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his ground stubbornly for hours, but gained no advantage; and Dobbins was just forming his men for a decisive charge, when Carmichael charged through them and joined Brooks; when our men assumed the offensive. Unhappily, Col. Brooks was killed, with Capt. Lembké, of his battery, Adj. Pratt, and Surgeon Stoddard: so our forces fell back to Helena, followed part way by Dobbins, but not again attacked. Our loss in this affair was 50; that of the enemy was reported at 150.
Next day, at the other side of the State, Gen. Gano, with 1,500 Rebels, surprised an outpost of Fort Smith, held by Capt. Mefford, with 200 of the 5th Kansas, whom he captured, with 82 of his men, after we had lost 10 killed, 15 wounded, to 12 killed, 20 wounded of the enemy. Gano, of course, got away before he could be reached from Fort Smith.
Next month, Shelby, with some 2,000 men, struck" the line of railroad between Duvall's bluff and Little Rock, capturing most of the 54th Illinois, who were guarding three stations. Col. Mitchell was reported among the killed.
Steele's advance to and capture of Little Rock the preceding Autumn, With the failure of the Rebels even to attempt its recovery, had been accepted by the Unionists of Arkansas as conclusive of the inability of the foe to regain their lost ascendency in their State. Accordingly, a Union meeting of citizens was held at Little Rock,” followed by others; and, ultimately, a Union State Constitutional Convention had been assembled : " wherein 42 out of
the 54 counties were represented. This Convention had framed a new Constitution, whereby Slavery was forever prohibited. Dr. Isaac Murphy—the only member of the Convention of 1861 who had held out to the last against Secession—had been designated Provisional Governor, and duly inaugurated,” with C. C. Bliss, Lieut.-Governor, and R. J. T. White, Secretary of State. This Constitution was submitted to a vote of the people and ratified “by 12,177 votes for, to 226 against it. State officers, three members of Congress, a Legislature, and local officers, were at the same time elected. The Legislature met, and elected” U. S. Senators. The Unionists had fondly supposed every thing “restored' that should be, so far as their State was concerned; until Steele's reverses in
and retreat from the south, with the
triumphant advance on his heels of the Rebel armies, surrendered twothirds of her area to the enemy; whose cavalry, avoiding our few strongholds, careered at will over the open country, foraging on the already needy non-combatants, and dealing vengeance on the ‘traitors’ and ‘renegades’ who had declared for the Union. In the Autumn, the Rebel Legislature met “at Washington, listened to a message from their Governor, IIannigan, and chose A. P. Garland over Albert Pike to represent them in the Confederate Senate. This practical surrender of the State to the Rebels, throughout the year following Steele's retreat from Camden, need not and should not have been. But Steele, who was continued in command, never struck e hearty blow at the Rebellion here he could, with a decent regard : appearances, avoid it. Identified principle and sympathy with the emy on every point but that of sunion, his powerful influence was rown against the Emancipation licy of the Government; and, hile he was hail-fellow with the cession aristocracy of the State, was a sorrow and a scourge to a hearty, unconditional upholders the Union. Hence, Unionism did t flourish under his rule; hence, e Rebel cavalry and guerrillas amed almost at will over the State, verfearingaught from his vigilance his zeal for the National cause; d hence the forces under his comand, though amply sufficient to ve held all of the State north of the ashita, and repelled all gainsayers, ore little better than wasted.
*Aug. 23. * Nov. 12, 1863. * Jan. 8, 1864. * Jan. 22. * March 14. “April 25. “Sept. 22. an. 28, 1864. *From the paw-paw, a wild fruit whereon ‘bushwhackers' were said to subsist.
Gen. Tosecrans, having been apinted to the command of the Dertment of Missouri, found, on his rival at St. Louis,” the State agi:ed by a feud that threatened ouble. In addition to his force of rhaps 12,000 men—mainly State litia, who were liable to service ly in Missouri—there were, in the rth-western counties, some 2,800 rovisionally enrolled militia” (by Radicals called “Paw-Paws”)," to were “Conservative” in their mpathies, either having been hitho in the Rebel service, or belong; to Rebel families, or having othwise evinced sympathy with the bels. These had been enrolled for ighborhood or special service—and re accused, by their Radical neighrs, of fighting Abolitionists' more
generally with the Radicals; finding the great slaveholding counties on the river still infected with the Rebel spirit, and thousands eagerly awaiting the day when their party should again have the upper hand, and be able to avenge some of the indignities and wrongs they had suffered at the hands of the Unionists. Continuing his inquiries, and gradually insinuating his spies into the secret councils or lodges of the disloyal, he became satisfied that they were everywhere organized, to the number of many thousands, as ‘The Order of American Knights,” or ‘Sons of Liberty,’ whereof the Grand Commanders were Sterling Price in the South and C. L. Wallandigham in the North; and that an invasion of Missouri by Price, whom 23,000 members of this order were sworn to join on his appearance, was part of a general programme, which contemplated an invasion also of the North, and a formida
ble uprising of Rebel sympathizers .
in the North-West. He first learned through his spies in the Rebel lodges that Wallandigham was soon to return openly from Canada to Ohio, and be sent thence to the Democratic National Convention at Chicago. He further discovered that arms were extensively coming into the State, and going into the hands of those suspected of Rebel sympathies; and he transmitted to Washington urgent representations that perils environed him, which required an augmentation of his force. Gen. Hunt was
thereupon sent to Missouri by Gen. Grant, and traversed the State on a tour of observation; returning strong in the belief that Tosecrans's apprehensions were excessive, and that no more force was needed in this department. Still, Tosecrans, without encouragement from Washington, prosecuted his investigations; and, upon evi
dence that, at a recent meeting of
one of the lodges aforesaid, a resolve had been offered, and laid over, to commence operations in St. Louis by assassinating the provost-marshal and attempting to seize the department headquarters, he arrested the State commander, deputy commander, grand secretary, lecturer, and some 30 or 40 leading members of the secret organization, and lodged them in prison. The State commander aforesaid being the Belgian Consul at St. Louis, Rosecrans soon received, by
telegraph from the War Department,
an order to liberate him, with which
he declined to comply; representing
that it would not have been given had the Government been in possession of the facts known to him, and which he had dispatched by a trusty hand to Washington. And, that evidence having been received and read by the President, the order of release was countermanded. The urgent exactions of the pub
lic service in other quarters having stripped Missouri of nearly or quite through Caledonia and Webster— all troops but her own militia, Rose- his more natural line of retreat on crans sought and obtained authority Mineral Point and Potosi being al
to raise ten regiments of twelve- | ready in the enemy's possession.
followed by guerrilla outrages and raids in the western river counties. These were but forerunners of the long meditated Rebel invasion, whereof Gen. Washburne, commanding at Memphis, gave” the first distinct warning; apprising Rosecrans that Shelby, then at Batesville, northwestern Arkansas, was about to be joined by Price; when the advance would begin. Gen. A. J. Smith was then passing up the river to röenforce Sherman in northern Georgia, when he was halted” at Cairo by order from IIalleck, and sent to St. Louis to strengthen Rosecrans. Price entered south-eastern Missouri by way of Poplar bluffs and Bloomfield; advancing unresisted to Pilot Knob, where he was first withstood" by a brigade, commanded by Gen. IIugh S. Ewing. IIere were Fort Davidson and some other rude works; and Ewing made an obstinate stand, inflicting a loss of not less than 1,000 men on the raiders, while his own was but about 200. Still, as Price had not less than 10,000 men against 1,200, and as a day's desultory fighting had given the enemy possession of some of the steep hills overlooking the fort, Ewing— who had signally repulsed two assaults—wisely decided not to await inevitable capture, but, spiking his heavy guns and blowing up his maga
zine, escaped during the night; tak
ing the road westward to Tolla
months’ men for the exigency; when | Webster, he turned abruptly north, a Rebel outbreak occurred” in Platte and struck the South-western Railcounty, in the north-west, quickly road at IIarrison; having made 66
* July 7.
* Sept. 3.
* Sept. 6. * Sept. 27.
miles in 35 hours, though badly encumbered by fugitives. Here his weary men were sharply assailed by a column under Shelby, which had been pursuing them; but, though short of ammunition, Ewing held his ground firmly some 30 hours, until relieved by Col. Beveridge, 17th Illinois cavalry, sent from Rolla by Gen. McNeil to his assistance. Shelby then drew off, and Ewing proceeded at his leisure to Rolla. Tosecrans remained at St. Louis —the point of greatest consequence, if not of greatest danger—working night and day to collect a force able to cope in a fair field with Price's veterans and the ‘Sons of Liberty,’ who were pledged to join him—a pledge which they but partially redeemed. For a week or so, the Rebels seemed to have the upper hand; and this created a violent eruption of treasonable guerrilla raids and burn
ings in the pro-Slavery strongholds of central Missouri." As the Rebel army was mainly mounted, it not only moved with greater celerity than the most of its antagonists could, but was able to mask its intentions, and threaten at once our dépôts at St. Louis, Rolla, and Jef. ferson City. But time was on our side; as Gen. Mower was on his way from Little Rock, with 5,000 veterans; five regiments of hundred-day men (who had already served out their term) were coming from Illinois to garrison St. Louis; and the militia of eastern Missouri was coming out, to the number of perhaps 5,000 more. Unless Price could strike at once some decisive, damaging blow, which would cripple Rosecrans, paralyze his efforts to raise militia, and call every latent Secessionist into the saddle, he must inevitably decamp and flee for his life.
* Rosecrans, in his official report, says:
“While Ewing's fight was going on, Shelby advanced to Potosi, and thence to Big river bridge, threatening Gen. Smith's advance; which withdrew from that point to within safer supporting distance of his main position at De Soto. Previous to and pending these events, the guerrilla warfare in north Missouri had been waging with redoubled fury. Rebel agents, amnestyoath-takers, recruits, “sympathizers,’ O. A. K.s, and traitors of every hue and stripe, had warmed into life at the approach of the great invasion. Women's fingers were busy making clothes for Rebel soldiers out of goods plundered by the guerrillas; women's tongues were busy telling Union neighbors ‘their time was now com£ng.’ Gen. Fisk, with all his force, had been scouring the bush for weeks in the river counties, in pursuit of hostile bands, composed largely of recruits from among that class of inhabitants who claim protection, yet decline to perform the full duties of citizens, on the ground that they “never tuck no sides.” A few facts will convey some idea of this warfare, carried on by Confederate agents here, while the "agents abroad of their bloody and hypocritical despotism—Mason, Slidell, and Mann, in Europe—have the effrontery to tell the nations of Christendom that our government “carries on the war with increasing ferocity, regardless of the laws of civilized warfare.' These gangs of Rebels,
whose families had been living in peace among their loyal neighbors, committed the most cold blooded and diabolical murders, such as riding up to a farm-house, asking for water, and, while receiving it, shooting down the giveran aged, inoffensive farmer—because he was a radical ‘Union man.” In the single sub-district of Mexico, the commanding officer furnished a list of near one humdred Union men who, in the course of six weeks, had been killed, maimed, or “run off' because they were ‘radical Union men,” or Abolitionists. About the 1st of Sep: tember, Anderson's gang attacked a railroad train on the North Missouri road, took from it 22 unarmed soldiers, many on sick leave, and, after robbing, placed them in a row and shot them in cold blood; some of the bodies they scalped, and put others across the track and run the engine over them. On the 27th, this gang, with numbers swollen to 300 or 400 men, attacked Major Johnson, with about 120 of the 39th Missouri volunteer infantry, raw recruits, and, after stampeding their horses, shot every man, most of them in cold blood. Anderson, a few days later, was recognized by Gen. Price, at Booneville, as a Confederate captain, and, with a verbal admonition to behave himself, or: dered by Colonel Maclane, chief of Price's staff, to proceed to north Missouri and destroy the railroads; which orders were found on the miscreant when killed by Lt.-Col. Cox, about the 27th of October.”
The enemy, advancing by Potosí across the Meramec to Richwoods, seemed to threaten St. Louis, only 40 miles distant; but this was a feint only, or was seen, on closer observation, to be too hazardous: So, burning the railroad bridge over the Meramec, at Moselle, he turned northwestward:* Gen. A. J. Smith, with 4,500 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, following him vigilantly but cautiously. Burning IIerman “–an intensely ‘Tadical” “German settlement on the Missouri—and the railroad bridge over the Gasconade; fording the Gasconade near Fredericksburg and the Osage at Castle Rock,” burning the railroad bridge here, he appeared before Jefferson City; which Gens. McNeil and Sanborn, with all the men they could mount, had just reached by forced marches from Rolla: and these, added to the force under Gens. Fisk and Brown, already there, made a garrison of 4,100 cavalry and 2,600 infantry—generally twelve-months’ men of little experience in the field, but capable of good service behind intrenchments. Fisk decided — the other Generals concurring—to oppose a moderate resistance to the foe at the crossing of the Moreau, 4 or 5 miles east of the city, and then fall back within the rude defenses which he, with the volunteered help of citizens, had been for some days prepar1ng.
Price crossed the Moreau after a sharp but brief skirmish, and advanced * on the capital; developing a line of battle 3 or 4 miles long, which enveloped the city on all sides save that of the river; but, on a full survey of the defenses, and a partial
glimpse of the men behind them, with the lesson of Pilot Knob fresh in his mind, he concluded not to attack, but, after giving time for his train to move around the city and get a start on the road westward, he drew off and followed it. Gen. Pleasanton now arrived," and assumed command; dispatching Gen. Sanborn with the cavalry to follow and harass the enemy, so as to delay him, if possible, until Gen. A. J. Smith could overtake him. Sanborn attacked the Rebel rear-guard at Versailles, and drove it into line of battle; thus ascertaining that the enemy were heading for Booneville; but, being nearly surrounded by them, he fell back to California; where Col. Cutherwood, with A. J. Smith’s cavalry and some much-needed supplies, joined him on the 14th. Gen. Mower, by coming from Arkansas, following nearly in the track of the Rebel irruption, had struck the Mississippi at Cape Girardeau; having marched 300 miles, over bad roads, in 18 days. IIis men were weary, his provisions exhausted, his teams worn down; part of his cavalry dismounted, with the horses of many more lacking shoes: so Tosecrans dispatched steamboats from St. Louis to bring them to that city; whence the infantry were sent up the Missouri by water, while the cavalry, under Col. Winslow, marched” by land to réenforce A. J. Smith : reaching “ Jefferson City—by reason of the low stage of water in the river —one day in advance of the infantry. Meantime, Price had, of course, seriously widened the gap between him and our cavalry, of whom Pleas
* Oct. 1. ** Oct. 5. * Oct. 6. * Oct. 7. * Oct. 8. *7 Oct. 10. *Oct. 16.