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bury the dead and care for the rounded, he again threw "forward is right: McPherson, in front of (enesaw, being relieved by Garrard's avalry, and ordered to move rapidly y the right down to the Chattahoohee, threatening to cross with the ailroad at or near Turner's ferry. 'he success of this manoeuver was in'antaneous. Though its execution egan at nightfall, Kenesaw was rthwith evacuated by Johnston; ur skirmishers stood on the summit : dawn; and—our whole army pressig forward—General Sherman rode to Marietta on the heels of the ebel rear-guard at 8% A. M. Sherman was thus eager in the ursuit, expecting to catch Johnston ossing the Chattahoochee and deroy half his army; but the wary onfederate had ere this strongly inenched a position on this side, coving the passage of the river, and ood here awaiting—in fact, inviting -an assault. Sherman paused, and utiously approached; sending forard at length " a strong skirmishhe, which carried the enemy's outer he of rifle-pits, taking some prisons. Next morning, he was mainly ‘er the river; and our army adinced in triumph to its bank at veral points, with Atlanta just at ind. But the Chattahoochee is here a rge stream; rapid as well as deep, d barely fordable at one or two ints. The railroad and other idges, of course, were covered by e enemy's strong work on our side, nich they still held. But Gen. hofield was now moved rapidly m our extreme right to our left, d there pushed across, above Pow
er's ferry, surprising the guard, capturing a gun, and soon fortifying himself strongly on high ground, commanding good roads, tending east, while he had laid a pontoon and a trestle bridge across the river. Howard soon had a similar bridge and position two miles below; and there was a general movement of our forces from right to left, which constrained Johnston to abandon his fort or bridge-head, burn his bridges and bring his last man across the Chatta. hoochee.” His new line, covering Atlanta, had the river on its left front and Peach-tree creek on its right. Sherman now gave his men a little much needed rest; and, before active operations recommenced, Johnston had been superseded in chief command by Gen. J. B. Hood, of Texas. Johnston's campaign, it appeared, had not answered the expectations of his superiors at Richmond. He had not demolished Sherman, with an army of little more than half the numerical strength of ours, and in nothing superior thereto. He had not even been able to prevent Sherman's persistent, determined, and generally skillful advance. But he had made the most of the rare advantages to the defensive afforded by the chaotic region across which he had been stea. dily driven, and had missed no good opportunity to strike a damaging blow. Pollard says he had lost about 10,000 in killed and wounded, and 4,700 from “all other causes”—that is, about one-fourth of his entire ar. my—which, considering that he had fought no great battle, and could not afford to fight one, argues tolerably
sharp work for a two months' purely
defensive campaign. Nevertheless; he was set aside, and a believer in more aggressive, less cautious strategy appointed in his stead. Johnston turned over to Hood an effective force of 41,000 infantry and artillery, and 10,000 cavalry.”—in all, 51,000 —which is nearly as many as he had at Dalton. Nothing short of brilliant and successful generalship in his successor could justify his displacement. Gen. Rousseau, with 2,000 cavalry, now joined” our army; having come through, by a long circuit, in twelve days from Decatur, Ala., defeating the Rebel Gen. Clanton by the way; passing through Talladega and destroying the railroad thence 25 miles to Opelika, doing some harm to the branch or cross road, with a loss of but 30 men. Gen. Sherman resumed * active operations by pushing Thomas over the Chattahoochee close on Schofield's right: the latter advancing, and with McPherson, now on our extreme left, reaching forward to strike the Augusta railroad east of Decatur: the whole army thus making a rightwheel movement, closing in upon Atlanta from the north-east. Obeying these orders, McPherson had broken up the railroad for some miles, while Schofield, on his right, had reached Decatur, and Thomas had crossed” Teach-tree creek at several points— all skirmishing heavily; when, as Thomas was moving two of Howard's divisions to the left to close on Schofield, he was vehemently assailed” in force by Ilood, who struck suddenly and heavily Newton's division of IIoward's corps, LIooker's corps, and Johnson's division of Palmer's; by * So says Pollard—doubtless quoting from Johnston's official report.
whom he was repulsed, after a gallant struggle; wherein our total loss —mainly in Howard’s corps—was 1,500; while the enemy left on the field 500 dead, 1,000 severely wounded, and many prisoners. Sherman estimates their total loss at not less than 5,000. Among their killed were Brig.-Gen. Geo. M. Stevens, of Md., W. S. Feathertson, of Miss., L. Armistead, of Ga., and John J. Pettus, of Miss. The next day was spent by Sherman in reconnoitering and feeling of the enemy’s intrenched position along the heights south of Peach-tree creek; which the light of the ensuing morn” showed to be without defenders. It was at once concluded that Atlanta was to be quietly evacuated; and our men swept eagerly forward to within two miles of that city, where they were arrested by a far stronger line of works, carefully constructed in 1863, consisting of redoubts, connected by curtains, with rifle-trenches, abatis, &c. In the skirmishing of the 21st, Brig.-Gen. Lucien Greathouse, late Col. 48th Illinois, was killed. McPherson, advancing directly from Decatur, with Logan's (15th) corps in the center, Frank Blair's (17th) on its left, and Dodge's (16th) on its right, was now close to these inner defenses; Blair had carried, the night before, by hard fighting, a high hill which gave him a full view of the heart of the city, on which he was preparing to place his batteries. Dodge, who, as the semicircle described by our army was narrowed by our advance, had been thrown in the rear of Logan, was moving across by a cart-track to come in on Blair's ft; when, about noon, the sound of uns, on that flank and on our rear )ward Decatur, apprised Sherman hat mischief was afloat. Hood had etermined, while holding the bulk our army with a small part of his, y reason of the strength of his denses, to fall, by a long flank nightarch, with his main body, led by ardee, on our left and rear, rolling p and pulverizing each division bere it could be supported by another. nd Hardee had already struck his 'st most unexpected blow at Giles . Smith's division of Blair's corps; hile Gen. McPherson, riding in ncied security through a wood in e rear of that division, had been lot dead, just as he had given an orr to hurry up Wangelin's brigade Logan's corps to fill a gap between lair's and Dodge's corps, into which e charging Rebels were pouring ce a torrent. IIere Murray's batte(6 guns) was surprised and taken the men generally escaping to the bods; and two more guns were lost Smith, as one wing of his division as forced back by the impetuous sh of the enemy. Simultaneously with Hardee's flank tack, Stewart's corps was to have ruck Blair in front; but Stewart as not up to time. Hardee swept ong the slope of the hill on which air was preparing to plant his batries, making prisoners of his workg party. The Rebel charge bore avily on Giles A. Smith's division Blair's corps, which was compelled adually to give ground and form a w line connecting with Leggett's vision, which held the crest of the l; and here for hours the battle ged fiercely: our men having the
* July 22. * July 16. * July 19. * July 20, 4 P M. * July 22.
vantage in position, and inflicting
heavy loss on the enemy. At 4 P.M., the Rebels virtually desisted here, having been unable to drive Blair; while Dodge, striking their right, had handled it severely, capturing many prisoners.
Meantime, Wheeler's cavalry (ours
on this wing, under Garrard, being absent at Covington, breaking up a railroad) had raided, unopposed, to Decatur, where were McPherson's wagons, and attempted to capture them; but Col. Sprague, in command there, covered them skillfully and held firmly; sending them off, so fast as he could, to the rear of our center, and losing but three, whereof the teamsters had fled with the mules. After a brief lull, the enemy charged again up the Decatur road; catching a regiment thrown forward upon it unsupported, and taking two more guns; pushing through the interval between Wood's and Harrow's divisions of the 15th corps, posted on either side of the railroad, and hurling back Lightburn's brigade in some disorder. But Sherman was close at hand, and, perceiving the importance of checking this advance, he ordered several of Schofield's batteries to stop it by an incessant fire of shell; Logan (now commanding McPherson's ar. my) was directed to make the 15th corps regain at any cost its lost ground; while Wood, supported by Schofield, was to go forward with his division and recover the captured batteries. These orders were promptly and thoroughly executed; all our guns being retaken but two, which had been hurried off the field; and the day closed with our army triumphant and the enemy recoiling to his defenses. In this stubborn contest, our total
loss was 3,722, of whom perhaps 1,000 were prisoners. Gen. Logan counted on the battle-field 2,200 Rebel dead, and estimates that there were 1,000 more not within our lines or who otherwise escaped observation. We took 1,000 prisoners, beside the many wounded who fell into our hands; and Gen. Sherman estimates that IIood's total loss this day can not have been fewer than 8,000. Among his killed was Maj.-Gen. W. II. T. Walker, of Georgia. Gen. Garrard, with his cavalry, returned from Covington next day; having broken up the railroad, destroyed a train of cars, with much other property, and bringing in 200 prisoners, with a total loss of two men. IIood was not inclined to force the fighting directly thereafter; and Sherman, while quietly preparing for a new movement by the right, dispatched his now augmented cavalry on a raid against the railroads in IIood's rear. Stoneman, with his own and Garrard’s divisions, 5,000 strong, was to move by the left around Atlanta to McDonough ; while A. D. McCook, with his own and Rousseau's (now Harrison's) freshly arrived divisions, numbering 4,000, was to move by the right to Fayetteville, thence coming up the road and joining Stoneman at a designated point near Lovejoy's. Such cóoperative movements rarely succeed, and almost never in the hands of second and third-rate leaders. McCook moved down the west bank of the Chattahoochee to Rivertown, crossed on a pontoon, and tore up the West Point railroad near Palmetto station; thence pushing on to Fayetteville, where he captured and burnt 500 wagons belonging to IIood's
army; taking 250 prisoners, killing 800 mules, and bringing away others; thence striking, at Lovejoy's, at the time appointed, the Macon railroad, and tearing it up; but meeting no Stoneman, and getting no news of him. IIe thence pushed south-west to Newnan, on the West Point road; where he was confronted by infantry coming from Mississippi to aid in the defense of Atlanta, while the Rebel cavalry were hard on his heels: so he was forced to fight against odds, compelled to drop his prisoners, and make his way out as he could, with a loss of 500 men, including Col. IIarrison, captured. He reached Marietta without further loss. Stoneman’s luck—that is, his management—was far worse. He failed to meet McCook as directed, and divided the force he had; sending. Gen. Garrard to Flat Rock to cover his own movement to McDonough. Garrard, after lingering some days, and skirmishing heavily with Wheeler's cavalry, hearing nothing from Stoneman, made his way back, with little loss, to our left. Stoneman started with a magnificent project, to which he had, at the last moment, obtained Sherman's assent. He purposed to sweep down the road to Macon, capture that city, pushing thence by the right to Andersonville, where many thousands of of our captured soldiers were suffering inconceivable privations, liberate and, so far as possible, arm them, and then move with them to our lines in such direction as should seem advisable. The conception was a bold yet not necessarily a bad one; but it needed a Sheridan instead of a Stoneman to execute it. Sherman's assent to it was based on his orders that the so bodies of horse should be concenated at Lovejoy's, and Wheeler deated or chased off by their superior rce; but, this failing, Wheeler was o strong for either division, and the heme became chimerical. Stoneman, with his segment of the iding force, struck out eastward to 5vington; thence moving down the st side of the Ocmulgee, breaking roads and burning bridges, withst even attempting to keep his tryst th McCook at Lovejoy's. When length he appeared before Macon, had not more than 3,000 men; ld, being confronted with spirit by hastily collected Rebel force under erson, he was unable even to cross e river; but, abandoning all idea reaching Andersonville, turned on s trail, pursued by Iverson. Now consented to a still further disperin of his force—the three brigades mposing it attempting to escape parately. That led by Col. Adams ached Sherman nearly unharmed; at under Col. Capron was surprised the way, charged and dispersed: Ose who escaped generally straging into camp before Atlanta on 5t and disarmed; while that with nich Stoneman attempted to mainin some show of resistance was soon rrounded by Iverson, and Stonean induced, by an imposing prense of superior force, to surrender discretion—he having 1,000 men t, and Iverson at hand only some 0. Stoneman, it was reported, 'ed when he discovered how he d been duped; but his sorrow subrved no good purpose. He had, by :apacity, imbecility, and disobedice of orders, squandered a full ird of Sherman's cavalry.
Gen. Howard succeeded,” by the President's order, to the command of the Army of the Tennessee; where. upon, Gen. Hooker, considering him. self disparaged, was relieved, at his own request, from the command of his corps, which was given to Gen. Slocum. Gen. Palmer was soon relieved from the command of the 14th corps by Gen. Jeff. C. Davis. Gen. D. S. Stanley succeeded Gen. How: ard as the head of the 4th corps.
The Army of the Tennessee was now shifted” from our extreme left to our extreme right; moving behind the rest of the army from the Decatur road on the east to Proctor's creek on the south-west; initiating a general movement to flank Hood out of Atlanta by cutting the railroads in his rear. The movement was of course detected by Hood; yet it had been substantially completed, and our men were hastily covering their new front with a rude breastwork of logs and rails, when Hood struck out” as hea. vily from his left as he had done the week before from his right. Evi. dently expecting to catch Howard in disorder, or at least unprepared, he poured out his masses from the west side of Atlanta, and charged im: petuously on our new right, held by Logan's (15th) corps, which had been formed on the crest of a wooded ridge, with open fields sloping from its front, its right refused, and some. thing like a rail breastwork in its front; Howard standing behind it, ready to hurry Blair's and Dodge's corps to its support; and Sherman himself on hand, eager and alert for the encounter. After a briefcannonade, Hood's infantry, under Hardee and Lee, was thrown forward against
* July 27
* July 26–7.
* July 28.