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his baseness, and was received into favour again. Luke xv. 18, 19.
And because the number of our sins are like the hairs of our head or the sand of the sea, and almost as various too in their kinds as their numbers; confession must needs be a very extensive duty, and require the strictest care and examination of ourselves: for "who can tell how oft he offendeth?" saith David: "O cleanse thou me from my secret faults!"
The penitent, therefore, should be reminded that his confession be as minute and particular as it can ; since the more particular the confession is, to be sure, the more sincere and safe the repentance.
3. A third thing requisite in a true repentance is an unfeigned abhorrence and forsaking of sin, and turning to the Lord our God with all our hearts.
For so we find them expressly joined together by St. Paul, when he charges those whom by vision he was sent to convert, to change their mind, and "turn to God, and do works meet for repentance:" (Acts, xxvi. 20.) And a little before he says, he was sent "to open their eyes and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins:" (ver. 18.) And we shall always find, when we are commanded to cease from evil, it is in order to do good.
The penitent, therefore, must be reminded not only to confess and be sorry for his sins, but likewise to forsake them. For it is he only "who confesseth and forsaketh his sins that shall have mercy:" (Prov. xxviii. 13.) And this forsaking must not be only for the present, during his sickness, or for a week, a
1 απήγγελλον μετανοεῖν.
month, or a year; but for his whole life, be it never so protracted; which is the
4. Last thing requisite in a true repentance, viz. "a patient continuance in well doing to the end of our lives." For as the holy Jesus assures us, that "he that endureth unto the end shall be saved;" so does the Spirit of God profess, that "if any man draw back, his soul shall have no pleasure in him :" (Heb. x. 38.) Hence we are said to "be partakers of Christ if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast to the end,” (Heb. iii. 14.) but not else; for it is to "him only that overcometh and keepeth his works to the end" that our Saviour hath promised a reward : (Rev. ii. 26.) Hence our religion is said to be a continual warfare, and we must be constantly "pressing forward toward the mark of our high calling," with the apostle, lest we fail of the prize.
And this it is which makes a death bed repentance so justly reckoned to be very full of hazard; such as none who defer it till then can depend upon with any real security. For let a man be never so seemingly penitent in the day of his visitation, yet none but God can tell whether it be sincere or not; since nothing is more common than for those who expressed the greatest signs of a lasting repentance upon a sick bed to forget all their vows and promises of amendment as soon as God had removed the judgment, and restored them to their former health. "It happened to them according to the true proverb," as St. Peter says, "The dog is turned to his own vomit again, and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire.' 2 Pet. ii. 22.
The sick penitent, therefore, should be often re
minded of this:-that nothing will be looked upon as true repentance but what would terminate in a holy life: that, therefore, he ought to take great heed that his repentance be not only the effect of his present danger, but that it be lasting and sincere, "bringing forth works meet for repentance," should it please God mercifully to prove him by a longer life.
But here it is much to be feared, that after all his endeavours to bring men to a sight of themselves, and to repent them truly of their sins, the spiritual man will meet with but very little encouragement: for if we look round the world we shall find the generality of men to be of a rude indifference, and a seared conscience, and mightily ignorant of their condition with respect to another world, being abused by evil customs and principles, apt to excuse themselves, and to be content with a certain general and indefinite confession; so that if you provoke them never so much to acknowledge their faults, you shall hardly ever extort any thing farther from them than this, viz. "That they are sinners, as every man hath his infirmity, and they as well as any; but, God be thanked! they have done no injury to any man, but are in charity with all the world." And perhaps they will tell you,
they are no swearers, no adulterers, no rebels, &c. but that, God forgive them! they must needs acknowledge themselves to be sinners in the main," &c. And if you can open their breast so far, it will be looked upon as sufficient: to go any farther will be to do the office of an accuser, not of a friend.
But, which is yet worse, there are a great many persons who have been so used to an habitual course of sin that the crime is made natural and necessary
to them, and they have no remorse of conscience for it, but think themselves in a state of security very often when they stand upon the brink of damnation. This happens in the cases of drunkenness, and lewd practices, and luxury, and idleness, and mispending of the Sabbath, and in lying and vain jesting, and slandering of others; and particularly in such evils as the laws do not punish, nor public customs shame, but which are countenanced by potent sinners, or wicked fashions, or goodnature and mistaken civilities.
In these and the like cases, the spiritual man must endeavour to awaken their consciences by such means as follow:
Arguments and general Heads of Discourse, by way of Consideration, to awaken a stupid Conscience, and the careless Sinner.
1. And here let the minister endeavour to affect his conscience by representing to him,
That Christianity is a holy and strict religion: that the promises of heaven are so great that it is not reasonable to think a small matter and a little duty will procure it for us: that religious persons are always the most scrupulous; and that to feel nothing is not a sign of life but of death: that we live in an age in which that which is called and esteemed a holy life, in the days of the apostles and primitive Christianity would have been esteemed indifferent, sometimes scandalous, and always cold: that when we have "done our best, all our righteousness is but as filthy rags;" and we can never do too much to make our calling and election sure that every good
man ought to be suspicious of himself, fearing the worst, that he may provide for the best that even St. Paul, and several other remarkable saints, had, at some times, great apprehensions of failing of the mighty prize of their high calling:" that we are commanded to "work out our salvation with fear and trembling;" inasmuch as we shall be called to an account, not only for our sinful words and deeds, but even for our very thoughts: that if we keep all the commandments of God, and "yet offend in one point (i. e. wilfully and habitually), we are guilty of all;" James, ii. 10: that no man can tell how oft he offendeth, the best of lives being full of innumerable blemishes in the sight of God, however they may appear before men: that no man ought to judge of the state of his soul by the character he has in the world; for a great many persons go to hell who have lived in a fair reputation here; and a great many, on the other hand, go to heaven who have been loaded with infamy and reproach: that the work of religion is a work of great difficulty, trial, and temptation: that many are called, but few are chosen;" that "strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth to life, and few there be that find it :" and lastly, that, "if the righteous themselves shall scarcely be saved," there will be no place for the unrighteous and sinner to appear in but of horror and amazement,
By these and such like motives to consideration, the spiritual man is to awaken the careless sinner, and to bring him to repentance and confession of his sins; and if, either of himself or by this means, the sick man is brought to a right sense of his condition; then,