Violence Through Environmental Discrimination: Causes, Rwanda Arena, and Conflict Model

封面
Springer Science & Business Media, 1998年11月30日 - 321 頁
Since all-out interstate wars for the time being seem to belong to the past, con flict studies focus more and more on domestic conflicts. This is a broad field, not only because the arbitrary line between war and sub-war violence disap pears and the analyst is confronted with phenomena reaching from criminal violence and clashes between communities to violent conflicts of long duration and civil wars with massacres and genocides as their characteristics. It is also because there are so many different types of conflicts to be analyzed, so many different types of behavior to be studied, whereas there is often little informa tion available on what is really going on. Against the background of internal conflicts, which tend to be as protracted as diffuse in terms of time, intensity, actors, and their goals, this study aims to follow a specific pathway through the current thicket of violent circumstances. It focuses on causation patterns by exploring the causal role of the environ mental factor in the genesis of violent conflicts occurring today and probably even more so tomorrow. This approach, which for once does not focus on a specific level of the conflict system, on one area in the conflict geography, or on a specific category of actors, analyzes causation dynamics.

搜尋書籍內容

讀者評論 - 撰寫評論

我們找不到任何評論。

已選取的頁面

內容

INTRODUCTION The Transformation of SocietyNature Relationship
1
Historical and Contemporary Phenomena
3
112 Historical Evidence
7
113 Development of Maldevelopment
9
114 Socioecological Heterogeneity
11
12 Landscape as Threatened LifeSupport System
14
121 Water as Part of the LifeSupport System
15
122 Soil as Part of the LifeSupport System
16
432 Trigger
109
434 Channel
110
435 Catalyst
111
CASE STUDY Why Environmental Discrimination Caused Violence on the Mille Collines
113
51 Propositions
115
52 Causes and Their Roles
117
Social and Environmental Discrimination
129
Increasing Conflict Potential Before the Revolution of 195960
143

13 Summary and Overview
17
DISCUSSION State of the Art
21
21 Founex Report on Environmental Change and Underdevelopment
22
22 Linkage between Environmental Change Security and Conflict
24
221 Linkages between Environment and Security
25
222 Discussion of the Causal Linkage
26
23 Methodological Dilemmas in the Study of Causal Linkage
30
232 A Conflict Story Can Be Told from Different Angles
35
233 Someones Cow Ate Someone Elses Crop
37
234 The Effects of Persistent Drought
40
235 Causation in Complex PoliticoEcological Systems
41
236 Causal Relationship Between Independent and Dependent Variable
44
237 Action as a Result of Two Filters
47
238 To Sort Out Causes by Attributing Specific Roles to Them
50
24 Research Strategy
52
CORRELATIONS Environment Maldevelopment and Violent Conflict
55
31 Human Development Correlated with Violent Conflicts and Wars
56
311 War Register and HDICountry Rank
57
312 Interpretation of the Tables and Findings
58
32 Violent Conflicts and Wars in Arid Lowlands
64
33 Violent Conflicts and Wars in Mountains
72
331 Cultural Aspects of Violence in Mountains and Highlands
73
332 Patterns of Conflicts in Mountains
80
34 Conclusions
82
TYPOLOGY Types of Conflicts and the Role of the Environment
85
A Phenomenon of Developing and Transitional Societies Hypothesis One
86
411 Ethnopolitical CConflicts Type AI
89
412 CenterPeriohery Conflicts Type AII
91
413 Internal Migration Conflicts Type AIII
92
414 CrossBorder Migration Conflicts Type BIV
94
415 Demographically Caused Migration Conflicts Type BV
95
416 International Water Conflicts Type CVI
96
417 Global Environmental Conflicts Type CVII
98
Conclusions
99
42 Inevitable Situations and the Lack of Regulatory Mechanisms Hypothesis Two
101
421 Inevitable Situations
102
422 Lack of Regulatory Mechanisms
103
423 Instrumentalizing the Environmental Problem
105
424 Opportunities to build Up Organizations and Find Allies
106
425 Context of an Ongoing Armed Conflict
107
431 Reason
108
Freedom from Oppression Versus Elimination
152
525 Development without Democratization
157
The Invasion of the FPR and the Arusha Peace Agreement
158
Plane Crash and First Massacres
162
MODEL Causal Relationship between Environmental Transformation and Violent Conflict
167
61 Model Building and Constraints
168
612 Prerequisites of a Model
170
62 Propositions and Hypotheses
175
63 Environmental Conflict Model
179
64 Indicators
181
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE Six Area Studies and Six Control Cases to Check the Model
187
71 Environmental Discrimination
189
712 CenterPeriphery Conflicts
192
713 Internal Migration Conflicts
193
714 CrossBorder Migration Conflicts
196
715 Demographically Caused Conflicts
199
716 International Water Conflicts
201
The Cases of Mexico Botswana and South Africa
204
The Cases of Mexico Botswana and South Africa
206
74 Lack of Regulatory Mechanisms
209
75 Population Dynamics
211
76 State Instability and Poor Performance
212
77 Complex External Influences
217
78 What Makes a Difference?
219
OUTLOOK Conflict Potential Sustainable Development and Environmental Security
221
81 Multiple Causal Roles Concept
222
Maldevelopment Transformation Conflict
226
822 Ethnopoliticized Environmental Conflict in Rwanda Arena
229
823 Population Dynamics and Migration
231
824 Force or Cooperation?
232
83 Sustainable Development and Environmental Security
233
831 The DevelopmentSecurity Prism
234
832 What Can Be Learned From the Borana Solution?
239
APPENDIX Tables
243
Abbreviations
272
List of Tables
274
List of Figures
275
GLOSSARY
277
BIBLIOGRAPHY
287
版權所有

其他版本 - 查看全部

常見字詞

書目資訊