An Essay on the Principle of Population, 第 1 卷
Cosimo, Inc., 2006 - 324 頁
Around 1796, Mr. Malthus, an English gentleman, had finished reading a book that confidently predicted human life would continue to grow richer, more comfortable and more secure, and that nothing could stop the march of progress. He discussed this theme with his son, Thomas, and Thomas ardently disagreed with both his father and the book he had been reading, along with the entire idea of unending human progress. Mr. Malthus suggested that he write down his objections so that they could discuss them point-by-point. Not long after, Thomas returned with a rather long essay. His father read it and was so impressed that he urged his son to have it published. And so, in 1798, Thomas Malthus' An Essay on Population appeared. Though it was attacked at the time and ridiculed for many years afterward, it has remained one of the most influential works in the English language on the general checks and balances of the world's population and its necessary control. Volume 1 includes: Book I: "Of the Checks to the Population in the Less Civilised Parts of the World and in Past Times" and Book II: "Of the Checks to the Population in the Different States of Modern Europe." ALSO AVAILABLE FROM COSIMO CLASSICS: Malthus' An Essay on Population-Vol. 2 THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS, born in 1766 and educated at Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1798, he was curate at Albury in Surrey, and become Professor History and Political Economy at Haileybury College, 1805. He died in 1834.
讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
Of the Checks to Population in Sweden
V Of the Checks to Population in Switzerland
VI Of the Checks to Population in France
Of the Checks to Population in France continued
Of the Checks to Population in England
Of the Checks to Population in Englandcontinued
Of the Checks to Population in Scotland and Ireland
General Deductions from the Preceding View of Society
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according agriculture America annual appear average births to deaths births to marriages calculated Captain Cook causes Charlevoix checks to population China consequence considerable considered Cook's cultivation custom degree effect emigration encourage epidemic Europe excess extreme famine foundling hospitals frequent George Staunton greater number habits increase of population industry infanticide inhabitants islands Kalmucks labour land Lettres Edit lower classes manner means of subsistence misery Montesquieu mortality nations nature nearly Nootka Sound Norway number of births number of children number of marriages observes occasioned Otaheite Pallas parish perhaps period plague polygamy positive checks poverty prevail preventive check principal probably produce prolific proportion of births proportion of marriages provinces reason registers Robertson Russian Russian Empire savage says scarcity Scotland seems Siberia slaves society soil sufficient suppose Sweden Tartars tion torn towns tribes Vaud villages Volney Voyage whole population women
第 19 頁 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
第 6 頁 - The germs of existence contained in this earth, if they could freely develop themselves, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years. Necessity, that imperious, allpervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds. The race of plants and the race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law; and man cannot by any efforts of reason escape from it.
第 14 頁 - The positive checks to population are extremely various, and include every cause, whether arising from vice or misery, which in any degree contributes to shorten the natural duration of human life. Under this head, therefore, may be enumerated all unwholesome occupations, severe labour and exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad nursing of children, great towns, excesses of all kinds, the whole train of common diseases and epidemics, wars, plagues, and famine.
第 14 頁 - I would be understood to mean a restraint from marriage from prudential motives, with a conduct strictly moral during the period of this restraint; and I have never intentionally deviated from this sense.
第 5 頁 - The cause to which I allude, is the constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. It is observed by Dr. Franklin, that there is no bound to the prolific nature of plants or animals, but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence.
第 17 頁 - It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising. This, indeed, will generally be the case if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that are thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money-price.
第 7 頁 - Consequently in no state that we have yet known, has the power of population been left to exert itself with perfect freedom. Whether the law of marriage be instituted or not, the dictate of nature and virtue seems to be an early attachment to one woman...