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Dec. 30, 1824.]
institutions of a similar description in the United States. of human beings who are devoted to the cause of humanThe sum was a small one, and he did not object to the ity, a sentiment of admiration, mingled with surprise, amount, but objected to making the institution a na. fills my mind in regarding the character of this individutional one in an indirect manner. Theywould advance al. I know, said Mr. J. the individuals who conduct step by step, and, by and by, after thus aiding the insti- this institution; they have little or no remuneration, and tution, they would have to support it as a national one. even that little is devoted to the improvement of the esHe thought it a very useful institution, and was willing tablishment. I know these individuals, and pledge myit should be supported on a similar footing with all the self for the truth of what I state. Whatever we may others; but, before he gave his vote in its favor, he must think of this appropriation, we may rest assured that it first see the question settled whether it was or was not a is not for the purpose of individual aggrandizernent. national institution.
And why, he asked, should not this be a national instiMr. R. M. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, said, after the in- tution ? Are we afraid of forming a precedent? If I teresting and able view which had been taken of this thought it would be of any service to plead for this insubject by the chairman of the committee, (Mr. BAR. stitution, I would do it; but I have not the talent, nor BOUR,) it would be useless for him to occupy much of would such an appeal have any influence on this honor. the time of the Senate on it. You, sir, said Mr. J. are able body. All the institution asks of you is to relinwell aware of the power of education on the human quish the claim upon them, that they may say, "we race as it regards religion, morals, politics, arts, and sci- have no morigage, no pressure upon us but the balance ences; and its effects in promoting the happiness and of the debt incurred in establishing our institution." Let welfare of mankind. Turn to the annals of this coun. Congress assist it, and it will encourage individuals from try, and there is abundant proof of the munificence and all parts to lend their assistance; and, by giving a little liberality of Congress in promoting the literary efforts of to this institution, a favorite wish of our immortal Washthe new states which are admitted into the Union, by a ington will be realised. We have the exclusive legisla. grant of the priblic domain for the support of these in- tion for this territory; therefore, they appeal to you, and stitutions. It was the policy pursued under the admin- say, “ forgive us, remove from us this heavy burthen, istration of the Father of his country, and has been con which bears us to the earth, so will our institution flourtinued, under the distinguished men who succeeded ish and prosper." him, to the present time. There was no voice in oppo- Mr. HOLMES, of Maine, said, the Senate ought not sition to the policy which dictated the donatior.s to the to deceive itself as to what was asked of it. The plain infant states admitted into the Union. Could gentle statement of the case was this: We are to give them the men say this was a partial appropriation? Would the sum of $ 25,000 dollars, because their affairs are so emhonorable gentleman oppose an appropriation which barrassed they cannot go on without it. He considered tended to raise man from the savage state, and bestow it the same as paying so much money out of the Treasury, on him all the benefits of civilized life? Congress has & when they have obtained this, they may ask for an equal shown its beneficence to the rising youth of the country, suin to discharge any other debt. The question is, said to whom is to descend the invaluable legacy of liberty, Mr. H. will you give them this sum? For my part, if it for which our fathers fought and bled, and for which my is necessary for them, standing in the relation they do honorable friend from Maine has shown his devotion on with respect to us, I see no difficulty in the way. I don't, all occasions. In vain we fight for our country, in vain however, said Mr. H. look upon it as a national institution. we defend the liberty we have received, if we are to be I dislike the term ; we are every day becoming a little deprived of the blessings of education, which are en too national. It is a territorial institution, instituted in joyed by all civilized nations. We well know, said Mr. this territory, over which we have exclusive legislation, I. how the mind even of the philosopher is biassed, as and being so, it is our duty to legislate properly for them, regards government and religion, for want of liberal ed- and promote the happiness of this district. Whether the ucation, and we know how their moral differ from those people connected with this college have acted purely wl.o receive instruction from the divine book wbich com- from disinterested motives, it is not for me to inquire : prises all good.
they have acted as other men have done, who wish to In what relation, continued Mr. J. does this unhappy establish a literary institution. If the object is a good District stand to the other portions of the United States? one, I don't wish to inquire into their motives. They The people of it are without a representative, without say their funds are insufficient; and, how far you are to those immunities which are enjoyed by the other classes go in assisting them, is the question you are now to setof citizens; deprived of the active exercise of all those tle. It may be said, if you give to this institution, you principles which dignify the human character, and re. must give to every one throughout the States. But I mind us we are men. Although they may, in reality, hold it a very important principle, that Government be happy, yet they cannot mix in the debates of this or should never patronise or endow an institution over any other body. By the policy of the General Govern, which it has no control. You may make a grant, and ment, we have made liberal donations for the support another State may legislate; but in this instance you of education; and there is not a state in the Union but grant and you legislate likewise. I think we are bound possesses two or three seminaries of learning, where the to give this sum. It may be objected that we are behigher branches of education are taught; but this col- ginning at the wrong end, by endowing an establishlege is not endowed by Government by the only go- ment for the higher branches of education, while we vernment that can endow it, or to which it can look for neglect the primary schools. aid. They say you have a claim on them, it presses , said Mr. H. do not regret, as some gentlemen seem very heavy on them, and they ask you to release them to do, that this District has no representative in Congress. from this claim. After having expended 100,000 thou: The circuinstance of Congress possessing the District, sand dollars, they are still 30,000 dollars in debt. If it and fixing the seat of Government here, has given it is believed that we possess the power, is there a bosom more influence than the largest State in the United that will not sympathise with them? In the progress of States has, or ever will have. I hope the time will nevthis institution, the character of a man is brought before er come when an alteration in the constitution shall be us, who seems to have lived for nothing else but to serve necessary to give this District a Representative. It is the public in promoting institutions for the benefit of the always the case that, where the seat of Government is, rising generation, without the least advantage to him there the people will possess great influence: only look self, or any expectation of reward, save that arising from at the appointments made and the offices held. They a good conscience. When I reflect on the character of need no Representative to give them infuence. We mankind, and how few there are, amongst the millions should legislate for them as we would for our children,
(Dec. SO, 1824,
or as a State Legislature legislating for a State. We people of it were as able to pay for the education of are now on the subject of the education of a people their own children as any state in the Union. Their ad. over whom we have supreme control-they are in wantvantages were immense. This bill did not go so far as of $ 25,000; and the questison is, shall we give it to it did last session : it asked now only for 25,000 dollars ; them or not?
hut, if it were for only 25 cents, his objections to it would Mr. MILLS, of Massachusetts, observed that, before be the same. this bill was passed, it would be well to consider the Mr. BARBOUR again rose. He begged leave to obcharacter of the corporation for whose relief the bill was serve, that this was not considered a national institution, reported. If it is allowed to be a national institution, If, said be, I had presented it to the notige of the Senate said Mr. M. then they have a right to appeal to the na- as such, I should have been ashamed to have made a betional legislature. The question whether there should ginning with a bad debt of $25,000 for its endowment : be a national university at the seat of Government, has surely any man would be ashamed of such a thing. It been agitated at different periods, and has been, from is only an institution diffusing benefit throughout the na. time to time, recommended by the distinguished indi. tion, but not the child of national patronage. If gentle. viduals who have presided over the nation.
men will give themselves the trouble to refer to the re. I recollect very well the history and origin of this in. port, they will perceive that it is an institution which stitution. When their application for a charter came draws after it the advantages of a national university, before the Senate, all intention of asking pecuniary aid although not created by the Government, or making from Congress was disavowed. They came forward and any claim upon it. A homogeneous people is produced prayed that an act of Congress might pass for their in- by being educated in a similar manner; and every one corporation, for the better management of the funds is aware what effect similarity of feeling produces. Its that bad been raised by individual subscription in the effects are most evidently calculated to guaranty the different parts of the Union, for erecting a college here. continuance of our Government. If we had a national It is purely an eleemosynary institution, and Govern institution, cqual to that suggested by Washington and ment has no control over it except the power to modify Madison, the youth of the country would resort to it or change, or, if necessary, repeal their charter. It from all parts of the Union; they would there form those possesses no visitorial power, or any control over the fine feelings of friendship, which are the strongest tie funds. They selected the spot themselves for its erec-between man and man throughout life ; and these good tion in the District of Columbia, and their locating it in- feelings would have the most salutary influence on the this District, by their own will, no more entitles them councils of the nation. I do not speak of this institution to aid from Government, than if they had located it in as created by the nation; but, from its locality, it preIllinois or Maryland. Therefore, this is not a national sents itself favorably to Congress, and that is the whole institution. If the time comes when we shall see a na-l extent of the view I have taken. tional university established, I hope, said Mr. M. to see But, said Mr. B. there is a scarecrow placed here. it endowed with a liberality and munificence commen- | You must not do right now, lest you do wrong hereafter. surate with the means and resources of the country. The gentleman (Mr. Mills) has stated that there was an This institution disclaims every idea of the kind, and is intimation or promise, at the time of the incorporation, on the same footing with every similar institution through that no aid should be asked for. At that time they out the country.
thought none would be necessary; they had received The honorable gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. BAD- $50,000, and they thought they could accomplish their BOUN) had stated the manner in which the debt origin object from individual assistance alone. The success ated. The college assumed this debt voluntarily, but which had thus attended the exertions of the friends of have they, said Mr. M. received nothing for it? Why 'this establishment, arising from voluntary grants, justidid they guaranty it? What business had they to med.fied the opinion they had formed of being able to stand dle with it? I hope they were not so incautious as to alone. But we all know that great pecuniary distress assume a debt without receiving a quid pro quo. If, in had fallen upon the land, of which thousands had been speculation, they have involved themselves, they stand on the victims. Instead, therefore, of firding the same li. the same footing with other individuals or corporations beral aid which they had experi nced in the commencewho have met with a similar misfortune. I have not yet ment, they found every hand closed, and to be opened seen any reason why Government should extend its li- only by their own imperious necessities. berality to them by giving up this debt. Any individual. It is said, if we give in this instance, we shall be oblig. who is a debtor to the Government, may as well say heed to give to every state establishment of the kind; but cannot carry on his business unless the Government will where is the resemblance between tbis District and any give up the debt. I wish to know how they became other place? Here we have entire control; here is proresponsible, and what value they have received for it. perty belonging to the territory, which we obtained by
Mr. MACON observed, that claims on Congress were accepting the territory ; they have no legislature to something like wine and spirits; they improved by age. which they can resort but to Congress. In the new He agreed to every word the honorable gentleman from states, I repeat again, one 36th part of the public lands Kentucky had said on the subject of education, and the has been allotted to the purpose of education ; but is freedom with which students of all religious persuasions that the case here? Out of lots owned by the Governwere admitted in this college. But that had nothing to ment in this city, to the amount of two millions, not a do with the question. It appeared to him that, by some cent has been devoted. bargain or other, the college was indebted to the United This college, said Mr. B. differs from similar instituStates. "This bargain was made between the Secretary tions, in other parts of the Union, inasmuch as its bene of the Treasury and the Trustees of the college, and was fits, from the centrality of its position, will extend to the like all other bargains. They thought they had made a remotest parts of the United States.--and what do they profitable one, but they were mistaken. Congress might ask? Although my friend is not governed by dollars lay a tax on the District for the purposes of education. and cents, others may be, and it is frequently a weighty In all the states there were taxes laid for the purpose argument. The honorable gentleman says, he considers of education; and there was not a college in the Union | it as a grant of $25,000; but this is not the case ; it is the but received students of every denomination of religion. mere release of a debt, which is never to be recovered
They never asked wbat was his creed; but, if he was by the United States ; it is of no advantage to the states, moral and studious, he was admitte). Although this but lies like an incubus on the college. There is a vast District had no representative, Mr. M. said, it was in a difference between paying away $25,000, and releasing better situation than any other part of the Union, from a bad debt to that amount. the quantity of public money expended in it; and the Some remarks have been made with respect to the
hold which Congress possesses over this Institution. It buildings, but all of it cannot be. What was then the is, said Mr. B. as absolute a despotism as any tyrant question? Should the Government, by a rigid en forcecould wish. By the charter, the moment you withdrawment of their account, involve this valuable institution in your assent, they cease to exist--they live but in your destruction ! He, for one, said No. On the ground taken, presence; and I beg leave to ask, what greater con. that the District was within their exclusive juriscliction, trol you would wish than that?
that they had no representative, and were thrown on It has been remarked that this territory ought to be Congress, he wished the debt should be remitted. They extremely rich, and the gentleman from Maine says he had done much for education in other places, then why does not wish to see it represented in Congress; but hesitate in this instance ? this does not involve the question before the Senate. Mr. MILLS said he understood that the corporation On that point, however, Mr. B. said, it is the genius of had assumed the debt amongst themselves since the the constitution that the American people should be re completion of the buildings. It was an unwise and uirpresented wherever they may be placed. Why should necessary speculation, which they ought not to have you wish to disfranchise them, and have a race of peo. meddled with. ple placed beyond the scheme of the constitution?
Mr. JOHNSON, of Kentucky, in reply, assured him I must now, said Mr. B., address myself to my friend that he labored under a misapprehension--that the from Massachusetts, in regard to his quid pro quo. We houses were purchased by Lulher Rice, in his own will take it, says he, for granted, that the trustees did name, for the use of the college. The proposition was receive a compensation for the debt: nominally, indeed, made to the trustees of the college, to take the properthey did; but it was unavailable, and it has been a most / ty, and give their note to a certain amount. The houses un productive transaction. Thousands of contracts are stand mortgaged to the Government of the United States, made, and prove ruinous; and, in such a case, would not and the Secretary of the Treasury, knowing the debt every generous man do his utmost to relieve the suffer. was for the benefit of the college in the first instance, ers? There has been no quid pro quo. It appeared at had placed it in the name of the college. first that there was something like equality in the con- Mr. LLOYD), of Mass., requested to know with what tract between the parties, but it was merely nominal, view the purchase was originally made. and now we know that it was a total loss on the part of Mr. JOHNSON. ir reply, stated that they were bought the College. I have, said Mr. B., no talent for illustrating the sub.
| for the express purpose of accommodating the agents of ject of education ; but the fruits it has already brought
the college, and carrying on the affairs of the institution forth in this very college, must make an immense im.
before the college buildings were erected. pression on the public mind. An individual, without le...
Mr. MILLS was not satisfied with the information ob. gislative aid, establishes an institution without any pros- tained in this way, but desired to have precise informapect to himself of earthly good, except the consciousness tion as to the subject in question ; and, for the purpose of a good deed; he lays the foundation-it takes root, of obtaining it in a proper form, he moved the recomand flourishes : and, fron, such a beginning, it now con: mitment of the bill, that a report of the facts might be tains 120 of the future legislators of the country. From
made. the specimens which have been produced, there is un Mr. BARBOUR stated that the buildings were bought equivocal evidence of the superior manner in which this by L. Rice, the founder of the institution, because he institution is conducted. Yet it only asks release from a thought it would promote the object in view. The Sedebt which it cannot pay, and which bears heavy on it:cretary of the Treasury thought he could not be injured; and is it a matter of fair argument to say that such an in. / for what he took was so much gained. After the incorstitution has no stronger claims than an individual ask
poration took place, the Secretary knew it was connect. ing for relief? The subject is now before you I have
ed with this institution, and carried on the negotiation endeavored to acquit inyself according to my view of it,
to make the debt a dent due from the Columbian Coland I recommend it to the favorable consideration of the
lege. These houses, said Mr. B., bear no pruportion to Congress of the United States.
the amount of the debt; and, if it can be paid, it must Mr. HOLMES, of Maine, could not agree with the be by the sale of the college, and, even then, the pro. reasoning of his friend from Virginia He says the cor ceeds would be insufficient to satisfy the demand, as the poration is in debt, and cannot pay, therefore forgive college owes other debts having a prior claidi. The very ness must be extended to it. This is the last reason he existence of the college is involved in the question, and should have thought of applying to a corporation. The you may, if you please, have the college cried through next thing would be that the Bank of the United States the streets, like a horse, and knocked down for what it would be asking them the favor to cede stock. Every will fetah. corporation that comes to want is to be considered in
1 Mr. CIIANDLER recommended that the bill should the light of an individual debtor : but, in this instance, I be recommitteil, and a report made to call on the SecreMr. H. did not know who they were to forgive. The tary of the Treasury for precise inforınation regarding honorable gentleman had spoken of the right of repre. the debt. As to selling the college, they would, he sentation in this District; but he would only answer him I hoped, never find it necessary to do that. The Goversiin the words of the Constitution, and that was a sufficient ment would never press the institution to their injury. answer for him.
Let them pay it when they pleased, but only give the Mr. MACON observed that he still did not precisely | House the necessary information to act on. understand what was wanted. Did the college want the Mr. LLOID, of Maryland, observed, that his absence Government to give up every thing while they gave up had prevented him from becoming fully acquainted with nothing? It mattered not whether the case applied to the facts on which this petition rested. He thought, individuals or to corporations.
however, that, if the Government released the college Mr. HAYNE did not rise to argue the question, but from the lebt, the college ought, at least, to give up to merely to discover whether he was correct in bis idea the Guvernment the property for which the debt was of the subject. He understood, from the statements created. On these terms he would be willing to cancel made, that the institution held certain buildings, and the contract; and he moved the recommiinient of the that the United States held iheir obligation for the debt. bill, with instructions to report to that effect. These buildings were essential for the prosperity of the Mr. NOBLE was opposed to the instructions. institution, and it was not in the power of the officers to the motion to instruct the committee was lost; and force payment without ruining the institution Part of then the debt might be collected by the sale of the college The bill was tecommitted without instructions.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES-SAME DAY. might be in his power to do, with the time and attenzion On motion of Mr. ARCHER, of Virginia, it was
which he could personally devote to it, were it referred Resolved, That a committee be appointed to unite with to a special committee. a committee from the Senate in announcing to General Mr. COCKE, of Tennessee, rose to inquire if the caLatiyette the passage of the act concerning him, which nal referred to in the resolution of the gentleman from has just been approved, and to express to him the re-Illinois was the same for which land had been granted, at spectful request and confidence of the two Houses of a former session, to extend, if he recoll. cted rightly, a Congress that he will add his acceptance of the testimo mile on each side of the canal. He heard some gentleny of public gratitude extended to him by this act to man near him say that, in his opinion, he was mistakenthe many and signal proofs which he has afforded of his perhaps he was mistaken as to the canal intended ; but esteem for the United States.
wished to know the fact.
Mr. COOK said this was the same canal. There had THE ILLINOIS CANAL.
been a reservation of a mile on each side of it, by the Mr. COOK, of Illinois, moved the following:
United States; not for the purpose of making the canal, Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inquire | but for its own purposes, to be sold after the canal should whether any, and, if any, what, provision it will be pro- l be made. One object of inquiry for the committee was. per or practicable to make to aid the state of Illinois in whether it was expedient to grant this inil square, on Opening a canal to connect the waters of Lake Michigan each side of the proposed route of the canal, towards and the Illinois river; and that said committee have leave 1 defraying the expense of inaking it. If not, the inquiry to report by bill or otherwise.
would then be, whether other means could be placed at Mr. COOK, by way of explanation of his views in mov: I the disposal of the state, to execute the canals, &c. ing this resolution, as it was rather out of the usual
Mr. CLARKE, of New York, observed, that there was course to propose to refer such a subject to a select com- I already a resolution lying on the table, which had refer. mittee, made one or two suggestions. A year or two
ence to the subject of canals generally, and he was deago, he said, Congress passed a law granting to the
sirous that that should be previously disposed of, as it state of Illinois certain privileges in relation to land
would virtually include the object of the present resothrough which the proposed canal is to pass. The state lution; and, under this persuasion, he moved to lay the took all the necessary steps to avail herself of these pri
resolution of the gentleman from Illinois, for the present, vileges. But it was not likely that the state, from its or
on the table. dinary means, could carry this measure into effect. Con
Mr. MERCER, of Virginia, then rose, and observed, gress have given to the state of Illinois a certain proporthot be
that he considered the resolution of the gentleman from tion of the nett proceeds of the sales of the public lands, Ulinois a very reasonable one, and he thought that the for the encouragement of learning; and a portion of the subject to which it alluded had never been exhibited as public lands within the same state for the same purpose. it deserved. The Committee on Roads and Canals had if no better means should present themselves; it the already much to do, and could not devote to this indiri. Government of the United States should not consider dual subject as niuch time and attention as it deserved. this canal, in a national view, of so much importance as if the motion to lay the resolution on the table prevailto construct it at its own cost, the state might be allowed, it would not be treating the resolution of the gentleed to convert its School Lands into a fund for the pur
man with the same fairness as had been shown towards nose of making the canal, and to apply the toll from the others of a similar kind, several of which had already
vel to the school purposes, thus merely changing the been offered, and all of them received a reference. He Land into a canal stock, the profils of which to be ap: I thought it was not the proper course to defer this subAliel to the same purpose as the land is to serve-of en liect till the reneral proposition should receive its discouraging learning. There were a variety of views which
cussion; it was very possible that the committee of the Mr. C. said he could present to a committee on this sub.
whole might reject that proposition (not as opposed to ject, and to the House, upon a proper opportunity. This
its principle, but esteeming it not ibe wisest that the canal was really a national object, worthy of the employ.
case admitted of) and in the mean while much assistance ment of the national means. But, if this House should
might be derived from the report of a select committee not consider it so, means to execute it might be placed
on this subject, which would have a bearing on the geat the disposal of the state by the measure which he had
neral discussion. suggested,
The question was then put on Mr. Aller's motion for Mr. ALLEN, of Massachusetts, was opposed to the re. l amendment, and carried-ayes 63, noes 57 ference of the resolution to a select committee. He
Thus the resolution was so modified as to refer the thought that it properly appertained to "he Committee subject to the Committee on Roads and Canals. The on Roads and Canals, who were perfectly competent to
question then recurring on the resolution as amended, dispose of it ; and he moved, as an amendment, to sub.
Mr. COOK, feeling extremely anxious that this substitute the Committee on Roads and Canals for the pro
ject should go to a select committee, and believing that, posed select committee.
on further reflection, the House might be induced to reMr. COOK said, if he supposed the Committee on
consider the vote just taken upon the amendmeni, mor. Roads and Canals could devote to this subject that atten.
ed to lay the resolve on the table. tion which its importance, in the estimation of the peo- Which motion was agreed to, and the resolution orderple of Illinois, at least, demanded, he should have no od. led to lie on the
have no o ed to lie on the table accordingly. jection to the reference of the subject to that standing committee. But, alieady, so many subjects had been re
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. ferred to that committee as to preciude such an inquiry Mr. STRONG, of New York, then rose, and said, it into this subject as he felt it to be his duty to ask from would be recollected by the House, that the gentleman the House. Understanding, as he did, the various phases from South Carolina, (Mr. McDUFFIE,) had given notice of this question, Mr. C. said, he should hope that a se- that, on Monday, the 3d of January, he would call up the lect committee, exclusively devoted to the subject, amendment proposed by him ai the last session, to the would present a more satisfactory view of it than the constitution of the United States, and that the gentleman Committee on Roads and Canals could do, giving to other from Louisiana, (Mr. LIVINGSTON,) had given notice matters already before them the attention which they just that, when that amendment was taken up, he should ly demanded. Feeling in the subject, as the represen. call up an amendment to it, proposed by himself at the tative of Illinois, a special interest, he was desirous of last session. Mr. Strong now wished to propose an presenting the subject as strongly to the House as it ! amendment to the amendment of the gentleman from
Louisiana ; the effect of which would be that, in the final who, coming from the State where these claimants revote for President of the United States in this House, sided, were more particularly connected, by their situathe members, instead of voting collectively by states, tion, with the present bill. But he had risen, because should vote individually, as on any other question. Wish- he had had, in his own person, some opportunity of an ing to bring such a measure into discussion, he moved acquaintance with the facts of the case, and such was for the printing of all three amendments, (that of Mr their impression upon his own mind, that he felt confiMcDuffie, that of Mr. LivINGSTON, and his own,) giving | dent there was not a man on that floor, let him come notice that he should move for the consideration of the from the North or the South, from the East or the West, whole subject on Monday next.
who, if he knew the sufferings of these claimants, wou
The asMr. STRONG'S amendment is in the following words:
“1. The electors shall meet in their respective states, sertion might be thought a bold one, but he felt no heand vote, by ballot, for President and Vice President, sitation in making it, and he now repeated that, had genone of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the tlemen been eye witnesses to what was suffered on that same state with themselves; they shall name in their | frontier, not one would refuse to relieve the sufferers. ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct On most subjects, he felt as much disposed to econoballots the person voted for as Vice President; and they mise the public resources as any member of this House ; sball make distinct lists of all persons voted for as Pre- but he could never consent that, when he who had thrown sident, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, open his door to receive a suffering, perishing American and of the number of votes for each, which lists they soldier, and in consequence of his hospitality he had had shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of his house burnt to the ground, asked compensation from government of the United States, directed to the Presi- the American Government, he should be sent away undent of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, aided. Mr. V. said he felt his inadequacy to do justice in the presence of the Senate and House of Representa to the subject, or to his own feelings, and he well knew tives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then that, after the able speeches which had been made in be counted. The Person having the greatest number of opposition to the bill, rom men of the first standing in votes for President, shall be the President, if such num
the country, whoever rose to advocate it, must expect ber be a majority of the whole number of electors ap
to row against a strong current. But if the arguments pointed; and if no person have such majority, then,
of those gentlemen are not more specious than sound, from the persons having the highest numbers, not ex- he was greatly mistaken. ceeding three, on the list of those voted for as Presi . He proceeded then to notice, in the first place, the dent, the House of Representatives shall choose imme. doctrine advanced by the gentleman from North Caroli. diately, by ballot, the President. A quorum for this na, (Mr. WILLIAMS,) as to the policy of allowing these purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number
claims. [Here Mr. V. quoted Mr. W's speech, as reof Representatives. Each Representative shall have ported in this paper; in that part of it which relates to one vote only; and a majority of the Representatives the freedom of a citizen in choosing his abode on the present and voting shall be necessary to a choice. And
frontier, and the comparative burdens of those on the if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Pre border and in the interior.) Now, sir, said Mr. V. I say sident, whenever the right of choice shall devolve on
that this doctrine is more specious than solid. I hold a then, before the fourth of March next following, then
doctrine which I think more connected with patriotism the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case and the best interests of our country, when I maintain of the death or other constitutional disability of the Pre that the sufferings of the citizen on the frontier should sident.
be made up to him by the rest of his countrymen. “2. The person having the greatest number of votes The gentleman goes to the true ground, when he as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such speaks of the doctrine of retaliation. Gentlemen may number be a majority of the whole number of electors say what they will about national law, but the only true appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then, trom
grounds on which to decide this question are those of the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall self-preservation and retaliation. Mr. V. insisted, that choose the Vice President. A quorum for this purpose
two parts of the speech of the gentleman from North shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Sena
Carolina, were incompatible and contradictory. (Here tors, and a majority of the whole aumber shall be neces
he again quoted the report, in that part of it which resary to a choice.
lates to the devastations on the Chesapeake, where Mr. "3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the WILLIAMS refers to the President's letter to Cochrane, office of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice Pre
threatening retaliation if the outrages are continued.] sident of the United States."
Sir, that's the true doctrine-the only preservation of Mr. MERCER, of Virginia, said that he rose, not to
any country. We have heard much of national law, and
we have abused the British from one end of the country oppose this motion, but to suggest that the period the most inauspicious that could be devised for seriously en- lis war: and where a commaoding general goes in suc
to the other, and tried to excuse ourselves; but, sir, war tering upon this question, was the present session. He
cessful pursuit of an enemy, he is very apt to trample on was persuaded that no beneficial effect could be answer. ed by taking it up.
11 your fine theories of the law of nations, and inflict on He believed, indeed, that nothing
ing the enemy what injury he can. could be more detrimental to the barmony of the session,
We have ourselves and to other interests, than now taking up this question.
done it, and to as great an extent as any nation in the Under this impression, he rose to say that, for one, he
world, in proportion to our power. should oppose the taking up this question on Monday dertaken to illustrate bis doctrine
The gentleinan, in another part of his speech, has unDext, and he hoped the House would be of the same
(Here Mr. V. quot
ed that part of Mr. Williams' speech ] opinion on that subject as himself.
But, sir, has 'The motion for printing was then agreed to.
the gentleman forgotten our federal character? Is each
part of this country, and is each man in it to protect him. NIAGARA SUFFERERS.
self? Is such a doctrine as this preached to us by the The House having resumed the consideration of the gentleman ? Is the interior to be paid for marching to bill on this subject
defend the frontier ? Sir, if that gentleman should march Mr. VANCE, of Ohio, then rose and said, that it was from Norfolk to defend the most distant part of our fronwith reluctance that he presented himself before the tier, he would only be marching, in effect, to defend House on this subject-and his doing so might perhaps bimself. It is an acknowledged maxim, that it is better demand from him some apology to those gentlemen, to fight an enemy in your neighbor's ground than on