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The above writer 'has neglected to notice the invention of Torpedoes, which we consider more important for the peace and happiness of mankind, than any discovery made by human ingenuity during the last century. Torpedoes, in our opinion, will eventually insure the freedom of the seas, and in fact, destroy those immense naval establishments which have proved the curse of nations. The hard earnings of man have heretofore been applied to sustain these floating engines of destruction, wbich have conveyed misery and desolation to every corner of the world. This invention also claims ar American as its author. We intended, as suggested in a former number, to have inserted the plates attached to Mr. Fulton's work on Torpedoes, with the explanations; but learning that Mr. F. had made some improvements in the machinery, and finding that we could not do justice to the subject, without occupying more room than the nature of our publication would justify, have concluded to omit any fur, ther notice of them ; at the same time recommending to our readers a perusal of the entire work.

ECONOMY OF ROYALTY. The salary of the king of England, is one million sterling, per annum-which is four million, four hundred and fortyfour thousand four hundred and forty-four dollars !! 177 times as much as the president's, and 19,444 dollars over. The present gracious sovereign has reigned 50 years. His income during that time has only amounted to 222,222,200 dollars!! exclusive of frequent grants of parliament.

This salary of 50 years would be sufficient to pay the president's from the creation of the world, (allowing it to be -5814 years,) to the present time, and 3072 years to come.

When the present king mounted the throne, the debt of which the nation pays the interest in taxes, amounted to about ninety millions; it now amounts to nearly seyen hundred millions, and one year's taxes now is nearly equal to what the whole debt then was. The poor-rates of England

and Wales then amounted to about a million and a quarter annually: They now amount to more than six millions annually. The number of parish paupers was then about two hundred thousand : That number is now about twelve hundred thousand. When his reign began, it cost the laboring man five days' work to earn a bushel of flour; and now it costs him ten days' work to earn a bushel of flour; and if he happens to have three children, it is, upon the common run of wages, utterly impossible for him to earn bread enough for his family to eat, to say nothing of meat, drink, clothing, fire, and house-rent.

THE COMET.'

• An Extract. Whether the Comet now visible be one of those which have a periodical return, is extremely uncertain—I do not find that it corresponds exactly with any on record. Its effect upon the globe will principally depend upon its distance from the earth when passing the descending node.“

Doctor Halley, in speaking of the Comet of 1680, says, “ Had the earth then been in the part of her orbit nearest to that node, their mutual gravitation must have caused a change in the plane of the orbit of the carth, and in the length of our year, and that if so large a body with so rapid a motion as that of this Comet were to strike against the earth, a thing by no means impossible, the shock might reduce this beautiful frame to its original chaos."

Mr. Wiston attributes the universal deluge to the near approach of a Comet. His opinion was, “ That the earth passing through the atmosphere of the Comet, attracted therefrom great part of the water of the flood ; that the nearness of the Comet raised a great tide in subterraneous waters, so that the out crust of the earth was changed from a spherical to an oval figure.” Thus hé accounts for trees and bones of animals being found at very great depths in the earth,

As the most remarkable Comets have been generally attended with extraordinary tides and tempests, it were to be wished that those who have an opportunity, would be partieularly careful in noticing such natural phenomena as may take place during the appearance of this Comet. Such an opportunity may not again present itself for many years.

John Wood. · Richmond, September 15.

Some of the moderns, particularly Sir Isaac Newton, are of opinion, that the Comets are ordained by Providence to supply the Sun, at stated periods, with matter peculiar to its nature, and to make up the deficiency which must arise from the continual emission of the particles of light. These however are mere hypotheses. The same also may be said of every thing that can be advanced concerning their being inhabited worlds; for, if animals can exist there, they must be creatures very far different from any of which we have the least conception. Some who have indulged themselves in visionary ideas, think they are appointed as the place of torment for the damned ; that each Comet is properly and literally speaking, a hell, from the intolerable and inconceivable heat and cold which alternately takes place in these bodies.

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. “ Religious liberty is a liberty to choose our own religion, to worship God according to our own consciences, according to the best light we have. Every man living as man, has a right to this, as he is a rational creature. The Creator gave him this right, when he endowed him with understanding ; and every man must judge for himself, because every man must give an account of himself to God. Consequently this is an indefeasible right; it is inseperable from humanity; and God did never give authority to any man, or number of men, to deprive any child of man thereof, under any color or pretence whatever. What an amazing thing is it then, that the governing power of almost every nation under heaven should take upon them, in all ages, to rob all under their power of this liberty! Yea,“should take upon them at this day so to do! To force rational creatures into their own religion! Would one think it possible, that the most sensible men in the world should say to their fellow-creatures, • Either be of my religion, or I will take away your food, and you, and your wife and children shall starve ? If that will not convince you, I will fetter your hands and feet, and throw you into a dungeon ; and is still you will not see as I rce; I will burn you alive. It would not be altogether so astonishing, if this were the manner of American savages. But what shall we say, if namberless instances of it bave occurred in the politest nations of Europe? Have no instances of the kind been seen in Britain ? Have not England and Scotland seen the horrid fires? Have not the fiames burning the flesh of heretics, shone in London as well as in Paris and Lisbon.”

JOHN WE«LEY. • Be it the care of republicans, that they never shine in America !

PHILOSOPHERS. « Unless either philosophers bear rule in states, or those who are called kings and potentates learn to philosophize justly and properly, and thus both civil power and philosophy are united in the same person, it appears to me that there can be no cessation of calamities, either to states or to the whole-human race.”-So said Plato, one of the wisest and best men of antiquity-and so says common sense; but fools and knaves in our day denounce philosophers as a disgrace to the people over whom they preside!

COMMENT ON THE LAWS OF ENGLAND,

Extracted from the writings of Mr. John Wesley, and recommended to the serious consideration of the Legislature of this state.

“ In the beginning of July, 1761, I was desired to call on a poor prisoner in the castle of York, (England.)-I had formerly occasion to take notice of a hideous monster, called a Chancery Bill-I now saw the fellow to it called a Decla-' ration. The plain fact was this : Some time since, a man who lived near Yarm, assisted others in running some brandy; his share was worth nearly four pounds. After he had wholly left off that work, and was following his own business, that of a weaver, he was arrested, and sent to York gaol. And not long after came down a Declaration, that Jack, whohad landed a vessel laden with brandy and Geneva, whereby he was indebted to his Sovereign Lord the King, in the sunr of 576). and upwards. And to tell this worthy story, the lawyer takes up 13 or 14 sheets of the treble stampt paper.

“0 England! Will this,' reproach never be rolled away from thee! Is there any thing like this to be found, either among Turks or heathens? In the name of justice, mercy, and common sense, I ask, 1st.-Why do men lie for lying sake? Is it only to keep their hands in? What need else of saying it was the port of London ? When every one knew the brandy was landed 300 miles from thence..

What a monstrous contempt of truth does this shew, or rather hatred to it? 20.- Where is the justice of swelling Àl. into 576). ? 30.- Where is the common sense of taking up 14 sheets of paper to tell a story, that may be told in ten lines? 4th.-_Where is the mercy of thus grinding the face of the poor beggared prisoner? Would not this be execrable villainy, if the paper and writing together, were only 6d. a sheet, when they had stript him already of his little all, and had not left him 14 groats in the world ?

« It is certain that nothing can be said in defence of our law proceedings. They are often absurd, highly oppressive to the subject, and disgraceful to a civilized nation. In crim. inal cases, how often does the indictment magnify and exaggerate both the crime and every circumstance connected with it, beyond all the bounds of truth and probability! Hence it

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