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we be made Christ's members, to live by the appointmentof God. According contrary to the same, making our- to our service the end of the washing selves members of the Devil."

of an infant in baptism, or of a peniThese statements seem to agree with tent and faithful adult, is the regenea remarkable one of Cranmer's, which ration of his spirit, that regeneration I find in his Work on the Lord's Sup- without which our Saviour declares no per, p. 366, Parker Society's edition.

man can see, noman can enter the king, " In baptisın we must think that as

dom of God; and so Hooker implies that the priest putteth his hand to the

child it is a means ordained of God for giving outwardly, so we must think that God a new birth to His elect, and says putteth to his hand inwardly, and wash- that in an ordinary way that new eth the infant with the Holy Ghost. birth cannot be had without the water, Moreover that Christ Himself cometh though he allows under certain cirdown upon the child and apparelleth him cumstances God may dispense with with his own self.”

His ordinary manner of working, and Becon also advocates this view of work extraordinarily. regeneration with the water, and de

He leads us to think that God acliverance from wrath in the ordinance complishes the work of the new birth of water baptism ; but his statements not with the Spirit alone, but with seem confused and contradictory as water thereunto adjoined ; and while regards infants. However he is he seems to limit the effect to the

very plain on the point that the gift of elect, he seems also to think that in a regeneration may be lost by following judgment of charity we ought to conthe evil concupiscence (still left after sider all infants of that number,the new birth, to try us and prove us)

“We receive Christ Jesus in baptism, and so displease God here, and come once, as the First Beginner; in the short of the inheritance of obedient Eucharist, often, as being by continchildren hereafter. Bp. Burnet was

ual degrees the Finisher of our life.” of opinion that sufficient grace in the

I have been long on this subject, baptism was given to infants for salva- because I feel that the meaning of our tion, if they died without actual sin, baptismal formularies is very imand that this was the Church's teach- perfectly understood. ing. His words are as follows;

Hence we find so many pamphlets, • The office carries on this supposition the writers are really most hostile to

&c., written in defence of them, while of an internal regeneration, and in that helpless state the infant is offered up and

their real meaning. I have read with dedicated to God, and if he dies in that some interest Mr. Ryle's Treatise on state of incapacity, he being dedicated to Regeneration, and fully agree with God, is certainly accepted of Him; and by your remarks respecting it. He quotes being put in the second Adam, all the a Homily to shew that the Church bad effects of his having descended from does not hold baptismal regeneration, the first Adam, are quite taken away.”. and I quite agree that the quotations he Burnet on Art. xxvii.

makes therefrom shew that the writer I have come to the conclusion that was not of opinion, that wicked adults no one can read the baptismal formu- were regenerate. Whether he thought laries with a proper understanding of they might have been in their baptheir statements, and with a full per- tism, and lost the gift, I think we suasion of their truth, and so with a cannot tell. It seems foolish to refer good conscience, unless he really be- to the Homilies as almost infallible lieves that the water in holy baptism interpreters of the baptismal or other is as much ordained as an instrument services, or as standards of truth. In ky which God's Spirit inwardly clean- one of the Homilies the Apocrypha, ses the proper recipient, as it was or- at least the Book of Tobit, is termed dained that the waters of Jordan Scripture. The one to which I allude should wash away Naaman's leprosy, is the Homily on almsgiving, in the after he had seven times dipped him- second part, “ The same lesson doth self therein at God's bidding. In that the Holy Ghost teach in sundry places case the water was a means to an end of Scripture, saying, Mercifulness and almsgiving purgeth from all sins, and previous to its being brought to the delivereth from death; and suffereth font? This may be the case or not. not the soul to come into darkness," But, according to the Archbishop see Tobit iv. I have quoted from the of Canterbury,“ the Scripture nowhere Homily, the words in our present declares the effects of infant baptism,' translation are rather different. It on this subject it does not speak deseems to me a great pity, that really finitively.” Now if this be true, how well-meaning and enlightened men can we feel satisfied of the positive like Mr. Ryle, should labour hard to declarations in our Services, that we justify the words of a service which as ministers are obliged to make, and connects the right reception of bap- call upon the people to join in; and tism with the new birth, while they it becomes us in all things to seek to themselves deny it to be the necessary live honestly, and to remember that or even ordinary means of communi- whatever is not of faith is sin,-and cating it. I feel a difficulty in assum- that our only ground of faith is the ing that an infant is necessarily in written Word of God. wrath till baptized, and necessarily in

Yours, faithfully, grace because baptized ; for who can A PRESBYTER OF THE CHURCH OF tell what God has done for the infant

Dec. 19th, 1851.

Reviews, and Short Notices of Books.



Remains of Thomas Byrth, D.D., came a Quaker. Dr. Byrth's mother

Rector of Wallasay, with Memoir of was, to use his own language his Life. By the Rev. G. R. MON- Wesleyan in the ancient and now ob

solete sense of the word ;' that is, she Creiff, M.A. 8vo, pp. 444. Hutch

was a good Churchwoman in heart, ards.

and only united to the Methodists, There is much that is very interest

because the Gospel was not generally ing as well as highly instructive in

either preached or loved by the clergy

of the Establishment. Her father had this Memoir. Dr. Byrth has furnished his biographer with a great portion of who seems to have distinguished him

been an early convert of John Wesley's, his work in the shape of a very complete autobiography

of his early

life, by personal friendship.

From this curious stock sprang the written for the use of his children. There are some circumstances in the

future Rector of Wallasey, who, as life of this good man, of so interesting after life the peculiarities of his early

Mr. Moncrieff remarks, retained in a character, from the nature of his po- religious training; "there running sition in early life, and there are pas- through the whole texture of his latest sages of such value in the appendix views, a fine thread of connection to the biography,--that we wish we could give a few extracts both from the

with each theological school.” Memoir and the Remains.

The following further statement of Dr. Byrth tells us that he was born

his origin is well worthy of atten

tion:in 1793, at Plymouth, or rather that part now called Devonport; his fa

“ My father's occupation was that of a ther was a native of Ireland, and his grocer. But although he kept a shop, inother was a Cornish woman.


he carried on business on such a scale, father although brought up as a High subordinate towns of the country, have

as would in the last century, in all the Churchman, and intended for the mi-placed him in the standing of a mernistry, yet from the adoption in part chant. I must ask my children to be. of the revolutionary principles of that lieve that I do not write this from any day, his old Church principles were silly sense of shaine that my father kept not only uprooted, but he went to a shop, but that they may be in possesthe very opposite extreme, and be- sion of the truth as to their origin.

The right appreciation of the fore While I was at Cookworthy's there going sentence would prevent many happened other circumstances which diministers, themselves perhaps sprung

verted my mind from merely scientific from a similar origin, from indulging a pursuits, and directed my thoughts to foolish pride of a station only high and metaphysical and theological disquisiexalted, inasmuch as its possessors

tions. Among the numerous persons in abase themselves and exalt their Mas

their employment, there were more than ter; would also save many a hum

one professing great knowledge of doc

trinal religion. With these, although ble Christian from experiencing that

they were persons of little education, I chilling dignity which often repels

was continually maintaining disputations. them from approaching their pastor. One of them was a man of very superior

First at a dame school, and then at natural powers, and not without very exthe parish school of Callington, Dr. tensive reading in polemics. He was the Byrth received his earliest education; working chemist in the laboratory, and and afterwards wasted, as he terms it was, when I first became acquainted with with bitter regret, “eight precious him, a lay-preacher among the Baptists. years” with a person of the name of Of course, then, his views were CalvinGuest, where the late John George istic. Against the doctrines of the ReBreay, of Birmingham, was his school

former of Geneva, I had jinbibed, both fellow, who, Dr. Byrth says, “ left

from Quakerism and from Wesleyanism, behind him a name beyond any lite

the most unmitigated hatred. And these

matters were the subject of everlasting rary distinction—a faithful and suc

contention between me and Daniel Shep. cessful minister of Christ." He was

heard, till they ended in his coming over removed from this school, and from to the Arminian system, leaving the that time appears to have picked up Baptists, and becoming a local preacher from various individuals some fur- among the Methodists." ther elements of those acquirements While at this chemist's, his father's in which he was destined to perfect failure took place, and he then felt himself with much of severe midnight most keenly the sudden coldness labour and perseverance.

which the world pours After finally leaving school, young who can no longer mingle with the Byrth was bound apprentice to a firm

more fortunate in the affairs of life. carrying on the business of a chemist Upon the expiration of his apprenticeand druggist, and resided with the ship, he formed the determination to junior partner, where he says that he

become a teacher. Under circum“not only learned to hate Quakerism,

stances apparently the most disadbut unhappily to doubt the truth of revealed religion altogether.” A sudden vantageous, did Dr. Byrth struggle on

in his attainment of knowledge; and disgust which he took against this bu

as Mr. Moncreiff remarks, “ He was siness, resulting from a rather ludi- allowed to be the architect of his own crous accident, which happened in the honours, and seldom has the uphill course of some of his stolen experi- battle of life been more unflinchingly ments, made him abjure chemistry for

fought. ever, and turn his attention to litera

In the spring of 1814 Mr. Byrth ture.

secured an engagement, or rather en“ As I sat brooding over my hard tered into a kind of partnership, with destiny by the light of my little candle, Mr. Southwood, in a school at Ridge I perceived my school box of books,

way, near Plympton, where he acted which I had brought with me from home. as tutor in the Greek, Latin, and It contained Homer, Virgil, Horace, and French languages. This engagement A thought flashed across

was not of long continuance; its abmy mind, that I would devote myself to literature, instead of science. No expense

rupt termination being caused by a but that of a candle would be necessary ;

heartless reference to a natural infirand from that night until now-thirty- mity in Dr. Byrth's vision. He then five years ago—not a day has passed, opened a school on his own account, except I have been travelling or disabled where he was happily successful, and by sickness, without a Greek or Latin ultimately, as he says,

“ The blessing book being in my hands.

of Providence rested upon my la

upon those


many others.


bours, and my income became a large devotedness to the pastor's office was

steady. Decidedly evangelical in his We have here only given a slight views, he yet, as his biographer obsketch of the early life and difficul- serves, did not consider himself tied ties of Dr. Byrth; the whole history to adopt the conventional technicaliwill well repay the perusal of those ties of any system of men, but was who may, like him, be struggling to one who eminently followed after escape

from situations uncongenial to truth wherever it was to be found. their tastes. If they would do so, We must pass over his appointment like Dr. Byrth they must labour long to the rectory of Wallasey, and hasten and hard. In 1818 or 1819 he ap- to give one short extract on the subplied for membership with the society ject of his union with the Evangelical of Friends, but only on the score of Alliance. birthright; and as was said, by “pro

“ He earnestly believed that our church, bably being desirous of being identi

with all her faults, had not her like on fied with some system of Christian

the face of the earth; and in joining the doctrine.” The brethren disallowed Evangelical Alliance, he did not give up the claim, and Dr. Byrth relinquished one particle of his churchmanship ; but Quakerism, and became a member of he rightly considered, that he was not the Church of England. Of course only a member of the Church of Eng. his religious feelings were at this time land, but also of Christ's Catholic Church, of a most unsettled character, and it and, much as he loved the church of his was not until his attendance at a country, he would at once have renounced meeting of the British and Foreign all connection with her rather than forBible Society, that it is supposed his

get the paramount duty which he owed personal convictions of the import

to that great body, of which we only form ance of religion were riveted, and

a part." the speeches he there heard also We regret to find that Dr. Byrth helped to decide him as to the bear- was at issue with his brethren in the ing of his future life.

Alliance, on the necessity of waging In 1818 Dr. Byrth entered at Mag- open warfare with Popery, and that dalen Hall, Oxford, still continuing he had kept aloof from Protestant to carry on his school, which he ma- associations and other similar bodies, naged to do by the kindness of Dr. under the deep impression of the Macbride and the other authorities of danger to true Protestantism of mixthat Hall. This course was taken ing up the religious controversy with without any intention of entering the the political agitations of the day. ministry. After the usual time had Viewed as merely auxiliary to the elapsed, Dr. Byrth passed a most cre- furtherance of any particular political ditable examination, and was placed opinions, the active support of Proin the second class, a position, not- testantism and consequent outcry withstanding his own keen disap- against Popery never could be depointment, more than sufficient to fended; but the experience of the establish his reputation, consider- past few years has abundantly proved, ing his having to combine the la- even to the most cautious in the mibours of his own school with the nistry, that while we have been carecourse of necessary reading for the less, or over timid, the Romanists University.

have been sowing seed which has Shortly after this, he decided upon yielded a crop it is not easy to giving up his school and entering the ministry, to which he was soon or- We have given at some length the dained by Dr. Kaye, the present Bi- history of Dr. Byrth's life, until his shop of Lincoln. We cannot follow entrance upon the minstry, and, had the memoir further than to notice that we space, we should notice with sinshortly after his ordination an entire cere pleasure the continued energy change came over “ the spirit of his and faithfulness with which his every theology," and from that period his gift was then consecrated to the serprogress in real spiritual religion, and vice of the sanctuary. His christian

root up:

It is a

character is thus well described in books for the new year, we strongly one of the closing passages of the advise them to let Dr. Kitto's new Memoir :

work be one among the friendly offer“Give the praise of this consistent ings at this festive season. walk to that holy principle which he che- beautifully illustrated History of Parished daily by close communion with lestine in its geographical features;the hearer of prayer. Truly, he' walked a full history of the Hebrew nation, by faith ;' his life-the real life of his in its origin, past history, and present soul-was out of sight—'hid with Christ aspect, -the habits of life, and the in God. The stern integrity--the in- peculiar privileges, customs, and laws, creasing self-control — the unbounded

which have ever made the Jews a liberality-the devotion of life and health

separate people. unsparingly to the service in which he

The work is written for our elder was engaged—these all told of inward

wing children, who having become interested sources of strength, and that strength was union with Christ

. Living and dying, by Scripture reading in the Jewish he bears this testimony-oh! may God nation, may seek to know more about make it effectual — To me, to live is the country and customs of a people Christ, and to die is gain.' To live was

who have played a most important indeed Christ to him. He knew, as his part in by-gone days, and shall again comfort and his joy, that for him, a sin- assume a position of no small moment ner, Christ had died. 'Loug had his in the future events of the world at soul been tempest tost;. Lut long ago large. the storm had been hushed. In quiet assurance of redeeming love, he lived, he Taboured, he died. At the end of the days,' he shall stand in his lot,'-in

SEVENTEEN SERMONS on various Subthe place which by faith he claimed as his own, while yet a pilgrim here."

jects. By Charles Kemble, M.A., We must abandon our intention to

Incumbent of St. Michael's, Stockextract for this number, any portion

well, 8c. London : Seeleys. from “ the Remains." We could

There is a beautiful simplicity and have wished that the compiler of this

earnestness of tone in this volume of Memoir had given us a volume ar

Sermons, which renders them emiranged in a somewhat better and nently valuable for home reading, not more readable form, and which, with only amongst the members of the the materials he possessed and has author's own flock, but which will used, he might have woven into a

make the book a useful addition to a biography, if not as generally inte far wider circle of sermon readers. resting, yet in many points as useful Containing a variety of subjects, all as that of Bickersteth.

bearing upon the most important to

pics of evangelical doctrine, and History Of PALESTINE from the Pa- written in a plain, but way-making triarchal age to the present time. By style, we can unhesitatingly recom

mend Mr. Kemble's “Seventeen SerJohn Kitto, D.D. A. & C. Black,

mons as specimens of the treatment Edinburgh.

of truths which we should delight to If our readers should not have al- know were delivered from every pulready made their selection of gift pit in England.


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