« 上一頁繼續 »
“ Do not an ill thing, either in company, or alone ; but of all respect yourself first ; that is : first pay the duty which is due to yourself, to your honour and to your conscience ; nor let any foreign regard make you deviate from this faith.”
“ Be just in word and deed.”
• Suffer not yourself to get a habit of acting imprudently in any thing."
“ Remember that it is the certain lot of all men once to die.”
“ Let not the words, or actions of any man impose on you so far, as to make you either say or do any thing to your own prejudice or disadvantage.”
“ Consider well what you are about, before you put it into actual execution, lest you betray your folly : for fools only speak and act without reflection.
.“ Meddle with nothing that will give you pain, when once it is past.”
“ Attempt nothing which you do not perfectly understand ; but learn every thing that is absolutely necessary."
Neglect not the health of your body ; but observe a medium in your food, your drink, and your recreations."
“ Let your diet be pure, but not delicate.”
“ Do nothing to create the envy of those you converse with.
6 Be liberal, but not profuse ; moderation is best in all things. 56 Presume not to sleep till you have thrice ran over the actions of the past day.-- Examine yourself, Where have I been? What have I done? Have I omitted any good action ?- Then weigh all, and correct yourself for what you have done amiss, and rejoice in what you have done well.”
THE CONCLUSION. " This ought to be your daily task, your constant meditation and study, in this you ought to take delight; for it will lead you to the paths of divine virtue.”- Precepts of Pythagoras, who died 497 years before Christ.
Now, if there be any thing in religion, not contained in the foregoing extracts, we can see no possible reason for desiring to become acquainted with it ; because we are convinced that it must consist in the performance of some stupid ceremony, such as baptism; or in faith in speculative points, contrary to, or above the comprehension of reason, which an honest man can never assent to ; consequently tending to divide mankind into parties, to cherish pride, and promote ill will and animosities, destructive to true religion, and the repose of man. Finally we confidently assert that there is not a single virtue set forth in the Christian system, that is not to be found in the writings of the ancient philosophers, even that (so much boasted of, but little practised) of doing good to, if not loving, our enemies.--Edi. TORS.
MORALITY OF MAHOMETANISM.
[Continued from page 186.]
Extracts from the Koran, arranged under alphabetical heads.*
ALMS. Observe the stated times of prayer, and pay your legal alms,t and bow down yourselves with those who bow down. Will ye command men to do justice, and forget your own souls? Yet ye read the book of the law; do ye not therefore understand ? Chap. ii. Vol. i. p. 9.
Be constant in prayer and give alms ; and what good ye have sent before for your souls, ye shall find it with God ;. surely God seeth that which ye do. c. 2, v. 1, p. 22.
* The references are to the London editions of Sale's translation, of which there are two whose pages correspond.
† What is to be understood by these legal alms which are thus referred to, is explained by the following passage in Sale's Preliminary Discourse. “ Alms, according to the prescriptions of the Mohammedan law, are to be gia ven of five things; 1. Of cattle, that is to say, of camels, kine, and of sheep. 2. Of money. 3. Of corn. 4. Of fruits, viz. dates and raisons; and 5. Of wares sold. Of each of these a certain portion is to be given in alms, being usually one part in forty, or two and a half per cent. of the value. But no alms are due for them, unless they amount to a certain quantity or number, nor until a man has been in possession of them eleven months, he not being obliged to give alms thereout before the twelfth month is begun: nor are alms due for cattle employcd in tilling the ground, or in carrying burdens. In some cases, a much larger portion than the before mentioned, is reckoned due for alms : thus, of what is gotten out of mines, or the sea, or by what art or profession, over and above what is sufficient for the reasonable support of a man's family, and especially where there is a mixture, or suspicion of unjust gain, a fifth part ought to be given in alms. Moreover at the end of the fast of Ramadan, every moslem is obliged to give in alms for himself, and for every one of his family, if he has any, a measure of wheat, barley, dates rice, or other provisions, commonly eaten,"
They will ask thee what they shall bestow in alms; answer, the good which ye bestow, let it be given to parents and kindred, and orphans, and the poor, and the stranger. c. ij. v. 1. p. 38.
O true believers, give alms of that which ye have bestowed on you, before the day cometh wherein there shall be no merchandizing, nor friendship, nor intercession. c. ii. v. 1. p. 47.
O true believers, make not your alms of none effect by reproaching or mischief, as he who layeth out what he hath to appear unto men to give alms, and believeth not in God and the last day. The likeness of such a one is as a flint covered with earth, on which a violent rain falleth, and leaveth it hard. They cannot prosper in any thing which they have gained, for God directeth not the unbelieving people. c. ii. v. 1. p. 50.
O true believers, bestow alms of the good things which ye have gained, and of that which we have produced for you out of the earth, and chuse not the bad thereof to give it in alms, such as ye would not accept yourselves, otherwise than by connivance : and know that God is rich and worthy to be praised. And whatever alms ye shall give, or whatever vow ye shall vow, ved rily, God knoweth it ; but the ungodly shall have none to help them. If ye make your alms to appear it is well ; but if ye conceal them, and give them unto the poor, this will be better for you, and will atone for your sins : and God is well informed of that which ye do. The direction of them belongeth not unto thee ; but God directeth whom he pleaseth. The good that ye shall give in alms, shall redound unto yourselves ; and ye shall not give unless out of desire of seeing the face of God. And what good thing ye shall give in alms, it shall be repaid you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly ; unto the poor who are wholly employed in fighting for the religion of God, and cannot go to and fro in the earth ; whom the ignorant man thinketh rich because of their modesty : thou shalt know them by this mark, they ask not men with importunity ; and what good ye shall give in alms, verily God knoweth it. They who distribute alms of their substance night and day, in private and in public, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall no fear 'come, neither shall they be grieved. c. ii. v. 1. p. 51.
Alms are to be distributed only unto the poor and the needy, and those who are employed in collecting and distributing the same, and unto those whose hearts are reconciled, and for the redemption of captives, and unto those who are in debt, and insilvent, and for the advantage of God's religion, and unto the traveller. This is an ordinance from God: and God is knowing and wise. c. ix. v. 1. p. 251.
Your wealth and your children are only a temptation : but with God is a great reward. Wherefore fear God, as much as ye are able ; and hear and obey : and give alms for the good of your souls; for whoso is preserved from the covetousness of his own soul, they shall prosper. If ye lend unto God an acceptable loan, he will double the same unto you, and will forgive you: for God is grateful and long suffering, knowing both what is hidden, and what is divulged; the mighty, the wise. c. lxiv. V. 2. p. 442.
Woe unto every slanderer, and backbiter: who heapeth up riches, and prepareth the same for the time to come! He thinketh that his riches will render him immortal. By no means. c. civ v. 2. p 509.
Serve God, and associate no creature with him; and shew kindness unto parents, and relations, and orphans, and the poor, and your neighbour who is of kin to you, and also your neighbour who is a stranger, and to your familiar companion, and the traveller, and the captives whom your right hands shall possess ;* for God loveth not the proud or vain-glorious, who are covetous, and recommend covetousness unto men, and conceal that
• The reader is requested to compare this command of the prophet Mahomet with those recorded in the Scriptures of God's chosen people, the Jews, respecting captives.