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rk, Gen. Wilson ordered an attack; hen 300 of the 3d Iowa cavalry oved forward, supported by the 4th wa and 10th Missouri, under a avy fire of grape, canister, and usketry, pushed through strong atis, and pressed back the Rebel le. Gen. Upton now sent up two mpanies of the 10th Missouri to ize one of the bridges leading into Slumbus; which, under cover of rkness, was effected. And now en. Upton charged again, sweeping way all resistance; and soon the city as ours, with 1,200 prisoners, 52 ld guns, and large quantities of hall arms and stores, at a cost to us barely 24 killed and wounded. mong the Rebels killed was C. A. Tamar, of IIowell Cobb's staff, "mer owner and captain of the lver Wanderer. We destroyed re the Rebel ram Jackson, mountg six 7-inch guns, burned 15 loco»tives, 250 cars, 115,000 bales of tton, &c., &c. Lagrange's advance reached West int at 10 A.M. this day, and found 3 crossing of the Chattahoochee tended by Fort Tyler, a strong, stioned earthwork, 35 yards square, lated on a commanding hill, and unting 4 guns. At 14 P. M., this t was bravely assaulted on three es; but its ditch, 12 feet wide by deep, stopped our men under a hering fire of musketry and grape. grange, refusing to fall back, ted sharpshooters to tranquilize Rebel gunners while he gathered terials for bridges, over which his n sprang at the sound of the bugle; hing over the parapet, and caping the entire garrison—265 men. h. Tyler, its commander, with 18
of his men, had been killed, and 27 more severely wounded. Simultaneously with this charge, the 4th Indiana cavalry dashed headlong through the town, secured both bridges over the Chattahoochee, drove out the slender Rebel force found there, and burned 5 engines with their trains. Early next morning, Gen. Minty, commanding (since Long's fall) the division, was on his way to Macon, as was Wilson on the Columbus road; both columns ar- . riving on the 21st, after Wilson and Minty had both received assurances from Gen. Howell Cobb, commanding in Macon, that the war was virtually ended. Cuxton did not arrive till the 30th. Outnumbered by Jackson in their encounter near Trion,” he had moved off swiftly to Johnson's ferry to the Black Warrior, 44 miles above Tuskaloosa, where he crossed and came down the west bank; surprising and capturing" Tuskaloosa, with 3 guns and 150 prisoners; destroying the military school, public works, stores, &c. Hearing nothing from Wilson or McCook, he burned the bridge over the Black Warrior, and sped south-west nearly to Eutaw; where he heard that Wirt Adams, with 2,000 cavalry, was close upon him. Too weak to fight such a force, Cuxton turned and countermarched nearly to Tuskaloosa; thence by Jasper, Mount Benson and Trionsville, to Talladega; near which, he scattered a small Rebel force under a Gen. Hill; pushing thence by Carrollton, Ga., Newnan, and Forsyth, to Macon; having, with his small force, moved 650 miles in 30 days, in entire ignorance of the position or for
* April 2.
* April 5.
Gen. Canby, commanding in New Orleans,was kept inactive throughout the Summer and Autumn of 1864, by the exacted return of the 16th corps from his department, to serve on either bank of the Mississippi above. His remaining corps—the 13th, Gen. Gordon Granger—participated, as we have seen, in the reduction of the forts at the mouth of Mobile bay. During the year, Gen. Dick Taylor crossed the Mississippi and assumed command of the Confederate forces in Alabama. At length, after the overthrow of Hood, in Tennessee, the 16th was returned to Gen.Canby; who now proceeded, in concert with Wilson's demonstration from the north on central Alabama, to attempt the reduction of Mobile and its remaining defenses," now held, under Dick Taylor, by Gen. Maury, with a force estimated at 15,000 men. The forces employed by Gen. Canby consisted of the 13th and 16th corps aforesaid, with a division of cavalry and one of colored infantry —in all, from 25,000 to 30,000 men; and he was assured of the hearty cooperation of Porter's powerful fleet, now commanded by Rear-Admiral Thatcher, so far as the available depth of water in the shallow bay of Mobile would allow. Active operations awaited only the arrival of the 16th corps by water on Dauphine island;” which was the signal for a concentration on Mobile of Canby's entire dis
posable force. The cavalry, under Grierson, crossed Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans, advancing to Mobile Point, whence the movement on Mobile commenced: the 13th corps marching thence around Bon Secours bay to strike Mobile from the east, where its defenses were deemed least elaborate; while Gen. F. Steele, with a division of Blacks, was impelled from Pensacola on Blakely, and a brigade of Smith's corps was transferred by water to Cedar Point, on the west side of the bay; landing under a heavy fire of shells from our iron-clads, and threatening an attack on the city from that side. Steele's advance was resisted by cavalry only, and not seriously, till, on reaching Mitchell's creek, a stand was made” by some 800 of the 6th and 8th Alabama cavalry, under Clanton, who were promptly charged and routed—275 prisoners, including Clanton, being taken, and the residue of the force dispersed. Steele encountered no further resistance till he was in front of Blakely, which was strongly held by the Rebels; where he halted and sent to Canby for supplies, which were promptly transmitted.” Gen. Granger's march around Bon Secours bay and up to Mobile was impeded by pouring rains and heavy roads; so that Smith's corps, which was embarked on transports and thus moved up and across the bay to their appointed rendezvous near Fish river, arrived first;” but Granger's corps came up in the course of the two following days; and the joint advance on Mobile was resumed on the 25th. It was resisted only by skirmishers; but the roads were thickly planted with torpedoes, which, unless cautiously sought out and exploded, were very destructive. Quite a number of men and horses were killed by them. ‘Spanish Fort,” the strongest of the eastern defenses of Mobile, was thus approached and finally invested:" the Rebel movable column retiring on Blakely. The 16th corps, on the right, threatened Blakely, while the
* See page 650. *March 12, 1865.
* March 25. * March 29. * March 21.
13th, on our left, more immediately
invested Spanish Fort. Steele now joined hands with Smith, thus forming our extreme right. Our fleet had moved up the bay parallel with our army, making for Howard’s landing just below Spanish Fort, with intent to aid in the reduction of that stronghold by bombardment, and by isolating it from Mobile. Notwithstanding the general shallowness of the bay, they were enabled to approach the shore so nearly as to deliver a very effective fire, which was seldom returned, and which ultimately cut off the fort from all communication with the city; but, in effecting this, the Metacomet first, afterward the Osage, were blown up by torpedoes, and destroyed. Their crews generally escaped, owing to the shallowness of the water. The gunboats Stockdale, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Albatross, Winnebago, and Genesee, with some smaller vessels, remained. After firing leisurely through the day, they usually dropped down the bay to Great Point Clear to anchor for the night. The siege of Spanish Fort was opened in due form on the 28th; our lines having been established during the preceding night, at distances of 300 to 400 yards. Up to this time,
* March 27.
* April 3.
our total loss had not exceeded 400 men. The siege was pressed with great ardor, and with considerable loss from Rebel shells. On the morning of the 30th, Weatch's division of Gen. Granger's corps, while relieving guard, blundered into the Rebellines, and were regarded as the head of an assaulting column; provoking a sally, whereby our skirmishers and working parties were hurled back, with some loss; but the enemy, advancing too far, were repelled in turn; whereupon, the artillery on both sides suddenly réopened and kept firing till daylight to little pur. pose. Still, the siege was steadily pressed forward; and, the investment
being completed,” the result was no
longer doubtful: our troops having already built an earthwork and mounted siege-guns within 200 yards of the Fort Our losses were mainly from shells: many of them thrown by batteries whose location was concealed, and which could not, in consequence, besi. lenced. One of these shells killed or wounded 15 men; another 12. Our fleet, unable otherwise to get within effective distance of the fort, crossed the bar and engaged the Rebel fleet, which included several iron-clads; compelling it to move up toward the city. All being at length ready, a tre. mendous concentric fire at close range was opened" at nightfall on the doomed fort, from siege guns and field-pieces in battery, and from gunboats on the side of the bay; while our skirmishers and sharp-shooters, creeping up from ridge to ridge, and firing from the heads of our trenches, picked off the Rebel artillerists or
drove them from their guns; which replied at first briskly, then more and more feebly; until, by midnight, they were utterly silenced, and, an hour later, the fort was ours; Gen. Bartram's brigade entering unopposed at 2 A. M.” Most of the garrison escaped under cover of darkness; but 652 prisoners and 30 heavy guns, with a large quantity of munitions, fell to the victors; who forthwith turned the guns, seconded by those of the Octorara, on the smaller forts Tracy and Huger near the mouth of the Tensaw; which were speedily abandoned by the Rebels, after spiking their 8 heavy guns. And now our fleet, enlightened as to the location of torpedoes by some of the captives, succeeded in picking up 35 of them unharmed, and was thereby enabled to run up almost within shelling distance of Mobile. Blakely had already been for four days invested by land; but its com: munication by water with Mobile remained open until the fall of the forts below. Our gunboats now moved up to invest it on this side ; while Gen. Steele, in immediate command before it, formed his columns for a prompt, determined assault; which he appointed for 5 P.M., and which was actually delivered at 5%. .The position was a very strong one, heavily fortified with abatis, palisades, chevaux de frise, and a deep, wide ditch at the base of the fort. Its front extended nearly three miles—its right was near Bayou Minetta, its left on Blakely river; and it was garrisoned by 3,000 men, under Gens. Thomas and Cockrill. Its abundant cannon swept every practicable approach.
The struggle opened on our left; where Gen. Garrard, under a fire of the 17th Ohio battery, sent forward one-third of his strong division to within 50 yards of the main works, defying a hail-storm of shell and shrapnel, to discover and indicate the safest ground over which to move up in force, preparatory to the decisive charge. Finding that there was no choice of ground—all being alike impracticable—a brief conference was held by the general officers, and closed with the word ‘Forward!’
The whole division at once sprang forward with a shout; to which the Rebels responded with all their guns. For nearly an hour, our men struggled with obstructions that seemed insurmountable, under a fire of shell and canister that threatened their annihilation; sometimes recoiling for a moment, when the voice of their commanders would cheer and encourage them to rally; and thus at length the abatis and other obstructions were struggled through, and the Unionists leaped into the ditch and scrambled up the face of the defenses; while Rinnekin’s and Gilbert's brigades, turning the fort by our right, gained its entrance and arrested there the flight of Gen. Thomas and 1,000 of his men, who were made prisoners.
The conflict along the center, where the assault was delivered by Dennis's brigade of Veatch's division and Spiceley’s and Moore's brigades of Andrews's, was far less sanguinary; yet Andrews's men, when but 40 yards from the fort, were plowed with grape from 8 guns; while our skirmishers, on reaching the brink of the ditch, were scattered by the explosion under their feet of a dozen torpedoes; yet, under a furious fire of grape and canister, the assault was steadily persisted in till the victory was complete. On our right, the Blacks, led by Gen. Hawkins, were pitted against Mississippians, who specially detested them, but who found them foemen worthy of their steel. ‘Temember Fort Pillow!” passed from ranktorank as, with set teeth and tightly grasped weapons, they went over the Rebel breastworks, hurling back all before them. By 7 P.M., Blakely was fully ours, with 3,000 prisoners, 32 guns, 4,000 small arms, 16 flags, and large quantities of ammunition. It had cost us fully 1,000 killed and wounded; while 500 Rebels lay stretched beside them. Mobile was lost and won. It could no longer be held; so its evacuation commenced on the 10th, and was completed on the 11th. Gen. Maury fled up the Alabama, with 9,000 men, leaving 4,000 prisoners in our hands; while 1,000 more were found in the city, when, at 2 P. M. of the 12th, the flag of the Union—already
floating over every fort and battery that looked on the bay—was exult. ingly raised over the last important Confederate seaport. Its reduction had cost us 2,500 men; beside two iron-clads, two ‘tin-clads' (or slightly
shielded gunboats), and one transport .
—all sunk by torpedoes. The guns captured in the city and its defenses numbered 150. The powerful rams Huntsville and Tuscaloosa were sunk by Maury before the evacuation.
The Rebel ram W. H. Webb, from Red river, freighted with cotton, rosin, &c., came down the Mississippi past New Orleans” so wholly unexpected that she received but two shots in passing—our fleet being still mainly absent in Mobile bay. Being pursued by gunboats from above, she was making all speed toward the Gulf, till she encountered the corvette Richmond, coming up the river; when her commander, seeing no chance of escape, terminated her brief but not particularly brilliantca. reer, by running her ashore and blowing her up. Her crew escaped to the swamps, but were mainly captured.