Vinegars of the World

封面
Laura Solieri, Paolo Giudici
Springer Science & Business Media, 2009年8月29日 - 300 頁
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Vinegars can be considered as acidic products of special importance for the enri- ment of our diet, and resulting from the desired or controlled oxidation of ethanol containing (liquid) substrates. The traditional use and integration of vinegars in numerous cultures can be traced back to ancient times. In fact, the cultural heritage of virtually every civilization includes one or more vinegars made by the souring action (of micro-organisms) following alcoholic fermentation. It has been do- mented that the Egyptians, Sumerians and Babylonians had experience and tech- cal knowledge in making vinegar from barley and any kind of fruit. Vinegar was very popular both in ancient Greece and Rome, where it was used in food prepa- tions and as remedy against a great number of diseases. In Asia, the first records about vinegar date back to the Zhou Dynasty (1027-221 BC) and probably China’s ancient rice wines may have originally been derived from fruit, for which (malted) rice was substituted later. The historical and geographical success of vinegars is mainly due to the low technology required for their production, and to the fact that several kinds of raw materials rich in sugars may easily be processed to give vinegar. In addition, vi- gars are well-known and accepted as safe and stable commodities that can be c- sumed as beverages, health drinks or added to food as preservatives or as flavo- ing agents.
 

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內容

Vinegars of the World Lisa Solieri and Paolo Giudici
1
Raw Materials and Geographical Distribution
2
121 Botanical Species
5
the Role of Fermentation
7
131 Spontaneous Fermentation
10
132 BackSlopping Fermentation
11
133 Starter Culture Fermentation
12
14 Vinegar Definitions and Legislation
13
941 Differentiation between Vinegar and Acetic Acid
154
95 Analysis of Vinegar
155
References
156
Traditional Balsamic Vinegar Paolo Giudici Maria Gullo and Lisa Solieri
157
102 Composition
159
1022 Organic Acids
160
1023 Molecules with Antioxidant Activity
161
1024 Other Components
162

References
14
Vinegars Through the Ages Stefano Mazza and Yoshikatsu Murooka
17
22 Vinegar in Ancient Cultures
18
23 Vinegar in the Classical World
19
24 Vinegar in the Bible
22
25 Vinegar in the Middle Ages and Renaissance
24
251 Vinegar and Plague
27
252 Early Industrial Experiences
28
26 Vinegar in the Islamic World
29
27 Vinegar in the Age of Enlightenment
31
28 Vinegar in Asia
32
29 Vinegar after the Industrial Revolution
37
210 Conclusions
38
References
39
Acetic Acid Bacteria Taxonomy from Early Descriptions to Molecular Techniques Maria Gullo and Paolo Giudici
41
32 Acetic Acid Bacteria Taxonomy
44
33 General Concepts and Applications of Taxonomic Techniques to Study AAB at Different Taxonomic Levels
51
332 Chemotaxonomic Analysis
53
34 Final Remarks
55
References
56
Preservation of Vinegar Acetic Acid Bacteria Bassirou Ndoye Ilse Cleenwerck Jacqueline Destain Amadou Tidiane Guiro and Philippe Thonart
61
42 Starter Culture for SmallScale Fermentation in Developing Countries
62
43 AAB as Functional Starter Cultures in Acidification Process
63
44 FreezeDrying Process
64
441 Use of Cryoprotectants
66
442 Basic Technology of the AAB FreezeDrying Process
67
45 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
69
Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production Sandra Rainieri and Carlo Zambonelli
72
52 Yeasts
74
521 Yeast Classification
75
522 Growth and Nutritional Requirements
76
523 Alcoholic Fermentation
78
524 Important Genera and Species for Vinegar Production
81
53 Moulds
85
532 Nutritional Requirements
86
54 Lactic Acid Bacteria
87
542 Nutritional Requirements
88
543 Metabolic Activity
89
55 Nematodes
91
56 Insects
93
Vinegar Engineering Isidoro GarcíaGarcía Inés María SantosDueñas Carlos JiménezOt Jorge Eugenio JiménezHornero and José Luis BonillaVenceslada
97
63 Biotransformation
98
631 Oxygen Mass Transfer
99
632 Bioreactor
106
633 Operational Modes
108
634 Modelling
110
635 Automation
112
64 PostTreatments
114
65 Concluding Remarks
119
Rice Vinegars
121
72 Variety of Vinegars in Asia
122
Komesu
123
742 Acetic Acid Fermentation
124
Kurosu
125
752 Scientific Evidence for Kurosu as a Health Drink
126
754 Microbiology
127
Kasuzu
128
761 Technology
129
77 Red Rice Vinegar
131
References
132
Malt and Distilled Malt Vinegar Bill Grierson
134
83 Raw Materials
136
842 Separation
139
844 Storage
140
847 Final Filtration and Packaging
141
848 Distribution
142
References
143
Wine and Grape Vinegars Sylvia SellmerWilsberg
145
92 Technology
146
922 Storage
149
93 Microbiology
151
932 Required Properties of Industrially Used Strains
152
94 Vinegar and Food Law
153
1032 Colour
163
1033 pH
164
1041 Must Cooking
165
1042 Fermentation of Cooked Must
168
1043 Acetification of Fermented Cooked Must
169
1044 The Ageing Process
170
105 The Age of TBV
171
1052 Molecular Weight Distribution as an Ageing Marker
174
References
175
Jerez Vinega Wendu Tesfaye M Lourdes Morales M Carmen GarcíaParrilla and Ana M Troncoso
178
1112 Elaboration
180
112 Authentication
183
113 Chemical Composition
184
1133 Aromatic Compounds
185
1134 Polyphenols
188
114 Sensory Analysis
190
References
193
Cider Vinegar Microbiology Technology and Quality VK Joshi and Somesh Sharma
197
122 Microbiology of Cider Vinegar
198
1231 Raw Materials and Preparation
199
1232 Alcoholic Fermentation
201
1234 MaturationAgeing
202
1237 Pasteurization and Bottling
203
124 Composition of Cider Vinegar
204
1241 Specification of Cider Vinegar
205
125 Defects in Cider Vinegar
206
Vinegars from Tropical Africa Ángel González and Luc De Vuyst
208
132 The Main Vinegars Produced in Africa
211
1322 Mango Vinegar
212
1323 Sorghum Vinegar
213
1324 Palm Vinegar
215
1325 Other African Vinegars
216
133 Problems and Solutions for Vinegar Production in Africa
217
1331 SocioEconomic Factors
218
References
219
Taiwan Fruit Vinegar Andi Shaumei Ou and ReiChu Chang
222
142 Definitions of Fruit Vinegar for Taiwan and the FAOWHO
225
144 The Brewing of Pineapple Vinegar
228
1442 Selection of Acetic Acid Bacteria
229
1443 The Effect of Pineapple Juice with and without Peel on the Quality of Pineapple Vinegar
232
1444 The Effect of Additional Nutrients on the Quality of Pineapple Vinegar
234
145 Monitoring the Changes in PhysicoChemical Properties During Brewing of Pineapple Wine and Vinegar Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
238
146 Conclusions
240
References
241
Cereal Vinegars Made by SolidState Fermentation in China Fusheng Chen Li Li Jiong Qu and Chunxu Chen
243
152 SolidState Fermentation Process for Cereal Vinegars
244
1522 Qu Preparation
246
1523 Raw Materials Handling
247
1524 Saccharification and Alcohol Fermentation
248
1528 Leaching Vinegar
249
153 Raw Materials of Cereal Vinegars
250
154 Main Microorganisms
251
1542 Yeasts
252
1552 Zhenjiang Aromatic Vinegar
254
1553 Sichuan Bran Vinegar
255
1554 Fujian Monascus Vinegar
256
References
258
Other Tropical Fruit Vinegars Richard O Igbinadolor
260
162 Cocoa Vinegar
262
1623 Acetification
264
1631 Palm Sap
265
1633 Ogogoro
267
1642 Alcoholic Fermentation Acetification and Clarification
268
165 Other Tropical Alcoholic Fermented Beverages with Potential for Vinegar Production
269
References
270
Whey Vinegar Javier Parrondo Luis A Garcia and Mario Diaz
273
172 Production
276
1722 Acetic Acid Fermentation
281
173 Operation
284
174 Conclusions
286
References
287
Subject Index
289
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