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Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees,

Not e s.

<< versa, sed absque mutua passione. Deus nihil patitur ex

corporum motibus; illa nullam fentiunt resistentiam ex om“ nipræsentia Dei.--Corpore omni & figura corporea deftitu“ itur.-Omnia regit & omnia cognoscit.-Cum unaquæque * Spatii particula sit semper, & unumquodque Durationis in• divisibile momentum, ubique certe rerum omnium Fabricator

ac Dominus non erit nunquam, nusquam."

Mr. Pope;

“ Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part,
" As full, as perfect, in a hair, as heart;
“ As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns,
“ As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns :
“ To him, no high, no low, no great, no small;
“He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all.”

Sir Isaac Newton:-“ Annon ex phænomenis constat efle ert" tem incorporeum, viventem, intelligentem, omnipræfentem, " qui in fpatio infinito, tanquam fenforio suo, res ipfas intime “ cernat, penitusque perspiciat, totasque intra fe præsens præis fentes complectatur.”

But now admitting, there was an ambiguity in these expreffions, so great that a Spinozist might employ them to express his own particular principles; and such a thing might well bé, because the Spinozists, in order to hide the impiety of their principle, are wont to express the Omniprefence of God in terms that any religious Theist might employ; in this case, I fay, how are we to judge of the Poet's meaning ? Surely by the whole tenor of his argument. Now take the words in the sense of the Spinozists, and he is made, in the conclusion of his epistle, to overthrow all he had been advancing throughout the body of it: For Spinozism is the destruction of an Universe, where every thing tends, by a foreseen contrivance in all its parts, to the perfection of the Whole. But allow

Lives thro' all Life, extends thro' all extent,
Spreads undivided, operates unspent ;
Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part, 275
As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart;
As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns,
As the rapt Seraph, that adores and burns:

NOT E s. him to employ the passage in the sense of St. Paul, That we and all creatures live, and move, and have our being in God; and then it will be seen to be the most logical support of all that had preceded. For the Poet, having, as we fay, laboured through his epistle to prove, that every thing in the Universe tends, by a foreseen contrivance, and a present direction of all its parts, to the perfection of the Whole; it might be objected, that such a disposition of things implying in God a painful, operose, and inconceivable extent of Providence, it could not be supposed that such care extended to all, but was confined to the more noble parts of the creation. This gross conception of the First Cause the Poet exposes, by Thewing that God is equally and intimately prefent to every particle of Matter, to every sort of Substance, and in every infant of Being VER. 277. As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns,

As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns.] Which M. Du Resnel transates thus,

“ Dans un homme ignoré sous une humble Chaumiere,

" Que dans le Seraphin, rayonnant de lumiere. i. e. As well in the ignorant man, who inhabits an humble cottage, as in the Seraphim ene mpasjid with rays of light. The Translator in good earnest thought, that a vile man that mourn'd could be no other than fome poor Country Cottager. Which has betrayed M. de Crousaz into this important remark.-. 6 For all that, we sometimes find in persons of the lowest “ rank, a fund of probity and resignation which preserves

To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. 280

X. Cease then, nor Order Imperfection name: Our

proper bliss depends on what we blame.

After Ver. 282, in the MS.

Reason, to think of God when the pretends,
Begins a Cenfor, an Adorer ends.

COMMENTARY. VER. 281. Ceafe then, nor Order Imperfeétion name :} And now the Poet, as he had promised, having vindicated the ways of God 10 Man, concludes (from Ver. 280, to the end) that, from what had been said, it appears, that the very things we blame, contribute to our Happiness, either as unrelated particulars, or at least as parts of the universal system; that our state of ignorance was allotted to us out of compassion ; that yet we have as much knowledge as is sufficient to shew us, that we are, and always shall be, as bleft as we can bear ; for that NATURE is neither a Stratonic chain of blind Causes and Effects,

(All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee)

NOT E s. " them from contempt; their minds are, indeed, but nar

row, yet fitted to their stațion,” &c. Comm. p. 120. But Mr. Pope had no such childish idea in his head. He was here opposing the human species to the angelic; and so {poke of the first, when compared to the latter, as vile and disconfolate. The force and beauty of the reflection depend upon this sense; and, what is more, the propriety of it.

VER, 278. As the rapt Seraph, $c] Alluding to the Name Seraphim, fignifying burners,

Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heav'n bestows on thee.

COMMENTARY. por yet the fortuitous result of Epicurean Atoms,

(All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see) as those two species of atheism supposed it; but the wonderful art and direction, unknown indeed to Man, of an all-powerful, all-wise, all-good, and free Being. And therefore we may be assured, that the arguments brought above, to prove partial moral evil productive of Good, are conclusive ; from whence one certain truth results, in spite of all the pride and cavils of vain Reason, That WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.

That the reader may see in one view the exactness of the Method, as well as force of the Argument, I shall here draw up a short fynopsis of this Epistle. The Poet begins by telling us his subject is an Essay on Man: That his end of write ing is to vindicate Providence: That he intends to derive his arguments, from the visible things of God seen in this system : Lays down this Proposition, That of all possible systems, infinite Wisdom has formed the best: draws from thence two Consequences, 1. That there must needs be somewhere such a creature as Man; 2. That the moral Evil which he is author of, is produc- . tive of the Good of the Whole. This is his general Thesis ; from whence he forms this Conclusion, That Man should rest fubmisive and content, and make the hopes of Futurity, his comfort; but not luffer this to be the occasion of PRIDE, which is the cause of all his impious complaints,

He proceeds to confirm his Thesis — Previously endeavours to abate our wonder at the phænomenon of moral Evil; thews, first, its use to the perfection of the universe, by analogy, from the use of physical Evil in this particular system. -Secondly, its use in this system, where it is turned, providentially, from its natural bias, to promote Virtue. Then goes on to vindicate Providence from the imputation of certain fupposed natural Evils; as he had before justified it for the permission of real moral Evil, in sewing that, though the Atheist's complaint againft Providence be on pretence of real moral Evil, yet the true caufe is his impatience ander imaginary natural Evil; the issue of a depraved ape

Submit.-In this, or any other sphere, 285
Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear :
Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r,
Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.
All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee;
All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not fee
All Discord, Harmony not understood; 291
All partial Evil, universal Good :
And, spite of Pride, in erring Reason's spite,
One truth is clear, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.

COMMENTARY. petite for fantastical advantages, which, if obtained, would be useless or hurtful to Man, and deforming of, and de tructive to the Universe, as breaking into that order by which it is supported.--He describes that order, harmony, and close connection of the parts; and by shewing the intimate presence of God to his whole creation, gives a reason for an Universe so amazingly beautiful and perfect. From all this he deduces his general conclusion, That Nature being neither blind chain of Causes and Effects, nor get the fortuitous result of wandering atoms, but the wonderful art and direction of an allwise, all-good, and free Being ; WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT, with regard to the disposition of God, and its ultimate tendency; which once granted, all complaints against Providence are at at end,

NOT E S. VER. 294. One truth is clear, &c.] It will be difficult to think any caviller fhould have objected to this conclusion; efpecially when the Author, in this very epistle, has himself thus explained it;

Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call,
May, must be right, as relative to allows

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