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rect taxation for $20,000,000 for one year, the Secretary believes that the future revival of business will yield the treasury $80,000,000 from the Customs. A two-mill tax upon the real and personal property of the loyal States, will produce $21,800,056. A tax of three mills on the real wealth of these States, will produce $22,891,590. A tax of one and a quarter mill, on the real and personal wealth of all the States, would produce $20,128,667.

The expenses of the War and Navy Departments, for the fiscal year, amounting to about $320,000,000-containing

an increased expense of $240,000,000— is to be raised by a public loan in three different ways.

The Secretary proposes to issue treasury bills, bearing interest amounting to $100,000,000. He recommends also a thirty year funded stock, bearing interest amounting to $100,000,000. The third means of loaning for the government, is to issue $50,000,000 of treasury notes for popular circulation, payable in one year, in sums of $10 and $20, bearing interest. Or, if it should be preferred, these notes may be redeemable on demand without interest.


THE European States, following the lead of England and France, all sympathize with the United States in subduing the rebellion of the Slave States, and maintain a strict neutrality, as stated in the proclamations of Victoria and Napoleon III. The rebel States meet with no encouragement in Europe for acknowledging their independence. All foreign powers, so far as known, approve of our blockade, and the course the American Government is taking to defend the Union and punish the rebels. Italy is destined to become a free and independent republic at no distant day. France has acknowledged the independence of the "Eternal City" and the rural districts of Italy; and England will soon follow

WE learn from the recent Report of the Secretary of the Navy, that when President Lincoln commenced his administration on the fourth of March, the Navy Department was organized on a plan, only to meet the demands of a general peace, at home and abroad. The vessels, which were in condition for service, were principally on distant stations; and those, which constituted the home squadron, were chiefly in the Gulf of Mexico. Congress had adjourned without making

the example of France. All civilized nations will hail the independence of Italy-once the nursery of the civilized world--as one of the most sublime events in the history of the world. All Europe seems to be rapidly progressing in liberty and national glory. The seeds of Liberty which Napoleon I. sowed broadcast through Europe nearly half a century ago, are now rapidly springing up in every state, which, his distinguished successor, Napoleon III., is daily cultivating and maturing for the great harvest of liberty, which is rapidly approaching; when all nations will secure to their citizens all the liberty they are capable of using without abusing it.


any naval provision for meeting the rebellion; and it was hoped by our indulgent and good-natured Government, that no extraordinary preparations would be necessary, to protect the country from the ravages of a few lawless rebels, who were then rising like a small cloud in the distant horizon. But the rapid increase of the rebellion in the slave States, demanded the most extraordinary efforts, to subdue and punish the traitors.

The Government, after concentrat

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These vessels had a complement, exclusive of officers and marines, of about 7,600 men; who were mos ly absent on foreign stations. The home squadron consisted of 12 vessels, carrying 187 guns, and 2,000 men. Only four small vessels of this squadron, carrying only 25 guns, and about 280 men, were in northern ports.

The Blockade Fleet now consists of 37 regular men-of-war; and 39 steam gun-boats; with 720 guns, 10,113 officers and men; and 59,229 tons.

Whoever would learn the resources


WE have now in the field, probably, about 300,000 loyal troops, ready to sacrifice their lives, in the defense of their country. They are all volunteers, and not foreign mercenaries. They come from the farmers, mechanics, merchants, bankers, lawyers, phy

and salient powers of the American Union, let him consider the sudden expansion of our navy, from a mere nominal force, to its present powers, numbers, and means; within the short period of the last three months. With so few vessels in commission on our coasts, while our gallant crews were in distant seas, the Government was very feebly prepared to meet the sudden rebellion; which burst upon us, like a volcano under our feet. The rebels had ruled the two previous administrations; and used them clandestinely, in making every preparation for Almost their culminating treason. every vessel had one or more traitors; who ultimately deserted the Stripes and Stars, and hoisted the rebel flag. But the national Government, aided by the States, and the people, have met, promptly, the extraordinary exigencies. of the times; and have relieved the country from all danger and anxiety. The President is now ready to crush the treason in its bud, punish the traitors, and remove all its causes, so that it never will be repeated. It is with no ordinary pleasure, that we learn from the Report of the Secretary of the Navy, that the destruction of the naval property at Norfolk, was no fault of the Government. But it is quite apparent where the fault lies; and the people will hold the Government responsible, to investigate this treason, and punish the traitors. We agree with the Secretary in his proposed improvements of the Navy; and hope Congress will sustain him. Now all things are ready, the Navy, the Army, and the people are all ready; and all the Government has to do, is to let its shivering and fatal blows fall thick and fast on the heads of the rebels; give the leaders a plenty of hemp, and their ranks a plenty of grape and canister; give us a short and triumphant war; until every rebel shall be subdued, and the country purified from their treason, and relieved from all its causes.

sicians, clergymen, colleges, seminaries, and other professions, and worthy occupations of the several States. Every free State, and several of the slave States, have contributed their quota of good and worthy citizens, for this army of patriots. They have not volunteered

their property, their lives, and their free country. And should the Government pay them one dollar a day,-a sum less than what they can earn at home, and all reasonable expenses for food, raiment, and nursing, it would not be one farthing more than they deserve; and the people are willing to pay. The old superannuated system of bounty lands, should be thoroughly reformed or wholly rejected. Let the Government keep their lands and pay the troops in cash. Or, if they persist in paying part in lands, it should be so guarded, as to protect the honest soldier from those common cheats, who have generally purchased their landwarrants for a glass of grog, or one quarter of their value. One of the first and most important duties of the Government to the army, is to provide them with experienced, able, and kind officers. To place a man in the command of troops, who will ignorantly or imprudently expose the lives of his men, is no better than a murder.

for the purpose of making money, but for the purpose of saving their country from the depredations of a lawless, reckless mob of rebels and pirates; whose only ambition is, to rule or ruin. Such soldiers are entitled to our best regards. Both the government and the country should see to it, that they are well treated, and well paid. Their food should be wholesome, palatable, and plenty; and the camp should be as comfortable, as the circumstances will permit. The country is full of produce; and the people are willing to supply their army with every comfort, the soldier needs for his happiness and health. It is the duty of the government to see, that these brave men are well fed, well clothed, well quartered, well nursed, and well used. The government have liberally allowed to each private, a suit of clothes worth eighteen dollars. This sum of money will purchase as good a suit of clothes, as eight. tenths of the business men of all classes wear, who are in independent circumstances. And it is to be regretted, that some of our Government agents have been so negligent or dishonest, that' hundreds of our troops have been without decent and comfortable clothing. That man who willfully and deliberately cheats a soldier, in his food or raiment, deserves a halter, and it is the duty of the Government to see to it, that these Harpies are well punished; and that they never have another opportunity to repeat their frauds. Some of the volunteers have adopted the temperance pledge; and the Government should, as far as possible, far as possible, shield them from their own improvidence, and the impositions of others. The army, at the best, is a nursery of vice; where the temptations to intemperance, and other bad habits, are so strong and numerous, that the young warrior is very liable to fall in the battles of virtue and vice, before he meets his fate in the sanguinary battles of his country.

The soldier should be well paid. We distinguish between our own native volunteers and foreign mercenaries. The old principle of fighting for money, which controlled the armies of Europe, in the days of Feudalism, has no application to our loyal army. They have no such ambition. They have volunteered to defend their parents, their brothers and sisters, their children,

The people are willing and anxious, to furnish the troops gratuitously with magazines, papers, and books, as food for the mind, in their leisure hours; and the Government should make inmediate arrangements to distribute them in the Navy and Army. Nor should the religious interests of our brave men be neglected. The country is full of clergymen, who can be spared, as Chaplains, to lead both the army and navy in their battles against vicious habits; and in their virtuous victories. Let there be no deficiency of Chaplains, in numbers, talent, or piety. Several of our most distinguished American Divines, preached their first sermons to the army in the American Revolution. Those ladies, who have so kindly and patriotically followed the noble example of Florence Nightingale, as nurses for the sick and wounded, are entitled to liberal pay, the thanks of the world, and the smiles of H ven. Every one knows, who has been sick, the difference between male and female nurses. The nursing of a kind mother, a wife, or a sister, far exceeds the best care of the other The kind words of a mother, the encouraging smiles of a sister, or the soft whispers of a loving wife, and many other nameless attentions in the sick-room, show the superior advantages to the patient, of female nurses.
































These twenty-four Libraries, containing over five thousand volumes, are from the pens of distinguished European and Ameri can authors, and are all standard works. Each Library or work, can be purchased separately or in Library


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4. History of Asia..

5. History of Africa

6. History of Europe

7. History of America..

8. History of Oceanica..

9. History of Liberty and Slavery.

10. Fall of Poland...

11. Monumental History

12. History of Music.

13. Mythical History.

14. Natural History

15. Moral History..

16. Personal History

17. Social History.

18. National History..

19. Institutional History

20. Biographical History
21. Synchronical History
22. Future History.
23. Chronological History
24. Geographical History.
25. History of the Sciences..

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