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days more, had constructed several | Gen. Grant, arrived at Alexandria” wing-dams, directly at the head of soon after the return of our army the falls, raising the water on the to that point. Gen. Fitz Henry rapids over a foot additional; and, Warren, who had been left in comin three days more, the gunboats mand at Matagorda bay, with the Mound City, Carondelet, Pittsburg, remainder of those forces, evacuated, Ozark, Louisville, Chilicothe, and soon afterward, all our posts on the two tugs, had successively passed the coast of Texas save those on the Rio falls and the dams, with the loss of Grande, and came around to rëenone man swept overboard and two or force Gen. Banks; but was stopped three rudders unshipped, were coaled by formidable Rebel batteries at and moving down the river, convoy- Marksville, on the Red river, when in the transports—the back-water he fell back to Fort de Russy and. froin the swollen Mississippi (150 strengthened that post. miles distant) enabling them to pass Banks, upon reaching Alexandria all the bars below without delay or from above, had found” there Gen. difficulty.

Hunter, with rëiterated orders from Ere this, the gunboats Signal and Grant to bring his Shreveport camCovington, with the transport War- paign to a close without delay. ner, steaming down the river in fan- Banks sent Hunter back so with discied security, were fired on, soon patches, stating that the fleet was after daybreak," at Dunn's bayou, above the falls, and that it could not 30 miles below Alexandria, by a be left there to the enemy, nor yet large Rebel force, and thoroughly brought over without serious, proriddled; the Covington being aban- tracted effort on the part of the doned and burned; while the Signal army. Yet, before the dams were and Warner were compelled to sur completed and the gunboats relieved render. There were some 400 sol from their peril, Banks was favored diers on board of these vessels, in- with a fresh dispatch" from Halcluding Col. Sharp, 156th N. York, leck, saying: and Col. Raynor, 129th Illinois, of “ Lieut.-Gen. Grant directs that orders whom 150 were captured, and per- heretofore given be so modified that no haps 100 more killed or wounded. troops be withdrawn from operations

against Shreveport and on Red river, and The residue took the shore, and es- that operations there be continued, under caped as best they could. Soon after the officer in command, until further

orders." ward, the City Belle, transport, conveying the 120th Ohio, 425 strong, up

Two weeks earlier, this, with perto Alexandria, was likewise captured; mission to retain Smith’s corps, only 200 of the soldiers escaping.

would have been most welcome.

But, before it came to hand, the Gen. McClernand, with the larger Rebels had control of the river beportion of our forces who had for low as well as above Alexandria, and months held the island posts on the a renewal of the campaign was coast of Western Texas, having judged impracticable. evacuated those posts by order of Gen. Banks evacuated Alexandria 30 May 11-13.

April 29. 20 April 25. 10 April 30. 31 Dated April 30.

27 May 5.

28

BANKS RETREATS TO THE ATCEAFALA YA.

551

siinultaneously with the departure of May 19th. As it did so, our rear of the fleet; striking for Simmsport, at Yellow bayou was assailed by a on the Atchafalaya. That morning, Rebel force under Prince Polignac, a fire broke out in a building on the whom A. J. Smith beat off, inflicting levee which had been occupied by a heavy loss in killed, wounded, and soldiers or refugees; and, in spite of prisoners. Our loss was 150 killed the most determined efforts by our and wounded. The passage of the men, a high wind and the proximity | Atchafalaya was completed next of inflammable substances insured day; and—Gen. Canby, having apthe destruction of a considerable por- peared as commander of the transtion of the buildings. Gen. Banks Mississippi department—Gen. Banks liad apprehended such a disaster, and turned over the army to him and had directed Gen. Grover, post com- hastened to New Orleans. Gen. A. mandant, to take precautions against J. Smith returned hence to his own it; but they proved unavailing. It department with his somewhat deis of course probable that some evil- pleted command. · On his way up disposed person or persons purposely the Mississippi, le landed" at Sunnystarted the fire.

side, in the south-eastern corner of On the march to Simmsport, a Arkansas, and attacked, near ColumRebel cavalry force was encountered bia, a Rebel force estimated at 3,000, just at daybreak " at Mansura, near said to be under command of MarMarksville, by our advance, and maduke, strongly posted across a pushed steadily back across the open bayou emptying into Lake Chicot, prairic to the woods beyond; where who were worsted and driven, rea stand was made for three hours, treating westward. Our loss here the fighting being mainly by skir- | was 20 killed, 70 wounded; that of mishers and artillery-until our the enemy about the same. main body had come up, and Gen. Gen. Banks's movement on SimmsEmory on our right and Gen. ill. J. port having loosened the Rebel hold Smith on our left hail Hanked the on the river at Marksville, Admiral foe's position, when, after a sharp but Porter encountered no farther resistbrieť struggle, he was driven, with ance; but moved down the Red considerable loss—we recapturing a nearly parallel with the army, and part of the prisoners taken with our resumed his patrol of the Mississippi. vessels on the river ten or twelve days before. No farther resist Much odium was excited by the ance being encountered, our advance circumstance that sundry cotton spereached Simmsport that eveniny. culators visited Alexandria during

The Atchafalaya is here 600 yards its occupation by our forces, armed wide, quite deer, and no ordinary with permits from the President or bridge material at hand. Under the Treasury department; so that Col. Bailey's direction, a bridge was the campaign wore the aspect of a constructed of steamboats in two gigantic cotton raid, prosecuted at days and a half; the wagon-train the expense of the country for the passing orer it during the afternoon benefit of individuals. Gen. Banks

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was nowise implicated in these sor- ling Price, with a considerable force did operations; not so Admiral Por- of Rebel infantry, barred Steele's ter.** IIe, unlike Banks, had been an way 37 at Prairie d'Anne; and an aroriginal advocate of the advance on tillery fight was kept up for some Shreveport. IIe had signalized his hours, till darkness closed it; when movement up Red river by a procla- the enemy attempted to capture our mation or order claiming for the fleet guns by a rush, but was repulsed, —that is, in good part, for himself— with loss; and thereupon retreated to all the cotton within a league of that Washington, on the upper course of river as lawful prize of war. And, Red river.36 while our army was hard at work to By this time, there were rumors in get his gunboats over the falls on his the air that Banks had been defeated return, Government wagons were in Upper Louisiana and compelled engaged in bringing in cotton from to retreat ; rumors which prisoners the adjacent plantations, to load and Steele's spies soon corroborated. transports that might far better have Instead of following Price, therefore, been used to bring away the loyal Steele turned sharply to the left, and people of Alexandria, who were left marched into Camden ;" the enemy, defenseless to the vengeance of the when too late, endeavoring to get returning Rebels.

there before him.

While waiting here, the tidings of Gen. Steele moved" southward Banks's reverses were amply confrom Little Rock with 7,000 men, firmed; whereupon, the activity and almost simultaneously with Banks's daring of the enemy were of course advance to Alexandria ; Gen. Thay- redoubled. First, a train sent out er, with the Army of the Frontier, 16 miles west for forage was attacked possibly 5,000 strong, having left and captured;" with a loss on our Fort Smith the day previous, expect- part of 250 men and 4 guns; next, ng to join him at Arkadelphia ; a supply train of 240 wagons, which while Col. Clayton, with a small had arrived" from Pine Bluff, and, orce, advanced from Pine Bluff on after being unloaded, had been disSteele's left. Heavy rains, bad roads, patched" on its return, guarded by wollen streams, and the absence of Lt.-Col. Drake, 36th Iowa, with the bridges, impeded movements and de- 2d brigade of Gen. Salomon's divianged calculations on all hands; so sion, was assailed next day, when 12 hat Steele, after waiting two days miles out, by Shelby's cavalry, which it Arkadelphia, pressed on " without it easily beat off, camping for the lim. Since it crossed the Saline, night 6 miles farther on its way; makhe Rebel cavalry, under Marmaduke ing, by great exertion, 22 miles next nd Shelby, had skirmished sharply day; having to corduroy the road rith our advance; and attempts to much of the distance. top it at river-crossings and other Next morning," while with diffiifficult passes were often made, but culty making its way through a enerally baffled by flanking. Ster- swamp four miles long, its advance ** Pollard says Porter was already known

30 April 1. 87 April 10. Imong Rebels) as preëminently "the thief of 38 April 12.

$9 April 15. he Mississippi.”

* April 20.

3 April 22.

" April 25.

36 March 23–4.

40

° April 18.

MARKS'S WILL AND JENKINS'S FERRY.

553

was attacked, as it debouched at crossing of the Saline)" he was asMarks's Mill, by Gen. Fagan's Re- sailed in great force by the Rebels, bel division, said to be 6,000 strong, now led by Kirby Smith in person, while most of our men were still Our men had been working in mud making their way through the swamp and rain throughout the night, getwith the wagons. A desperate butting their pontoons laid and their most unequal fight ensued, in which trains across, having had little or the 430 Indiana and 36th Iowa did nothing to cat since they left Camall that men could do when con- den, when, at daybreak, the enemy fronted by several times their nun- rushed upon

them. ber; Drake making superhuman ef The river bottom is here densely forts, and being everywhere at the wooded, which gave a great advanpoint of greatest danger, until mor- tage to the defensive. It was sodtally wounded. By this time, the den and trodden into deep mire, over enemy had been enabled to interpose which guns could not be moved una strong force between our advance, less on corduroy roads, and into thus engaged, and the 77th Ohio, which the combatants sank at every guarding our rear; when— nearly step. The thin brigades of Cols. one-fourth of our men being killed Engelmann and S. A. Rice had to and wounded—the residue surren- ! bear the brunt of the enemy's attack; dered. The 77th, when assailed in the disparity in numbers being enorits turn, of course did the same. Some mous. Part of our arıy was already of our wagons were destroyed; but across the river, and could with diffimost of them were captured. The culty be brought back. Rebel loss in this engagement was The 330 Iowa, Col. Mackay, coverestimated by our men (probably much ing the rear, was first impetuously too high) at 1,000. Our own killed attacked and pressed in, though the and wounded were fully 250. Our 50th Indiana had advanced to its soldiers here captured were started support. These fell back behind the southward at 5 P. m., and compelled 9th Wisconsin and 29th Iowa, which to march 52 miles without food or were in turn fiercely assailed; and it rest within the next 24 hours. They became necessary to order 111 reached their destination—the prison- | troops south of the river to their supcamp at Tyler, Texas—on the 15th port. Brig.-Gen. Rice was in imof May. The negro servants of our mediate command. Three several officers were shot down in cold blood attacks, with different divisions in after the surrender.

front, were made on our steadfast Steele, still at Camden, was soon heroes, who repelled each with great apprised of this disaster, and regarded slaughter. Our right flank being it as a notice to quit. By daylight threatened, the 43d Illinois and part of the 27th, his army was across the of the 40th Iowa were ordered to Washita and in full retreat, amid cross a swollen, muddy tributary, constant rains, over horrible roads, known as Cox's creek, into which with the Rebel cavalry busy on they plunged with a shout, dashed At Jenkins'S FERRY across, and drore off the enemy.

April 30.

all our

every side.

over

46

The last grand attack was made on be destroyed. And so, bridging our left and left center, and succeeded streams, corduroying swamps, and in turning our extreme left, held by dragging guns and caissons over the 33d Iowa, whose ammunition them, our army plodded its weary, had, for a second time, become ex- famished way toward the capital hausted. Four companies of the 40th it had left so proudly; being met Iowa, under Col. Garrett, rushed to at length by a supply train, which its support, and, forming under a passed down the road, throwing out withering fire, restored the line;" hard-tick” in profusion-our men which now advanced along its entire scrambling for it in the mud, and front a full half

mile, driving the devouring it with keen voracity. enemy steadily for an hour, passing Steele entered Little Rock May 2d.

their dead and wounded. When, at noon, their repulse was com Late in June, Shelby crossed the plete, our army drew off, by order, Arkansas eastward of Little Rock, and filed across the bridge.

pushing northward to the White, This was a combat of infantry near its mouth; and was met alone. We had one section of a bat- St. Charles by four regiments under tery on the field, but could not use Gen. Carr, who worsted him, taking it. A section of a Rebel battery ap- 200 prisoners. Our loss here in peared and fired one round, when killed and wounded was 200; that the 29th Iowa and 2d Kansas charged of the Rebels was estimated by our across the field, and brought away officers at 500. Marmaduke soon .

approaching with röenforcements for When all was over, and our men Shelby, Carr fell back on Clarendon, had crossed the river, Kirby Smith 20 miles below Duvall’s bluff, where sent a flag of truce; but, finding only he also was rëenforced; when the a burial-party, instead of an army, enemy retreated southward. he made haste to capture these and There were, of course, a good claim a victory.

many partisan encounters and raids Our loss in this brilliant struggle during the Summer; in one of which was 700 killed and wounded; that a Union scouting party, under Capt. of the enemy was said to be 2,300, Jug, dashed " into Benton and killed including three Generals.

Brig.-Gen. Geo. M Holt; in another, Fagan was reported between our Col. W. S. Brooks 56th U. S. colored, army and Little Rock, compelling moving out from Helena with 400 rapid movements on Steele’s part to men, was attacked“ on Big creek by save our dépôts at that city; while Gen. Dobbins, with a superior Rebel the roads were unfathomable. Our force, and would have been worsted, soldiers had coffee and whatever else had not Maj. Carmichael, who was they could pick up; which was not on a steamboat going down the much. Our animals had been star- Mississippi, with 150 of the 15th ving for days, and were unable to Illinois cavalry, heard the persistent draw our wagons; which, except one cannon-firing and resolved to investifor each brigade, Steele ordered to gate the matter. Brooks had held

46 July 25.

July 26.

the guns.

46

June 27,

47

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