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inhabitation. Some birds of the aquatic kind resort to it for food and pleasure ; and the penguin, so curious for her arranged societies and vast colonial multiplication, is found to use and enjoy it more spaciously than a land bird could have been expected to venture. *

We find also many other species of birds hovering over the seas at considerable distances from land ;t and we know that the tortoise order navigate them to remote shores for parental purposes. A large species of the serpent class has also been noticed in several parts of it.

Facts like these indicate that the ocean has been made for the use and enjoyment of several orders of the animal kingdom, as well as for objects connected with human transactions and improvements; indeed far more for what is important and interesting to the other classes of animated nature, than for our race, though the king of all. It is associated with our convenience; but it is daily fulfilling designs and ends with which we have no immediate concern.

One grand purpose it is always promoting, and this is, that it kindles irresistibly in every mind which views it, the emotion and sentiment of sublimity ; a feeling of vastness of extent and moving power; a perception of grandeur, combined with the most attractive beauty, when the sun

* Captain Beechey mentions, in traversing the Southern Ocean, “As we approached Falkland Islands from Rio Janeiro, some PENGUINS were seen upon the water at a distance of 340 miles from the nearest land." -Voy. i. p. 16. ...of this singular bird Mr. G. Bennett lately stated to the Zoological Society, that he had found a vast colony "at the north end of Macquarrie Island, in the South Pacific Ocean, which covers an extent of thirty or forty acres. The number of penguins collected on this spot is immense. During the whole of the day and night 30 or 40,000 of them are continnally landing, and as many going to sea. They are arranged, when on shore, in as compact a manner and in as regular ranks as a regiment of soldiers. They are classed with the greatest order. The young birds being in one situation; the moulting in another; the sitting hens in a third, and the clean birds in a fourth. So strictly do the birds in a similar condition congregate, that should a bird which is moulting intrude itself among those which are clean, it is immediately ejected from among them. While the female is hatching her eggs, the male bird goes to sea to collect food for her; after the young are hatched, both parents go to sea and brir:g home food for them."

† The presence of birds at sea is usually thought an indication that land is near; but it is not then in sight, and is frequently not reached till after one or two days' farther sailing. sac. Hist. vol. i. (Fam. Lib., No. XXXII.) p. 350. Ib. p. 450.

bright calm is adorning its radiant and slumbering waves ; and of terrific majesty and agitating horror, when the storm throws up its waves, and hurls their foaming masses with a resistless fury, as if destruction were acting in a living form, and rushing determinedly to overwhelm us. Nothing more fully impresses man with a conviction of his personal helplessness, and comparative feebleness, when confronted with the forces of surrounding nature ; nor more compels him to feel, that power, infinitely greater than his own, is ever subsisting above and about him, to which he is completely subjected, and against which he is impotent to struggle. He may give this never-dying power what denomination he chooses ; but it forces him, by the ocean tempest, by the aerial whirlwind, and by the appalling thunder, to feel the certainty of its existence, and the tremendous possibilities of its agency. If he be wise, he will recognise it as the herald, and representative, and proclaimer of the Deity himself, and as the sensorial proof that he exists, and reigns, and actuates, and providentially governs; for the more terrible the agitation of the winds, and waves, and lightning appear, and by their effects prove themselves to be, the more evidence they give to our eysight and judgment, how speedily they would spread ruin and desolation through material nature, and over man's human world, if no superintending and controlling mind watched and limited their agency. The safety of our much-compounded globe, and of ourselves, depends every hour on the judgment and vigilance with which all the active forces of nature are coerced, guided, adjusted, and regulated, so that they never shall operate to produce general evil or universal destruction, or any more than the permitted portion of either; and yet without the guardian administrator, and according to their own ungoverned and unrestricted properties and natural restlessness, it is obvious that in no long series of time, these impetuosities and collisions, if self-actuated only, would shake and shatter all things into fractures, confusion, and death.*

* The ocean, like the rest of material nature, bas been created with the same divine taste for beauty, and exhibition of beauty to us, even in the appearances beneath its mighty waters. The following picture has been given of the NORTHERN SEAS:

"Nothing can be more surprising and beautiful than the singular clearness of the water of the Northern Seas.

"As we passed slowly over the surface, the bottom, which here was

The ocean was a device of the Almighty, which, when executed, by placing the seas in their present positions and diffusion, gave to his providence the easy means and power of distributing the nations of which he meant his human population to consist, in such localities, and with such connexions and insulations, and immediate or future relations, as his progressive plan required. Colonization by coasting voyages, more or less distant, became thus always practicable. It was never difficult to transport small bodies for new settlements, by boats or larger vessels. It was easy, by adverse winds, to waft some of these to greater remoteness, or to other points than they themselves intended. All such could be kept aloof from others as long as his designs required ; and as they enlarged into tribes, or cities, and states, the ocean then became his convenient instrumentality to such farther changes and circumstances as he meant to educe.

For as none could traverse the ocean but those who applied themselves to the art and practice of navigation, and became thereby maritime states, it was only such as he led to be of this description, which could visit those that were raised and flourishing in the distant regions of the earth. Thus the first power which he produced of this sort was the Phenician, whose navigating tendencies were enlarged by their offspring, the Carthaginians. The Greeks, in their Cretan and other isles of the Cyclades and Egean sea, were the next nation which was formed to have the maritime propensity : and these soon spread their territorial settlements, till they became extensive colonizers on the Bosphorus and Hellespont above them; and in no long time, also in lower Italy, and Sicily, and France. To these, in due time, the Romans succeeded, though with less activity, and with but little taste for commercial navigation.

in general a white sand, was clearly visible, with its minutest objects, where the depth was from twenty to twenty-five fathoms. Hanging over the gunwale of the boat, with wonder and delight, I gazed on the slowly moving scene below. Where the bottom was sandy the different kinds of asteriæ, echini, and even the smallest shells, appeared at that great depth conspicuous to the eye. Now creeping along, we saw far beneath, the rugged sides of a mountain rising towards our boat, the hage of which, perhaps, was hidden some miles in the great deep below. Though we were moving on a level surface, it seemed almost as if we were ascending the height under us; and when we passed over its summit, which apparently rose to within a few feet of our boat, and came again to the descent, which on that side was suddenly perpendicular, it seemed almost as if we had thrown ourselves down this precipice. Now we came again to a plain, and passed slowly over the submarine forests and meadows which appeared in the expanse below, inhabited doubtless by thousands of animals, to which they afford both food and shelter, though unknown to man. I could sometimes observe large fishes of singular shape, gliding softly through the watery thickets, unconscious of what was moving above them. As we proceeded, the botton became no longer visible : its fairy scenes gradually faded to the view, and were lost in the dark green depths of the ocean.”

C. Brooke's Travels to the North Cape in 1820, p. 195.

But when his new plans for the improvement of our Europe began to open, then several of its countries were induced, by the stimulus and necessities resulting from the Crusades, to cultivate their shipping, and to attempt distant voyages. The Hanse Towns, Italians, Flemings, and, in time, our English forefathers, were actuated by these impulses; yet always restrained and governed as the purposes of the Great Ruler required.

But when the time arrived for his causing the remoter nations of the earth to become known to us, we know historically, that of all the states of Europe bending their attention to maritime concerns, it was the Portuguese who were selected to pass the Cape of Good Hope, and discover the ocean passages to India and China ; as it was the Spanish nation who, in like manner, were urged and conducted to make the Americas known to the civilized world, and to begin our relations with them.

The Dutch were then made the next most distinguished people for these distant navigations in the Asiatic seas; as England became also on the Atlantic, for the purposes of planting a new race of mankind of her national species on the shores of North America. Thus the ocean was made the peculiar means in the hands of Providence of keeping away from both Eastern Asia and the Americas, those nations whom it did not choose to plant there, or to have frequent intercourse with them; and of leading over it to them, such as it was its will and suited its designs should have the dealings and settlements from which others were withheld. At present, the British nations have been raised to the colonial and governmental ascendency in India, Australia, Polynesia, South and West Africa, and in the eastern frontiers of North America ; while the populations of the Spanish race are permitted to occupy and retain the South

American continent; every one moved as the Great Director meant and led, and all fulfilling his wise and prospective purposes, and advancing his grand ulterior ends.

LETTER XXII.

Intended Separation of Mankind into Distinct Nations and Communities-- Adaptation of the Earth to this Appointed Condition in its various Regions and Countries--The Surface gradually fitted to this Local Geography.

My Dear Son, The state of the human race, from the time that any notices of their transactions appear, has never been that of one united community or empire. They have always appeared divided into many insulated populations, living apart from each other, and remaining in distinct and separate tribes or nations; most of them unknown to the others, and usually hostile to each other, or ever ready to be so, from alarm, suspicion, or provocation. This is the historical fact, and from its occurrence and continuation, we can have no difficulty in marking it as a part of the divine plan as to human nature, that mankind should be thus divided ; should multiply in separated populations ; should rarely unite and amalgamate ; and that, by this arrangement, each should grow up into those peculiar species and modifications of moral and intellectual being which they severally display ; and that the maintenance of their distinguishing particularities should be assisted by their mutual fears, jealousies, or dislikes.

What the actual events thus exhibit in certainty to us, the Mosaic history accounts for ; presents the origin of it to our view, and ascribes it to the same cause to which our reason refers it-the divine determination. It was the special will and appointment of God, that such should be the state of human kind after the deluge ; and it is noted to have begun about a century after the subsiding of the watery agitations.

That such a partition would not at first be chosen by the subsisting population, but would be resisted by it, we may from our own feelings assume. Like our sheep and cattle, and many other classes of birds, fish, and quadrupeds, and

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