear. The bed-room in which the in Calais will effect this arrangement author of the “Sentimental Journey” for him : but as he subjects himself to slept is still marked Sterne's Room; a penalty of a very large amount in and that occupied by Sir Walter Scott case the above condition is not comis also ticketed with his respected plied with, he requires the traveller to name. — Quillac's Hotel ; very good.- sign an undertaking to indemnify and Hôtel Meurice (no connection with hold him harmless in case of failure. the house of the same name at Paris); An order to procure this remission of tolerably clean and good. The prefer- duty, issued by the French customence usually given to Boulogne has house, and called “acquit à caution,” diminished the custom of the hotel- costs 5 fr., and must be delivered up on keepers, and they have sought to in passing the French frontier. demnify themselves by an increase of from Calais to Brussels by railway this prices.
must be done either at Lille or ValenDuty on Carriages. Every car- ciennes. Ten francs is the common riage taken into France unaccompanied charge for landing or shipping a 4. by a certificate of its being of French wheeled carriage. manufacture, is subject to a deposit of Calais has 12,508 inhabs. ; it is a a third of its value; if the carriage is fortress of the 2nd class, situated in a re-exported within 3 years, įths of the most barren and unpicturesque district, deposit is repaid: this repayment may with sandhills raised by the wind and
the sea on the one side, and morasses XVIII. débarqua vis-à-vis de cette on the other, contributing considera- colonne, et fut enfin rendu à l'amour bly to its military strength, but by no des Francais ; pour en perpétuer le means to the beauty of its position. souvenir, la ville de Calais a élevé ce Within the last few years it has been monument.”
“ As an additional means re-fortified, and the strength of its works of perpetuating this remembrance, a greatly increased, especially to the sea- brazen plate had been let into the ward. An English traveller of the pavement, upon the precise spot where time of James L. described it as “a his foot first touched the soil. beggarly, extorting town; monstrous the left; and an English traveller nodear and sluttish.” In the opinion of ticed it in his journal as a sinistrous many this description holds good down omen, that when Louis le Désiré, after to the present time. The harbour, his exile, stepped on France, he did lately improved and lengthened by 282 not put the right foot foremost.” yards since 1830, is not so deep as that Quart. Rev. At the last revolution of Boulogne. Passengers must some- but one, viz. that of July, 1830, both times land in boats, and wait for their inscription and footmark were oblitebaggage until the steamer can enter. rated ; and the pillar now stands a
Except to an Englishman setting his monument merely of the mutability of foot for the first time on the Continent, French opinions and dynasties. to whom every thing is novel, Calais The principal Gate leading from the has little that is remarkable to show. sea-side into the town is that figured After an hour or two it becomes tire- by Hogarth in his well-known picture. some, and a traveller will do well to It was built by Cardinal Richelieu, quit it as soon as he has cleared his 1635. baggage from the custom-house, and No one needs to be reminded of the procured the signature of the police to interesting incidents of the Siege of his passport, which, if he be pressed for Calais by Edward III., which lasted time, will be done alınost at any hour 11 months, and of the heroic devotion of the day or night, so as not to delay of Eustace de St. Pierre and his 5 his departure. It is necessary to be companions. Few, however, are aware aware of this, as the commissionaires that the heroes of Calais not only went of the hotels will sometimes endeavour unrewarded by their own king and to detain a stranger, under pretence of countrymen, but were compelled to beg not being able to get his passport their bread in misery through France. signed. The owner of the passport Calais remained in the hands of the must repair to the police-office himself English more than 200 years, from to have it visé.
1347 to 1558, when it was taken by Travellers landing at a French port, the Duke de Guise. It was the last and not intending to go to Paris, but relic of the Gallic dominions of the merely passing through the country, as Plantagenets, which, at one time, comon the route to Ostend or Brussels, are prehended the half of France. Calais not compelled to exchange their pass- was dear to the English as the prize port for a passe provisoire, but merely of the valour of their forefathers, rarequire the visé of the authorities at ther than from any real value it posCalais to allow them to proceed on sessed. their journey.
Persons unprovided The English traveller should look with a passport may procure one from at, the Hôtel de Guise, originally the the British Consul for 4s. 6d.
guildhall of the mayor and aldermen The Pier of Calais is an agreeable of the “ Staple of Wool,” established promenade, nearly & mile long. It is here by Edward III., 1363. It has decorated with a Pillar, raised to com- many vestiges of English Tudor archi. memorate the return of Louis XVIII. / tecture. Henry VIII. used to lodge to France, which originally bore this in it. inscription :
In the great Market Place stands the “ Le 24 Avril, 1814, S. M. Louis Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall). In it are
situated the Police Offices. In front to be let or sold; they are mostly old of it are placed busts of St. Pierre; of and rickety vehicles, and the hire dethe Duc de Guise, surnamed le Bala- manded for them nearly equals that for fré, who conquered the town from the which an excellent carriage may be English ; and of the Cardinal de Riche obtained in London. lieu, who built the citadel on the W. Steamboats go twice every day to of the town; above it rises a belfry, Dover, varying their departure to suit containing the chimes.
In the same the time of high water. The new square is a tower, which serves as a English steamers usually make the land-mark by day and a light-house by voyage in about two hours. Steamers night, to point out to sailors the en- go direct to London, several times a trance of the harbour.
week, in 10 or 12 hours. The principal Church was built at the time when the English were mas
Calais to Brussels. ters of Calais, It is a fine church, in In going from Calais to Brussels, the early Gothic style ; a modern cir- the traveller, on leaving Lille, may cular chapel has been thrown out be- proceed by railway to Brussels, either bind the choir. It is surmounted by (1) by Douai, Valenciennes, Mons, and a stately tower and short steeple, which Braine le Comte; or (2) by Courtrai, merit notice.
Ghent, and Mechlin; or (3) by TourLady Hamilton (Nelson's Emma) is nay, Ath, and Braine le Comte. The buried in the public cemetery outside distance from Calais to Lille is 104 the town, on the road to Boulogne ; kilomètres = 65 miles. From Lille to she died here in great misery.
Brussels the distance is, by route (1), The walls round the town, and the 162 kilom., or 1014 miles; by route pier, are admirable promenades, and (2) 150 kilom., or 934 miles ; and by command a distinct view of the white route (S) 134 kilom., or 84 miles. cliffs of England,
- a tantalising sight to the English exiles, fugitives from
Calais to Lille, 104 kilom. creditors or compelled from other causes
The station is at the end of the pier, to leave their homes; a numerous class close to the gate. both here and at Boulogne. There
2.5 St. Pierre St. are many of our countrymen besides, 10:9 Ardres, St., a small fortress on who reside merely for the purpose of the canal named after it. Between economising ; so that the place is half Ardres and Guisnes, a little to the W. Anglicised, and our language is
of the road, took place, in 1520, the rally spoken. The number of English meeting between Henry VIII. and residents in and about Calais amounted,
Francis I. The spot was called the before the French revolution of 1848, Field of the Cloth of Gold, from the to nearly 5000. There is an English cloth of gold with which the tents and chapel, Rue des Prêtres ; service on pavilions of the monarchs and their Sundays, 11 A. M. and 3 P. M.
suites, consisting of 5696 persons, with There is a small theatre here.
4325 horses, were covered. Calais is one of those places where
7:6 Audruicq, St. the fraternity of Couriers have a sta- 115 Watten, St. tion. Travellers should be cautioned
8.7 Sr. Omer. — Inns : L'Ancienne not to engage one unless the landlord Poste; Grande Ste. Catherine. of an hotel, or some other respectable
A 3d-rate fortress, whose strength and responsible person give him a cha- arises more from the marshes which racter derived from personal know. surround it, and the case with which ledge; as many of these couriers re- three-fourths of its circuit can be flooded main at Calais only because some pre- by the river Aa, than from its fortificavious act of misconduct prevents them tions. It is a very dull place, with showing their faces on the opposite side 20,000 inhabitants. of the Channel. The inn-yards are
Two ecclesiastical buildings generally well stocked with carriages I worthy of notice.