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ang 18th CoxGRESS,
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[Sen. and H. of R. 2. In the instance before us, the question is not one giving way to the desire and the hope that his majesty's
merely of form. A substantial change is made in the government might have felt able to accept the treaty, with PER treaty; and, as I have said, on a point originally propos- the allerations introduced by the Senate as conditions of
ed by yourseif, sir, as the American plenipotentiary, and its ratification, I have only to express my regret at the understood to be proposed by the special direction of disappointment of this hope. your government. The right of visiting vessels, suspected of slave-trad-nipotentiary of the United States at his majesty's court,
All power over the instrument,on my part, as the Ple. beer ing, when extended alike to the West Indies, and to the ceasing by this decision, it only remains for me to say,
coast of America, implied an equality of vigilance, and that I will, with promptitude, transmit to my govern
did not necessarily imply the existence of ground of sus- ment a copy of your note, at which source it will receive, les pe picion on either side." The removal of this right, as to the coast of America, which it treats.
I am sure, all the attention due to the high interests of and its continuance to the West Indies, cannot but ap- I have the honor to be, with distinguished pear to imply the existence on one side, and not on the tion, sir, your most obedient servant, other, of a just ground either of suspicion of misconduct, or for apprehension of an abuse of authority.
RICHARD RUSI. To such an equality, leading to such an inference, his
The Rt. Hon. GEORGE CANNING, Majesty's government can never advise his Majesty to
Ihs Majesty's Principal Secry of State consent. It would have been rejected, if proposed in
for Foreign Affairs. the course of negotiation. It can sti!l less be admitted as a new demand, after the conclusion of the treaty. With the exception of this proposed omission, there
Mr. Adams to Mr. Rush. is nothing in the alterations, made by the Senate of the
Department of State, United States, in the treaty (better satisfied, as his Majesty's government undoubtedly wou d have been, is they
Washington, Nov. 12, 1824. had not been made,) which his Majesty's government would not rather agree to adopt, than suffer the hopes
Sir: Your despatches, to Nos. 395 and 12, inclusive,
The proposal for the negotiation food, to wbich this arrangement had given rise, tube / have been received. disappointed.
of a new convention, for the suppression of the slave Upon this omission, they trust the Senate of the U. trade, will receive the deliberate consideration of the get 10b
States will, on another consideration of the subject, see
President. that it is not equitable to insist.
It is observed, with regret, that the reasons assigned A full power will therefore be sent to Mr. Addington / in Mr Secretary Cauning's letter of 27th August, to you, his Majesty's Charge d'affaires at Washington, to con
as having induced the british Government to decline
as clude and sign, sith any plenipotentiary to be appoint
the ratification of that which you had signed, as modied by the American government, a treaty, verbatim the
fied by the advice and consent of the Senate of the same as the returned treaty would be, with all the alter
United States, appear to have arisen from impressions alations introduced into it by the Senate, excepting only to
together erroneous. It is stated that, under the expectathe proposed omission of ihe words “and America,” in
tion that the treaty woull not be made a subject of re. the first article; which treaty, if transmitted to England,
newed discussion in the United States, it had actually with the ratification of the government of the U. States,
been ratified on the part of the British Government as at his Majesty will be ready to ratify.
first concluded; and hence an argument of inconveni. But I am to apprize you, sir, that his Majesty will not en
ence is deduced, that a second, and qualified ratification advised to appoint plenipotentiaries to conclude and could not be given, without impairing the dignity of the & the like treaty here, to be, as before, ratified by his Government, by the implication that the former ratificaMajesty, and to be again subjecied, after ratitication by tion had been an act of the sovereign, performed in his Majesty, to alterations by the Senate of the United
To give weight to this reasoning, it would seem an am confident that you will sce, in this distinction essential part of the facts, that the ratification alluded to et nothing more than a reasonable safeguard for luis Majes.
had been transmitted to the United States; or at least ty's dignity, and a just desire to ascertain, before his
that it was known to have taken place by the Governs Majesty again ratifies a diplomatic instrument, to what
ment of the United States, at the time when the Conven. biect conditions that ratification is affixed.
tion came under the consideration of the Senate. This, VED Thiave the honor to be, with the highest consideration,
however, was not the case. That it had been ratified in by sir, your most obedient servant,
Great Britain, was neither known nor believed. It apo GEORGE CANNING, pears to bave been an act altogether voluntary, and in To Rocuard Rusi, Esq. &c. &c.
no wise referring to that which was expected on the part of the United States. The argument, therefore,
rests upon facis other than those which were really ap. Mr. Rush to Mr. G. Canning.
plicable to the subject.
While admitting that the knowledge of those proviLondon, August 30, 1824. sions of our constitution, which reserve to the Senate the
right of revising all treaties with foreign powers, beSia: I had the honor to receive, on the 28th in-fore they can obtain the force of law, precludes the posstant, your note of the 2d of this month, giving me sibility of taking exception to any particular instance in information that his Britannic Majesty's government which that revision is exercised, Mr. Canning urges that nave declined, for the reasons you have enumerated, ad- this part of our system operates unfavorably upon the vising his majesty to accept the ratification, by the Pre- feelings of the other contracting party; whose solemn sicient and Senate of the United States, of the treaty for ratification, he says, is thus rendered of no avail; and une suppression of the slave trade, lately signed on be whose concessions in negotiation, having been made, (as half of the two powers, in manner and form as that rati. all such concessions must be understoud to be made)
had been made known by me to his Majesty's conditionally, are thus accepted as positive and absolute, government.
while, what may have been the stipulated price of those Tik Having already, sir, had the honor to lay before you concessions, is withdrawn. to the reasons that operated with my government for It may be replied, that, in all cases of a treaty, thus ne
all the r
18th CONGRESS, L
Documents accompanying the President's Message. [Sen. and H. of R. 2d SESSION. S go jated, the other contracting party, being under no themselves, and none more cautiously than Great Bri obligation to ratify the compact, before it shall have been tain. ascertained wie her, and in what manner, it has been dis- Tam, with great respect, sir, your very humble an posed of in the United States, its ratification can in no obedient servant, case be rendered unavailing by the proceedings of the
JOHN QUINCY ADAYS. Government of the United States upon the treaty. And R. Rush, Esq. Envoy, &c. London. that every Government contracting with the United States, and with a full knowledge that all their treaties,
Mr. Addington to Mr. Adams. until sanctioned by the constitutional majority of their Senate, are, and must be, considered as merely inchoate,
WASHINGTON, 6th Nov. 1824. and not consummated compacts, is entirely free to with Sir: You have already been apprised of the circur. hold its own ratification until it shall have knowledge of stance of his Majesty, my sovereign, having declined althe ratification on their part. In the full powers of Eu- fixing his ratification to the convention concluded in ropean governments to their ministers, the sovereign London on the 13th of March last, between the Brius) usually promises to ratify that which his minister shall and American Plenipotentiaries, for the more effectual conclude in his name; and yet, if the minister transcends suppression of the slave trade, amended and qualified as his instructii ns, though not known to the other party, that instrument had been by the Senate of the United the sovereign is not held bound to ratify his engage. States ments. Of this principle Great Britain has once availed In lieu of that convention, however, His Majesty proherself, in her negotiations with the United States. But poses to the American government to substitute anothe full powers of our ministers abroad are necessarily ther, verbalim the same as the amended instrument, one modified by the provisions of our constitution, and pro- point alone excepted; that exception is, the erasure of mise the ratification of treaties signed by them, only in the word “ America," in the first article, a word wnich the event of their receiving the constitutional sanction stood in the original projet of the article, as proposed by of our own government.
the President to the British Government, but which the If this arrangement does, in some instances, operate United States thought fit, after the mutual acquiescence as a slight inconvenience to other governments, by in- of both parties in it, to expunge. terposing an obstacle to the facility of negotiation, it is, In announcing to you the fact of my having been for on the other hand, essential to guard against evils of the nished with full powers to conclude and sign with the deepest import to our own nation, utterly incompatible American Government a new treaty, such as I have with the genius of our institutions, and it is supported above described, it will be unnecessary for me to enter by consilerations to which the equitable sense of other at length into the motives which have actuated His Manations cannot fail to subscribe.
jesty in coming to this decision, as you have already been The treaties of the United States, are, together with made acquainted with those motives thro' the medium their Constitution, the supreme law of the lanıl. The ot an official letter, addressed,on the 27th August last, by power of contracting them is, in the first instance, given His Majesty's Secretary of State, to the American Es to the Presideni, a single individual. If negotiated voy in London, in which all the grounds of that determabroad, it must be by a minister or ministers under his uat.on are fully expounded. appointment; and if in Europe, with powers largely dis- ' A few observations, on my part, however, in brief alle cretionary-the distances seldom permitting opportuni. sion to one or two points connected with this subject, ties to the minister of consulting his Government for in- may here be not misplaced. structions, during the progress of the negotiation. Were In the acquiescence of His Majesty in all the altera. there no other check or control over this power, and tions, with one only exception, effected by the Senate were there an obligation, even of delicacy, requiring the in a treaty originally projected by this government, at unqualified sanction of every treaty so negotiated, the re- the spontanenus recommendation of the House of Re. . sult would be an authority possessed by every minister presentatives, the President will, I doubt not, see the of the United States, entrusted with a full power for ne. clearest manifestation of the earnest desire of His Magotiating a treaty, to change the laws of this Union, upon jesty's Government to carry into effect the important objects of the first magnitude to the interests of the and salutary object for which the treaty was designed, nation.
however they may have deemed the original form iu In their negotiations with each other, the European which that treaty was presented for the ratification of nations are generally so near, and the communications this government, the best calculated to attain that between them are so easy and regular, that a negotiator object can seldom have a justifiable occasion to agree to any To the amendment which would exempt the shores important stipulation, without having an opportunity of of America from that vigilance which is to be employed asking and receiving the instructions of his govern on those of the British West Indies, thereby destroyiag ment: a practice always and peculiarly resorted to by that equality which is the prevailing principle of the pro. British plenipotentiaries. With an intervening ocean, visions of the treaty, and which cannot be withdrawn on this is seldom possible, and it is, therefore, just and pro the one side, or on the other, consistentiy with the muper, that the right of juilgment upon all the stipulations tual respect and confidence which subsist between the agreed to by a minister, should be reserved, in the most | iwo contracting parties, His Majesty has found himself unqualified manner, to both governments, parties to the unable to accede ; and I doubt noi, that, upon a fair and treaty; and that every compact, so negotia ed, should be unbiassed reconsideration of that point, the American understood to be signed by the minister remote from his government will see and acknowledge the justice of own country, only sub spe rati ; not conclusive upon his His Majesty's views, and will not hesitate to prove that nation, until its governinent shall have passed sentence acknowledgment, by consenting to re-admit the expungof approbation upon it.
ed word "America," into the treaty. These general observations are submitted, in order It will not fail, sir, to occur to you, that the condition that you may make such use of them as you shall deem required of Great Britain, prior to the signature of the expedient to satisfy the British Government that, in this treaty by the American Plenipotentiary, namely, the de established principle of our constitution, there is nothing nunciation as piracy, by the British Parliament, of the to which any foreign government can justly take excep-slave trade, when excrcised by British subjects, has al. tion : and that it only reserves to our government a ready been fulfilled. power of supervision, necessary for our own safety, On the justice of accepting the value already paid for which the European governments effectively reserve to la stipulated act, and withholding the performance of
18th CONGRESS, - Documents accompanying the President 8 Veu5.
rumenits accompanying the President's Message. [Sen. and H. of R. 21 Session. S that act, I leave it with confidence to your own sense
DOCUMENTS of bonor and equity to determine. The sanction of this government of the original pro
FROM THE WAR DEPARTMENT. visions of the treaty in full, was the equivalent to be re. ceived by his Majesty, for his performance of the condi
Secretary of War to the President of the U. States. tion required of him, namely, his sanction of an Act of
DEPARTMENT OF WAR, Parlianient, declaring the slave traile piracy. Those
December 3d 1824. provisions have been, in part rejected, in part modified, Sir: In compliance with your directions, I herewith by this government ; and yet His Maj sty is still willing transmit reports from the various branches of the Military to abide by his original agreement, provided this GO- Establishment, lettered from A to K, which contain a full vernment will recede from one, alone, of the various statement of the administration of that portion of the pubamendments made by them in the treaty.
lic service which is confided to the Department of War. I might here cite as a proof, if proof were necessary, of The reports afford satisfactory evidence, that a high de, the unlimited confidence which his majesty reposed in gree of excellence has been attained in the administra. the good faith of the government of this republic, and tion of the different branches of the Department. Not their sincerity in wishing to execute the treaty signed by an instance of defalcation, or loss, has thus far occurred, their Plenipotentiary in London-a treaty, I repeat, pro and there is every reason to believe that the disbursejected in conformity with the express recommendation ments of the year will be made without the loss of a cent of the House of Representatives-that His Majesty affix. to the Government. The accounts have already been ed, without delay, his own ratification to the treaty, in rendered for nearly all the money which has been the full security of that instrument being equally invest. drawn from the Treasury in the three first quarters of ed with that of this government. No shadow of a sus the year, on account of the army, foruifications, ordpicion ever entered, ever could enter, His Majesty's nance, and Indian affairs, and it is anticipated, with conmind, that that ratification could be withheld, in whole tidence, that the accounts of the whole of the disburseor in part.
inents, these quarters, will be rendered before the terUnder all the circumstances of the case, sir, I cannot mination of the year. The old unsettled accounts of the but feel an entire conviction, that the sense of justice, Department wlich, at the commencement of the preand the right feelings which animate the American Go- sent auministration amounted to $15,111,123, have been vernment, will lead them to accede, without besilation, reduced to $3,136,991 ; and further accumulation is efto the proposition now submitted to them on the part of|tectually prevented in the Department by stict fidelity His Majesty, and that the President will find no dillicul and punctuality in expenditure and settlement of acty in sanctioning the conclusion of a treaty, the provi- counts. sions of which must eventually result in such incalcula. In order to improve the discipline of the artillery, ele. ble benefits to a most oppressed and afflicted portion of ven companies liave been collected at Fortress Monroe, the human race.
at Old Point Comfort, which have been formed into a With this conviction, I need not assure you, sir, of my corps, as a school of practice for the artillery. The disreadiness to wait upon you at any time which you may persed condition of the artillery rendered the measure think fit to appoint, in order to give effect to "he mstruc. necessary for the improvement of its discipline. By pass. tions which I have received from His Majesty's Secreta- ing the whole corps, in succession, through the school, ry of State, by affi:sing my signature to the convention, a degree of perfection will be given to the discipline of as newly modelled.
the artillery, nearly, if not quite, equal to that which I beg, sir, that you will receive the assurances of my could be attained, were it practicable to collect it into distinguished consideration.
one body, instead of being dispersed, as it is, in garriH. U. ADDINGTON. sons in the different fortresses along the whole line of
the coast. To carry the arrangement into full effect,
will require the aid of Congress. An appropriation, in Secretary of State to Mr. Addington.
particular, will be necessary, to furnish horses for inDEPARTMENT OF STATE,
struction in the light artillery exercise, which may be
also used in instructing the cavalry drill; a branch of Washington, 4th December, 1894.
service in which the army is now without skill or in. SIR: Your note of the 6th ult. has been submitted struction. to the consideration of the President of the United A board of officers has been constituted to revise the States. While regretting that it has not been found book of field exercise and manquvres of infantry, which confor nable to the views of His Britannic Majesty's Go I was adopted at the close of the late war, in order to a vernment, to concur in the ratification of the conven- | new and more correct edition : and to adapt it, as far tion for the suppression of the slave trad., as recom
as practicable, to the service of militia. It is proposed, mended by the advice and consent of the Senate of the also, to add to it, a system of light infantry and cavalry United States, he has thought it most advisable, with rel drill, and to correct and enlarge the military rules and ference to the success of the object common to both regulations, so as to render them as perfect 'as is practigovernments, and in which both take the warmest inter- cable with our present experience. est, to refer the whole subject to the deliberate advise- The organization of the Indian Department has been ment of Congress. In postponing, therefore, a definitive much improved in the course of the year ; the beneficial answer to the proposal set forth in your note, I have only l effects of which is already apparent in its improved ad. to renew the assurance of the unabated earnestness ministration. with wbich the government of the United States looks The liostilities of the remote tribes on the Missouri to the accomplishment of the common purpose ; the still continue, and bas extended in some degree to those entire extinction of that odious traffic, and to the concert
on the upper Missouri and the upper lakes. The con. of effective measures to that end between the United
tinued hostility among the various tribes themselves in States and Great Britain.
that qua:ter, it is believed, has contributed, in no small I pray you, sir, to accept the assurance of my distin. degree, to the murder of our citizens aod depredations guished consideration.
on their property, which have occurred ; and measures JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. I have been taken to effect, if possible, a general pacifica
tion among them.
The season was too far advanced when the act rassed, to carry into effect the intention of Congress in authors
18th CONGRESS, ?
Documents accompanying the President's Message. [Sen. and H. of R, • 2d Session. izing treaties to be held with the remote tribes on the commercial and political intercourse among their cuMissouri by Commissioners to be appointed by the Pre- zens; and within the spheres of these duties, they are sident, and to be accompanied by a military escort. The more competent to act than the General Government Commissioners have been appointed, (General Atkin, and there can be no rational doubt, but that, as the po son and Major O'Fallon, the Agent on the Missouri,)' pulation and capital of the several states increase, these and measures adopted to carry the provisions of powerful means of developing their resources will re the act into effect as soon in the spring as the sea ceive from their respective Legislatures due attention. son will admit. It is believed that much good will re- But as numerous as this class of improvement is, and it sult from the measure, by giving increased security to portant as it may be to the General Governinent, inib our citizens and trade in that remote region ; but it is discharge of the various duties confided by the constiti feared that nothing short of permanent military posts tion to it, there are other improvements, not compre will afford complete security to either.
hended in it, of a more general character, which are The appropriation of the sum of $10,000, annually, for more essentially connected with the performance of its the civilization of the Indians, is producing very benefi- duties, while they are less intimately connected wit cial effects, by improving the condition of the various those belonging to the state goveroments, and less with tribes in our neighborhood. Already 32 schools are es in their power of execution. It is believed that this tablished in the Indian nations, and, for the most part, class, and this only, was compiehended in the provisions are well conducted, in which, during the present year, of the act. In projecting the surveys in this view of the 916 youths of both sexes have been instructed in read. subjeci, the whole Union mus: be considered as one, 100 ing, writing, arithmetic, and all of the ordinary occupa the attention directed, not to those roads and canals tions of life. So large a body of well instructed youths, of which may facilitate intercourse between parts of the whom several hundred will annually return to their same state,but to those which may bind all of the parts > homes, cannot fail to effect a beneficial change in gether, and the whole with the centre, thereby faciitti the condition of this unhappy race.
ting commerce and intercourse among the states, as The acts making appropriation for the repairs of Ply- enabling the government to disseminate prompth, mouth beach, the improvement of the entrance into the through the mail, information to every part, and to es harbor of Presqu’ Isle, on Lake Erie, and of the naviga-tend protection to the whole. By extending those pr. tion of the Ohio and Mississippi, claimed the early atten- ciples, the line of cominunication by roads and canal tion of the Department.
through the states, the General Government, instead of The execution of the two first of these works, was interfering with the state governments within thes placed under the superintendence of officers of the proper spheres of action, will afford (particularly t corps of engineers. The first is nearly completed, and those states situated in the interior,) the only means of preparatory arrangements have been made for the early perfecting improvements of similar description, abia I execution of the second. An officer, also, of the corps, properly belong to them. was assigned to the execution of the act for the improve. These principles being fixed, it only remained to sp | ment of the navigation of the Ohio, so far as it autho-ply them to our actual geographical position, to deier. rized an experiment to be made in removing the sand mine what particular routes were of “national impurbars, which obstructed the navigation of that river. The tance," and which, accordingly, the board should be di officer was prepared to make the experiment, but the rected to examine, in order to cause surveys, plans, as river remained too full, during the Fall, for a fai“ trial. estimates, to be prepared, as directed by the act. Under the other provisions of the act directing measures The first and most important, was conceived to be the to be taken to remove the snags, sawyers, and planters, route for a canal extending from the seat of governme which obstruct the navigation of the Ohio and Mississip by the Potomac, to the Ohio river, and thence to Lale pi, a contract has been formed, with a gentleman expe-Erie ; and accordingly, as soon as the board was organs rienced in their navigation, to free both of those rivers zed, it was ordered to exaroine and cause this import 2016 from all such obstructions, in conformity with the provi- route to be surveyed. Dr. William Howard and Mr. James sions of the act, for the sum of $60,000, to be paid on the Shriver, both of whom were well acquainted with the execution of the work. In the contract it is stipulated, I localities of the route, were associated as assistants with that it shall be executed under the superintendence and the board. Two topographical brigades (all that com inspection of an officer of the Corps of Engineers. be spared from the survey of the coast, for the purpose
In order to carry into effect the act of Congress, of the of fortification,) and one brigade of surveyors, under 30th April last, authorizing the President “ to cause the Shriver, were placed under the orders of the board. necessary surveys, plans, and estimates, to be made, of The examination of the route was completed in Set the routes of such roads and canals, as he may deem of tember; but he survey will not be finished till the 10 national importance in a commercial or military point of season. That part of it, however, which is rnost inte view, or necessary to the transportation of the public esting, the section of the summit level of the Alleghatis, mail," a board was constituted, consisting of General (including its eastern slope, is completed, which, ita Bernard and Colonel Totten, of the Engineer Corps, and boped, will enable the board to determine, during Lok | John L. Sullivan, an experienced civil Engineer. It be present winter, on the practicability of the projec came necessary, in giving orders to the board, under the Should it prove practicable, its execution would be of act, to determine what routes for roads and canals were calculable advantage to the country. It would bindti of “national importance,” in the views contemplaied by gether, by the strongest bond of common interest 21! the act; as such only as the President might deem to be security, a very large portion of this Union : but, in ord of that description were authorized to be examined and fully to realise its “importance in a national point surveyed. In deciding this point, it became necessary view,” it will be necessary to advert to some of to advert to our political system, in its distribution of more striking geographical features of our country. powers and duties between the general and the state | The United States may be considered, in a geograrl. Governments. In thus regarding our system, it was cal point of view, as consisting of three distinct parts, conceived that all of those routes of roads and canals, which the portion extending along the shores of th: 4 which might be fairly considered as falling within the lantic, and back to the Alleghany mountains, constit province of any particular state, however useful they one ; that lying on the Lakes and the St. Lawrence a might be in a commercial or political view, or, to the ther; and that watered by the Mississippi, includire: transportation of the mail, were excluded from the pro- various branches, the other. These several portions visions of the act. The states have important duties to very distinctly marked by well defined lines, and bus. perform, in facilitating, by means of roads and canals, naturally but little connexion, particularly in a comx
18th CONGRESS, 21 SESSION.
[Sen. and H. of R. S
Documents accompanying the President's Messuge. ciai point of view. It is only by artificial means of com- ford a prompt, cheap, and safe communication between munication that this natural separation can be overcome; all of the states north of the seat of government, and to effect which much has already been done. The great greatly facilitate their communication with the centre of canal of New-York firmly unites the country of the Lakes the Union. The states of New Hampsbire and Maine, with the Atlantic through the channel of the North Ri-though lying beyond the point where these improvever; and the National Road from Cumberland to Wheel- ments wouli terminate, would not, on that account, less ing, commenced under the administration of Mr. Jeffer- participate in the advantages, as they are no less interestson, unites, but more imperfectly, the Western with the led than Massachusetts herself, in avoiding the long and Atlantic states. But the complete union of these sepa- dangerous passı ge round Cape Cod, which would be efrate parts, which, geographically, constitute our country, fected by the union of Barnstable with Buzzard's bay. can only be effected by the completion of the projected in the section lying south of this, none of these alcancanal to the Ohio and Lake Erie, by means of which the tages for communication by canals exist. A line of incountry lying on the Lakes will be firmly united to that land navigation extends, it is true, along nearly the whole on the Western waters, and both with the Atlantic states, line of coasts which is susceptible of improvement, and and the whole intimately connected with the centre. may be rendered highly serviceable, parsicularly in war, These considerations, of themselves, without taking into and on that account may be fairly considered of "sation. view others, fairly bring this great work within the pro- al importance." The Dismal Swamp canal, froin the vision of the act directing the surveys; but, when we Chesapeake bay to Albemarle Sound, which is nearly extend our views, and consider the Ohio and the Missis- completed, constitutes a very important link in tiis nasippi, with its great branches, but as a prolongation of vigation. But it is conceived that, for the southern divithe canal, it must be admitted to be not only of national sion of our country, the improvement which would best importance, but of the very highest national importance, effect the views of Congress, would be a durable road, in a commercial, nilitary, and political point of view. Thus extending from the seat of government to New Crleans, considered, it involves the completion ofthe improvements through the Atlantic states; and the Board will accordof the navigation of both of these rivers, which has been ingly receive instructions to examine the route as soon comm
ed under the appropriation of the last session as the next season will permit. of Congress; and, also, canals round the falls of the Ohio The completion of this work, and the line of canals to at Louisville, and Muscle Shoals on the Tennessee river; the North, would unite the several Atlantic states, inboth cfy
hich, it is believed, can be executed at a mode- cluding those on the Gulf, in a strong bond of union, rate expense. With these improvements, the projected and connect the whole with the centre, which would canal would not only unite the three great sections of also be united, as has been shown, with those on the the country together, as has been pointed out, but would Lakes and the Western waters, by the improvement also unite, in the most intimate manner, all of the states projected in that quarter. on the Lakes and the Western waters among themselves, These three great works, then, the canal to Ohio and and give complete effect to whatever improvement may Lake Erie, with the improvenient of the navigation of be made by those states individually. The advantages, the Ohio, Mississippi, and the canal round the Muscle in fact, from the completion of this single work, as pro Shoal; the series of canals connecting the bays north of posed, would be so extended and ramified throughout the Seat of Government, and a durable road extending these great divisions of our country, already containing from the Seat of Government to New Orleans, uniting so large a portion of our population, and destined, in a the whole of the Southern Atlantic States, are onceivfew generations, to out-number the most populous states ed to be the most important objects within the provi- .. of Europe, as to leave in that quarter no other work for sions of the act of the last session. The beneficial efthe execution of the general government, excepting on fects which would flow from such a system of improvely the extension of Cumberland road from Wheeling to ment would extend directly and immediately to every St. Louis, which is also conceived to be of " national im state in the Union ; and the expenditure that would be portance."
required for its completion, would bear a fair proportion The route which is deemed next in importance in a na- to the wealth and population of the several sections of tioral point of view, is the one extending through the country, at least, as they will stand a few years bence. entire tier of the Atlantic states, including those on the When completed, it would greatly facilitate commerce Gulf of Mexico. By adverting to the division of our and intercourse among the states, while it would afford to country, through which this route must pass, it will be the government the means of transmitting infomation seen that there is a striking difference in geographical through the mail promptly to every part, and of giving features between the portions which extend south and effectual protection to every portion of our widely exnorth of the general government, including the Chesa- tended country, peake bay, with its various arms, in the latter division. There are several other routes which, though not es. In the northern part of the division, all of the great rivers sential to the system, are deemed of great importance in terminate in deep and bold navigable estuaries, while an a commercial and military point of view, and which the opposite character distinguishes the mouths of the rivers board will receive instructions to examine. Among in the other. This difference gives greater advantage to these, the most prominent is the connexion, whereimprovement, hy canal, in the northern, and less in the ver it may prove practicable, of the Eastern and southern, division. In the former, it is conceived to be of Western waters, through the principal rivers discharging bigh national importance to unite its deep and capacious themselves into the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico : for bays by a series of canals; and the Board was according- example, the Alabama and Savannah rivers with the ly instructed to examine the routes for canals between the Tennessee, James river with the Kenbawa, and the SusDelaware and the Rariton, between Barnstable and Buz- quehannah with the Alleghany ; which last will be more zard's bays, and Boston harbor and Narraganset bay. particularly adverted to in a subsequent part of the reThe execution of the very important link in this line of port. To these, we may add, the route from Lake communication between the Delaware and the Chesa- Champlain to the St. Lawrence, and from the river St. peake, having been already commenced, was not com- John, across Florida Neck, to the Gulf of Mexico. They prehended in the order. These orders will be executed are both deemed important; but the latter particularly by the Board before the termination of the season. The so. Should it prove practicable, its beneficial effects important results which would follow from the comple- would be great, comprehensible, and durable. The tion of this chain, in a commercial, military, and political/ whole of the Atlantic and Western states woull deeply point of view, are so striking, that they need not be partake in its advantages. Besides the facility of interdwelt on. It would, at all times, in peace and war, af. I course which it would afford between those states, our