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has met with since her acceffion, we for the purpose of instructing the illufThail with pleasure turn to the more trious youth; and this we the more tranquil parts of her reign; on which readily insert at lergth, that our reawe may speak decidedly, without the ders may have an opportunity of seeimputation of prejudice, or the al- ing the literary talents which this great molt equal cenfure of partiality.. princess possesses.

It is on all hands allowed, that the Empress of Russia has filled her M. D'ALEMBERT, exalted itation with the most distin

'I have just received the answer guished reputation and ability, as far you wrote to Mr. Odar, in which you as relates to the improvement and refuse to transplant yourself to assist civilization of her country, and the in the education of my son. I eaidea which she entertains of the true fily conceive that it costs a philosohappiness of all her subjects. pher, like you, nothing to despise

Her Imperial Majesty has effected what the world calls grandeur and many beneficial and important regu- honour: these, in your eyes, are very lations in the interior police of her little; and I can readily agree with vaft empire: she has wholly abo- you, that they are so. Considering lished torture, and has adopted an things in this light, there would be excellent plan for the reformation of nothing great in the behaviour of prisons in general.

Queen Christina [of Sweden) which Though the extreme despotism of hath been so highly extolled, and the Rufian government is a great im- often censured with more justice. But pediment to the progress of the arts to be born and called to contribute and sciences, as well as to the real prof- to the happiness, and even the inperity of the empire, the Empress has ftrudion of a whole nation, and yet greatly encouraged learning and the decline it, is, in my opinion, refusing arts, and constantly directed her at- to do that good which you wish to tention to the extension of commerce.

do. Your philofophy is founded in But, perhaps, the most remarkable a love to mankind; permit me then transallion of her reign is the esta- to tell you, that to refuse to serve blishment of the Armed Neutrality, mankind, whilft it is in your power, for the protection of the trade of na- is to miss your aim. I know you too tións not at war, from any infults well to be a good man, to ascribe which they might be liable to receive your refusal to vanity. I know that on the coasts of belligerent powers. the sole motive of it is the love of

The Manifesto late published, in 'ease, and leisure to cultivate letters juftification of the Empress's taking and the friendship of those you esteem. possession of the Crimea, is another But what is there in this objection? important enterprize, and will pro- Come, with all your friends; I pro. bably be the means of producing a mise both them and you every connew contest with the Ottoman Porte. veniency and advantage that depends

These are the larger features in the upon me; and perhaps you will find political character of her Imperial more liberty and ease here than in Majesty: let us now take a view of your native country. You refused the more limited but not less amiable the invitation of the King of Pruffia, traits which distinguish her in domes- notwithstanding your obligations to tic life,

him; but that prince has no son. I The great attention she paid to the own to you, that I have the educaeducation of her son, the Grand Duke tion of my son so much at heart, and of Russia, will appear from the fol- I think you fo necessary to it, that lowing letter which she wrote to M. perhaps I press you with too much D'Alembert, at Paris, on his declin- earnestness. Excuse my indiscretion ing her invitation to settle in Russia, for the sake of the occasion of it; and


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be assured, that it is my esteem for well as for the relief of indigence and you that makes me so urgent,

distress. <CATHARINE.

The splendor and dignity of the • Moscow, Nov. 13,1762.

empire are objects of her never

cealing attention : fhe buys up every • In this whole letter I have argued thing which can serve to enrich her only from what I have found in your own country from the imprudent, the writings: you will not contradict unfortunate, or the ingenious, of suryourself.'

rounding nations; and encourages scientific and skilful men, from

every This letter brings to our remem- part of the globe, to settle in her dobrance another, which the Empress minions, sent to Voltaire, under circumstances In the year 1772, in the midst of which will tend to illustrate the cha- her expensive war with the Turks, racteristics of a liberal and a benevo- fhe purchased of Gregory Siffra, a lent heart,

Greek, one of the richeit diamonds in the world, to adorn the Imperial

crown: it weighed 779 carats, and "The brightness of the northern cost 100,oool. Iterling star is a mere Aurora Borealis. It is To this may be added, from Eng. nothing more than giving from our land. alone, the purchase of the fuperfluity something to our neigh Houghton Collection of Paintings, bours: but to be the advocate of hu- and the splendid carriages sent over man kind, the defender of oppressed by Mr.' Hatchett, who has the ho. innocence, that indeed is the way to nour of being coach-maker to the immortalize you. The two causes of Empress of Ruflia. Calas and Sirven have given you the On the 28th of November 1768, veneration due to such miracles. You me submitted to be first inoculated for have combated the united enemies of the small-pox by Mr. Dimsdale, (on mankind, fuperftition, fanaticism, ig- that occafion created a baron) who norance, chicane, bad judges, and was purposely sent for from England, the power reposed in them, all toge- and most munificently rewarded. ther. To furmount such obstacles, Her benevolence to the unhappy required both talents and virtue. sufferers by the storm and inundaYou have carried your point. You tion at Petersburgh, in 1777, and by defire, Sir, some small relief for the the dreadful fire in 1780, as well as Sirven family. Can I poflibly refuse on every other occasion where such it? Or hould you praise me for the public or private calamitous circumaction, would there be the least room Itances have occurred as had the for it? I own to you, that I should smallest claim on humanity, are sufi.. be much better pleased if my bill of ciently known. exchange could pass unknown; ne- The Empress has been for some vertheless, if you think that my name, years building, at Moscow, a most unharmonious as it is, may be of any stupendous palace, near three miles use to those victims of the spirit of in circumference; which will, howpersecution, I leave it to your discre. ever, poffefs all that barbarous grantion, and you may announce me, deur of taste, for which the public edi. provided it be no way prejudicial to fices of this country are so remarkable. the parties,

The royal palace of Zarsco-Zelo ? CATHARINE.' is the favourite retreat of her Impe

rial Majesty, which was built by ÊliThe revenue of the Empress is zabeth, and is the compleatest trivery confiderable, and the diffuses it umph of the rude taste juft mentioned with a boun teous hand for the en- that is any where to be seen. The couragement of industry and art, as fituation is low, and hardly contains


any prospect, nor has it the smallest professions, for which purpose several degree of natural advantage to claim manufactures are established in the such a preference. It is very large, and hospital, At the expiration of their the front extends to a great length, as apprenticeship, they are presented there is only a single story besides the with a certain fum, fufficient to place ground-floors. The capitals of the them in a little way of business; and pillars, the statues, and many other are permitted to carry on trade in any parts of the external structure, are part of the Russian empire. richly gilt, and the eye hardly en- There are likewise several other counters any thing but gold in the establishments, for the promotion of internal parts of this splendid palace. science and arts, under the immediOne room is in a very peculiar ftile ate patronage of the Empress; who of magnificence, the fides being en- is, as we have before observed, indetirely composed of amber, decorated fatigable in promoting useful knowwith feftoons and ornaments of the ledge throughout her dominions..? fame. The transparency of the am- Previous to the appearance of the ber, added to the consciousness of it's transit of Venus over the sun, in 1769, fingularity and richness, all conspire the Imperial Academy of Sciences at to render it astonishingly delightful. Petersburgh received the Empress's The embellishment of this room was orders to provide, at her expence, a present from the King of Prussia every necesary astronomical instrug to the late Empress.

ment for making accurate observaAmong other institutions establish- tions in eight diterent parts of her ed by the Empress, there is one which dominions. can hardly be exceeded in utility by The Academy of Arts, which has any in Europe: the edifice was been but a few years compleated, is erected by her predeceffor Elizabeth, a superb edifice: it is well furnished who intended it for a nunnery. It is with masters in the different branches fituated just without the city of Pe- of polite letters, and filled with casts tersburgh, and is a most magnificent from the most renowned models of building. The Empress, who pre- Greek and Roman sculpture. fers real utility to vain superstition, To sum up the whole in a single has converted it into a public place sentence---she is the true counterpart of education, where feinales of all of her celebrated predecessor, Peter ranks are compleatly instructed in the Great, whose plans for the civilievery necessary and elegant accom- zation of this vast empire she is every plishment, at her sole expence; the day augmenting and compleating. children of noble families being kept Indeed, her veneration is so exquite distinct from those of inferior cessive for this famous ancestor, that birth. In this admirable seminary about twelve years since Archbishop about two hundred and fifty girls of Platon was ordered to pronounce an the firit description, and five hundred oration at his tomb; and she has of the latter, are supposed to be con- lately erected an equeftrian ftatue to stantly maintained.

his memory, executed by the celeThe Foundling Hospital at Moscow, brated Monsieur Falconette, inconwhich was founded by the Empress, teftibly the most matchless production and is supported by voluntary contri- of it's kind in Europe. butions, is another excellent institu- The winter-palace of the Empress, tion. This is an immense pile of which is large and heavy, greatly rebuilding, of a quadrangular shape, sembles Sir John Vanbrugh's ftile of intended to contain a compleat esta- architecture: it is enchantingly situablishment for eight thousand found- ted on the banks of the Neva, and lings. The children are carefully at- in the centre of the town. Contitended, and at the age of fourteen guous to this ftupendous edifice is a have the liberty to chuse their own small palace built by the Empress,


and called the Hermitage, though it no works, in the gardens, where all per. more resembles our idea of a building fons are admitted, without distinction. entitled to that appellation, than it There are, however, few or no fancydoes a temple; indeed, not to much. dresses; nor is any character supportBut, perhaps, it receives this name ed. The company appear in domis from it's being a sort of retreat for nos, and her Imperial Majesty usuthe Empress, who has no drawing- ally joins them in the same dress, and room or court when the resides there. plays at cards great part of the evenThe apartments, which are very ele. ing. Her hair is in general richly or, gant, are furnished with great taste; namented with diamonds; and though and there are two fine galleries of she is rather corpulent, there is a digpaintings, purchased at an immense nity, tempered with graciousness, in expence in Italy.

her deportment and manner, which The palace of Petershoff, where strikingly impresses a stranger. the court is usually kept, was begun Russian and French comedies are by Peter I. but has been enlarged and performed generally once a week at improved by his fucceffors. It is situ- the Imperial Palace, where the seats ated in the midst of spacious and de- are adjusted by rank: no money is lightful gardens, which extend along paid for entrance; as it is esteemed the shore of the Gulph of Finland, the Empress's own amusement, and and are washed by it's waters. In the limited to persons of quality. front there is a canal several hundred In short, there is not only a magyards in length, uniting with the nificence and pomp in the court of gulph, from which three fine jets Petersburgh, which far exceeds what d'eau are supplied, which are con- is to be met with in moit other natinually playing; and not, like those tions, but every thing appears on a of Verlailles, only used on extraordi- vast and colossal scale, as if adapted nary occafions. The apartments are to the size of this prodigious empire. all very fplendid; and, in the draw- By her consort, Peter III. the Eming-room, there are five matchless press had isiue Prince Paul Petroportraits of the sovereigns of Ruflia, witz, born the first of October 1754, all whole-length pieces.

and a daughter. The Grand Duke On public occasions, there are has been twice married, and has issue masquerades, illuminations, and fire- three children.





the grand arcana of nature. There is no PHILOSOPHICAL SURVEY

doubt that the general form and compo

nent particles of the earth were always WORKS OF NATURE AND ART.

the same from the beginning as they at

present appear, and will lo continue THĘ

till the end of time. The method of AVING surveyed the several philofophizing about the phenomena

wonders of the universe, which of it's operation and interior produce may in general be considered as de depends upon three fundamental printached from our earth, though in- ciples. The first is an universal powdisputably most important parts of one er, energy, or fpirit, which is the Di. Itupendous system; we shall next pro- vine Agent, or efficient principle, by ceed to describe fuch of the constituent which the whole mass of inatter in the particles of the great globe we inhe earth is actuated, agitated, and prerit,' as, from their approximity to the served in constant motion. The fesurface, have been fufficiently investi- cond principle is, an universal power gated by man, to enable us to give con- of vegetation, by which all bodies in liderable satisfaction to all those who the earth increase in bulk. The third have not hitherto been initiated into principle is, an universal plastic power,


whereby every body in nature receives none had been seen before-a reit's peculiar and specific form, and such markable instance of which has lately a particular texture and consistence, occurred in the Iceland seas, which will as makes it differ from all other bodies. probably be visited in it's infant state

With respect to the first principle, by the lovers of science from the dif. or universal agency, it is manifested by ferent parts of Europe*; the constant every thing we fee. We find a genial rifing of stones from the internal parts warmth in the ea and all it's parts, of the earth to it's surface, though folid or Auid. There can be no gathered from thence every year; and warmth in any thing, where there is the frequent appearance of fractured no motion of it's parts; for it is that stones and Aints, in gravel and chalkmotion which excites the fenfation of pits, which must be the effect of the warmth or heat. Matter is of itself internal heat, as these stones, and the absolutely inert, and motion muft there- pieces belonging to them, are never fore be communicated from some ex- found together in the beds or layers ternal agent. Now, as we find more where they were formed and broken, or less heat in all parts of the earth, and must of course be urged and carall it's parts must of neceffity be more ried by some power in different direcor less in motion, and consequently an tions from each other. There, with universal agent, spirit, or divine power, many other arguments that might be muft cherish and actuate every part, adduced, infallibly prove a constant and blend itself with the whole mass. internal agency throughout the whole It is well known that the earth is com- mass or body of the earth. posed of such parts as are always ac- The second principle, viz. an unituating each other, and producing verfal vegetation in the earth, is supgreat degrees of warmth and heat, and ported by the plainest matters of faét. sometimes even of fire and flame: hence All kinds of spar grow and increase those wonderful phænomena of hot in bulk by the peculiar juices and fluids springs, and terrible volcanos, in al- of the rocks from which they are promost all parts of the world. We ob- duced. Various and beautiful effioserve a constant perspiration in the rescences are every day seen to issue earth, as well as in animals and vege- from the surfaces of hard stones and tables: this perspirative matter is in- rocks; and a great variety of white deed invisible in the summer heat, but pure crystals, in pyramidal forms, grow it is condensed into fogs and mifts by extremely numerous and beautiful the winter cold, as we may perceive by from many forts of rocky substances; our own breath. The various mate- particularly that most wonderful sperials of which the earth is composed, cies, called Island Crystal, which shoots naturally ferment in greater or less de- from the rock to pyramids of an enorgrees; as filings of steel and fulphur, mous fize, and small and large comade into a pafte, ferment, and con- lumnar crystals, rising together in buntinue gradually to grow warm till they dles from the rock. Even metals become very hot, and at length kin- themselves sometimes assume the form dle into flame. Not only warm and of crystals, and grow in large heads cherishing vapours constantly exhale from the mineral stone or ore; those from the earth, but in some parts very of copper in particular, which glow hot ones; and, in others, it breathes with all their native glorious azure in smoke, and even fire itself. There the mines of Cornwall, &c. In some are many other phænomena to prove pieces of island cryftal, whole crops of a constant motion of the earth from mundic may be seen rifing in slender the central parts towards the surface: stems, with their black heads filled among these are, the constant supply with yellow shining bronze, as plainly of fuliginous andinflammable matter to as corn in the fields. All kinds of volcanos through all ages of the world; talcs, and even that wonderful one iflands rising out of the feas where called Moscovy. Glass, grow naturally * Ses Pages 64 and 159.


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