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such power must be trusted. Al human laws mest be lia. ble to misconstruction, and uncertainty, yet without lass property cannot be secured. All popular eleetions must be attended with corruption, licentiousness, and the perserioa of justire, yet without then the liberty of no country can be preserved. All national provisions for the poor must not only be eneouragements to idleness, but produetive of edatests, and oftentimes of eruelty, yet without sueh many honest but unfortunate people must inevitably perish. All religious tests, and subscriptions, are in their own natures subversive of truth and morals; yet the folly of one art of mankind, and tbe knavery of the other, will startely permit any government to subsist without them. Trade and wealth are the strength and the pursuit of every wise nation, yet these must certainly produce luxury, which no less certainly must produee their destruction. All war is a complication of all manner of Evils natural and moral, that is of misery and wiekedness; yet without it national contentions can never be determined. So government can be carried on, nor subordination preserved, without forms and ceremonials, pomp, and parade; yet all such, from the inferiority of human nature giving itself airs of grandeur and magnificence, and the despicable expedients it is obliged to have recourse to, to support it, must always have something mean and ridiculous in them to exalted understandings. All governments are in a great measure upheld by absurd notions infused into the minds of the people, of the divine right of some particular person or family to reign over them; a foolish partiality for some particular spot of ground ; an outrageous zeal for some religion which they cannot understand, or a senseless pursuit of glory which they can never attain ; these are all false principles, yet without them, or some like them, no nation can long subsist : they can never be defended by reason, yet veason can produce no others that can supply their places. Every flourishing nation endeavours to improve arts, and cultivate reason and good sense ; yet if these are
extended too far, or too universally diffused, no national government or national religion can long stand their ground; for it is with old establishments as with old houses, their deformities are commonly their supports, and these can never be removed without endangering the whole fabric. In short, no government can be administered without in some degree deceiving the people, oppressing the mean, indulging the great, corrupting the venal, opposing factions to each other, and temporising with parties.
It is this necessity for Evil in all government, which gives that weight and popularity, which usually attends all those who oppose, and calumniate any government whatever ; appearing always to have reason on their side, beeause the Evils of all power are conspicuous to the meanest capacity, whereas the necessity for those Evils are perceivable only to superior understandings': every one can feel the burthen of taxes, and see the inconveniences of armies, places, and pensions, that must encrease them, but very few are able to comprehend that no government can be supported without them in a certain degree. The most ignorant can perceive the mischiefs that must arise from corrupt ministers and venal parliaments; but it requires some sagacity to discern, that assemblies of men unconnected by self-interest will no more draw together in the business of the public than horses without harness or bridles ; but, like them, instead of being quietly guided in the right road of general utility, will immediately run into riot, stop the wheels of government, and tear all the political machine to pieces.
The wise man knows that those Evils cannot be eradiçated, and that their excess only can be prevented ; that thus far every honest man will endeavour to his utmost, but to proceed farther only fools will hope for, or knaves pretend. He knows that though a single man may possibly prefer public utility to private advantage, it is utterly impossible, that the majority of numerous bodies should be actuated by the same generous and patriotic principles; these can spring
only from virtue and wisdom, benevolent hearts, and comprehensive understandings; which, being the portion but of a few more exalted individuals, can never be found in the multitude to be governed : nor can they be bestowed in any extraordinary degree on those who govern : statesmen and ministers, who must be hackneyed in the ways of men, cannot be made of such pure and refined materials ; peculiar must be the composition of that little creature called a Great Man. He must be formed of all kinds of contradictions : he must be indefatigable in business, to fit him for the labours of his station, and at the same time fond of pleasures, to enable him to attach many to his interests by a participation of their vices : He must be master of much artifice and knavery, his situation requiring him to employ, and be employed by so many knaves; yet he must have some honesty, or those very knaves will be unwilling to trust him: He must be possessed of great magnanimity perpetually to confront şurrounding enemies and impending dangers ; yet of great meanness, to flatter those enemies, and suffer tamely continual injuries, and abuses : He must be wise enough to conduct the great affairs of mankind with sagacity and success, and to acquire riches and honours for his reward ; and at the same time foolish enough to think it worth a wise man's while to meddle with such affairs at all, and to accept of such imaginary rewards for real sufferings. Since then in all human governments such must the governors, and such the governed eternally be, it is certain they must be ever big with numberless imperfections, and productive of abundant Evils: and it is no less plain, that if infinite goodness could not exclude natural and moral Evils, infinite power can never prevent political.
I hope, Sir, the picture I have here drawn of human nature, and human government, will not appear too much of the caricature kind: your experience in both must inform you that it is like, though your good nature may incline you to be sorry that it is so. I trust likewise to your good sense
to distinguish, that what has here been said of their imper. fections, and abuses, is by no means intended as a defence of them, but meant only to shew their necessity : to this every wise man ought quietly to submit, endeavouring at the same time to redress them to the utmost of his power ; which can be effected by one method only; that is, by a reformation of manners : for as all Political Evils derive their original from Moral, these can never be removed, until those are first an mended.
MORALITY OF MAHOMETANISM.
(Continued from page 220.)
SPEAK unto the true believers, that they restrain their eyes, and keep themselves from immodest actions : this will be more pure for them ; for God is well acquainted with that which they do. And speak unto the believing wo. men, that they restrain their eyes, and preserve their modesty, and discover not their ornaments, except what necessarily appeareth thereof; and let them throw their veils over their bosoms, and not shew their ornaments, unless to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers, or their brother's sons, or their sister's sons, or their women, or the captives which their right hand shall possess, or unto such men as attend them, and have no need of women, or unto children, who distinguish not the nakedness of women. And let them not make a noise with their feet, that their ornaments which they hide may thereby be discovered. And be ye all turned unto God, O true believers, that ye may be happy. Chap. xxiv, vol. ii. p. 192.
O true believers, let your slaves and those among you, who shall not have attained the age of puberty, ask leave of you before they come into your presence, three times in the day, namely, before the morning prayer, and when ye lay aside your garment at noon, and after the evening prayer. These are the three times for you to be private : it shall be no crime in you or in them, if they go in to you without asking permission, after these times while ye are in frequent at. tendance, the one of you on the other. Thus God declareth his signs unto you; for God is knowing and wise. And when your children attain the age of puberty, let them ask leave to come into your presence at all times, in the same manner as those who have attained that age before them, ask leave. Thus God declareth his signs unto you, for God is knowing and wise. As to such women as are past childbearing, who hope not to marry again, because of their advanced age, it shall be no crime in them if they lay aside their outer garments, not shewing their ornaments ; but if they abstain from this it will be better for them. God both heareth and knoweth. It shall be no crime in the blind, nor shall it be any crime in the lame, neither shall it be any crime in the sick, or in yourselves, that ye eat in your houses; or in the houses of your fathers, or mothers, or in the houses of your brothers, or sisters, or the houses of your uncles, or in those houses the keys whereof ye have in your possession, or in the house of your friend. It shall not be any crime in you whether ye eat together or separately. Id. p. 198.
O true bslievers, the law of retaliation is ordained you for the slain ; the free shall die for the free, and the servant for the servant, and a woman for a woman: but he whom his brother shall forgive, may be prosecuted, and obliged to make satisfaction according to what is just, and a fine shall be set on him with humanity. This is indulgence from your Lord, and mercy. And he who shall transgress after this, by killing the murderer, shall suffer a grievous punishment. And in this law of retaliation ye have life, 0 ye of