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On every conscience; laws which none shall find | Let us descend now therefore from this top
Their motion; at whose front a Aaming sword, His living temples, built by faith to stand, In signal of remove, waves fiercely round : Their own faith, not another's ? for, on Earth, We may no longer stay: go, waken Eve; Who against faith and conscience can be heard Her also I with gentle dreams have calm'd Infallible? yet many will presume:
Portending good, and all her spirits compos'd Whence heavy persecution shall arise
To meek submission : thou, at season fit, On all, who in the worship persevere
Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard ; Of spirit and truth; the rest, far greater part,
Chiefly, what may concern her faith to know, Will deem in outward rites and specious forms
The great deliverance by her seed to come Religion satisfied ; Truth shall retire
(For by the woman's seed) on all mankind : Bestuck with slanderous darts, and works of faith That ye may live, which will be many days, Rarely be found : so shall the world go on,
Both in one faith unanimous, though sad, To good malignant, to bad men benign;
With cause for evils past; yet much more Under her own weight groaning; till the day
cheer'd Appear of respiration to the just,
With meditation on the bappy end.” And vengeance to the wicked, at return
He ended, and they both descend the hill; Of him so lately promis'd to thy aid,
Descended, Adam to the bower, where Eve The woman's Seed; obscurely then foretold, Lay sleeping, ran before: but found her wak'd; Now amplier known thy Saviour and thy Lord ;
And thus with words not sad she him receiv'd. Last, in the clouds, from Heaven to be reveal'd “ Whence thou return'st, and whither went'st, In glory of the Father, to dissolve
I know; Satan with his perverted world; then raise
For God is also in sleep; and dreams advise, From the conflagrant mass, purg'd and refin'd,
Which he hath sent propitious, some great good New Heavens, new Earth, ages of endless date,
Presaging, since with sorrow and heart's distress. Founded in righteousness, and peace, and love;
Wearied I fell asleep: but now lead on;
Is to stay here; without thee here to stay, " How soon hath thy prediction, seer blest,
Is to go hence unwilling; thou to me Measur'd this transient world, the race of time,
Art all things under Heaven, all places thou, Till time stand fix'd ? Beyond is all abyss,
Who for my wilful crime art banish'd hence. Eternity, whose end no eye can reach.
Tbis further consolation yet secure Greatly instructed I shall hence depart;
I carry hence ; though all by me is lost, Greatly in peace of thought; and have my fill
Such favour I unworthy am vouchsafd, Of knowledge what this vessel can contain ; By me the promis'd Seed shall all restore." Beyond which was my folly to aspire.
So spake our mother Eve; and Adam heard Henceforth I learn, that to obey is best,
Well pleas'd, but answer'd not: for now, too And love with fear the only God; to walk
nigh As in his presence; ever to observe
The arch-angel stood ; and from the other hill His providence; and on him sole depend,
To their fix'd station, all in bright array Merciful over all his works, with good
The cherubim descended ; on the ground Still orercoming evil, and by small [weak Gliding meteorous, as evening-mist Accomplishing great things, by things deem'd Ris’n from a river o'er the marish glides, Subverting worldly strong, and worldly wise And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Homeward returning. High in front advanc'd, Is fortitude to highest victory,
The brandish'd sword of God before them blaz'd, And, to the faithful, death, tbe gate of life; Fierce as a comet; which with torrid heat, Taught this by his example, whom I now And vapour as the Libyan air adust, Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest.”
Began to parch that temperate clime; whereat To whom thus also the angel last replied.
In either hand the hastening angel caught “This having learn’d, thou hast attain'd the Our lingering parents, and to the eastern gate sum
Led them direct, and down the cliff as fast Of wisdom; hope no higher, though all the stars To the subjected plain; then disappear'd. Thou knew'st by name, and all the ethereal They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld powers,
Of Paradise, solate their happy seat, All secrets of the deep, all Nature's works, War'd over by that Aaming brand ; the gate Or works of God in Heaven, air, earth, or sea,
With dreadful faces throng'd, and fiery arms : And all the riches of this world enjoy’dst, Some natural tears they dropt, but wip'd them And all the rule, one empire; only add
soon ; Deeds to thy knowledge answerable; add faith,
The world was all before them, where to choose Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love,
Their place of rest, and Providence their guide : By name to come call’d charity, the soul They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and Of all the rest : then wilt thou not be loth
slow, To leave this Paradise, but shalt possess Through Eden took their solitary way. A paradise within thee, happier far.
ED FOR TRAGEDIES BY MILTON : FROM HIS OWN
poetical works; as have such, which relate to the respective pieces, and which have been more
minutely investigated, in Mr. Warton's two'edi. PARADISE LOST.
tions of Milton's smaller poems. Upon a careful
examination of this manuscript, I have discovere CONTAINING PLANS OF SIMILAR SUBJECTS, INTEND
ed a few peculiarities, or variations of expression,
which have escaped the notice of those who have MS, IN TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
preceded me in describing this literary curiosity; and which will be found in their proper places.
For I bave added, at the end of each particular Is the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, poem, as of Lycidas, Arcades, and Comus ; and is a thin folio manuscript, marked, in the
at the end of each series of poems, as of Sonnets,
year 1799, when I was obligingly permitted by the Odes, and Miscellanies; the several various reads master and fellows of that society to examine it, ings respectively belonging to them. In this are Miscell. R. in. 4. It is handsomely bound; and rangement I hope to gratify the reader: who, to the inside of one of the covers is pasted a paper without interruption,
(to use the language of Dr.
after reading the finished poem, may then trace with this inscription : Membra hæc eruditissimi et pænè divine Poetæ olim miserè disjecta et Johnson respecting the imperfect rudiments of passim sparsa, postea verò fortuitò inventa, et Paradise Lost,) the gradual growth and expansion in unum denuo collecta à Carolo Mason ejusdem of great works in their seminal state; and observe Collegii Socio, et inter Miscellanea reposita, de- bow they are sometimes suddenly advanced by inceps eâ quâ decuit religione servari voluit accidental hints, and sometimes slowly improved Thomas CLARKE', nuperrimmè hujusce Collegii, by steady meditation. For this reason also I have nunc ve. ò Medii Templi Londini, "Socius, 1736. placed the dramatic plans of Paradise Lust at the These papers were found by Dr. Mason, above- conclusion of the poet's sublimer“ heroic song;" mentioned, who was also Woodwardian professor and have suhjoined, to the tragedy of Samson at Cambridge, among other old and neglected Ayonistes, the plans of Milton's other intended
dramas. manuscripts belonging to sir Henry Newton Puckering”, a considerable benefactor to the library. They contain two draughts of a letter to Of the tragedy or mystery there are two plans, a friend, who had importuned Milton to take orders; the following plans of Paradise Lost in the form of a tragedy, or mystery; the plans or Michael.
Moses. subjects of several other intended tragedies, all Heavenly Love, Divine Justice, Mercie, in the poet's own hand ; and entire copies of Chorus of Angels. Wisdom, Heavenly many of his smaller poems, in the same hand, Lucifer.
Love. except in a few instances, exhibiting his first Adam, with the ser- Michael. thoughts and subsequent corrections. All these Eve, 5 pent, Hesperus, the evening. variations, Mr. Warton has observed, have been conscience. imperfectly and incorrectly printed by Dr. Birch. Death.
Lucifer. Various readings of this MS. have been also ad- Labour,
Adam, mitted into Dr. Newton's edition of all Milton's sicknesse,
Discontent, Mutes. Conscience. 1 Afterwards master of the Rolls, and knight.
“ had so
Sicknesse, great an affection for this college, in which he Faith.
Discontent, had been educated, that, in his eightieth year he
Mutes, desired to be readmitted : and, residing there a Charity,
Fear, whole summer, presented to the new library,
Death; just then finished, his own collection of books,
Faith. amounting to near four thousand volumes. He
Hope. was son of sir Adam Newton, tutor to prince
Charity. Henry; and many papers written by that prince, or relating to him, are involved in the collection. Sir Henry took the name of Puckering in remembrance of his uncle sir Thomas Puckering of War
Paradise Lost. wickshire, a learned and accomplished man, brother in law to sir Adam Newton, son of lord keeper Puckering, a companion of the studies of prince Henry. Many of the books were presents Moses apologięs, recounting how he assumed to the prince from authors or editors. In Dr. his true budie; that it corrupts not, becanse of Duport's Hore subseciva, a poem is addressed to his [abode) with God in the mount: declares the this preserver of Milton's inanuscripts, Ad D. like of Enoch and Eliah ; besides the puritie of Henricum Puckeringum, alias Newtonum, Equitum the place, that certain pure winds, dess, and baronettum. Cantabr. 1676. 8vo. pp. 222, 223. clouds, præserve it from corruption; whence ere This sir Henry had a son, pupil to Dr. Duport at horts to the sight of God ; tells they cannot sec Trinity College, but who died before his father.” Adam in the state of innocence by reason of thirt
Adans, } fallen.
Justice, Mercie, debating what should become of At last, after discourse of enmity on either side,
Chorus prepare resistance at his first approach. Wisdome, Man, if he fall.
he departs ; whereat the Chorus sing of the bat
tell and victorie in Heaven against him and bis Аст ІІ.
accomplices : as before, after the first act, was Heavenly Love.
sung a hymn of the creations. Evening-Starre.
Heer again may appear Lucifer, relating and Chorus sing the marriage song, and describe Pa- insulting in what he had don to the destruction radice.
of Man. Man next, and Eve, having by this time bin seduc't by the serpent, appears con
fusedly, cover'd with leaves. Conscience, in a Act III.
shape, accuses him, Justice cites him to the Lucifer contriving Adam's ruine.
place, whither Jehovah called for him. In the Chorus feares for Adam, and relates Lucifer's re- mean while, the Chorus entertains the stage, and bellion and fall.
is informed, by some angel, [of] the manner of his fall4,
Heer the Chorus bewails Adam's fall. Adam Act IV.
then and Eve returne, and accuse one another;
but especially Adam layes the blame to his wife; Eve,
is stubborn in his offence. Justice appears; reaConscience cites them to God's examination. sons with him, convinces him. The Chorus adChorus bewailes, and tells the good, Adam hath monishes Adam, and bids him beware Lucifer's lost.
example of impenitences.
The angel is sent to banish them out of ParaAct V.
dise; but, before, causes to pass before his eyes, Adam and Eve driven out of Paradice : præsented in shapes, a mask of all the evills of this life and by an angel with
world. He is humbl’d, releats, dispaires. At Labour,
last appeares Mercy, comforts him, promises the Grief,
Messiah ; then calls in Faith, Hope, and ChaHatred,
rity ; instructs him. He repents; gives God the Envie,
glory, submitts to his penalty, The Chorus Warre, Mutes, to whom he gives thire briefly concludes. Famine, names ; likewise Winter, Heat,
Compare this with the former draught,
The subject proposed. Invocation of the Holy
Spirit. The poem opens with John baptizing
3 End of the second act.
4 End of the third act. The next sketch, as Dr. Johnson has remarked,
S End of the fourth act. seems to have attained more maturity; and is en
6 End of the fifth act. titled
7. The reader may compare the allegorical
characters, and their offices, in this and the preAdam unparadiz'd.
ceding draught, with those in the Italian drama
by Andreini: The angel Gabriel, either descending or en- Phillips, the nephew of Milton, has told us, tring; showing, since the globe was created, his that Paradise Lost was first designed for a trafrequency as much on Earth as in Heaven ; de-gedy, and that in the fourth book of the poem scribes Paradise. Next, the Chorus, showing the “there are ten verses, which, several years before reason of his comming to keep his watch after the poem was begun, were shown to me, and Jucifer's rebellion, by command from God: and some others, as designed for the very beginning withall expressing his desire to see and know of the said tragedy." Life, &c. 1694, p. xxxv. more concerning this excellent and new creature, These verses are the opening of Satan's celebratMan. The angel Gabriel, as by his name signi- ed address to the Sun. “O thou, that with surfying a prince of power, tracing Paradise with a passing glory crown'd, &c.”
TODD, more free office, passes by the station of the (*) No edition of Paradise Regained had ever Chorus ; and, desired by them, relates what he appeared with Arguments to the Bopks, before knew of Man ; as the creation of Eve, with thire that which was published in 1795 by Mr. Dun.. love and marriage.
ster; from which they are adopted in this edi. After this, Lucifer appears after his overthrow, tion. Peck indeed endeavoured to supply the bemoans himself, seeks revenge upon Man. The deficiency, in his Memoirs of Milton, 1740,
at the river Jordan. Jesus coming there is ' I, who ere while the happy garden sung baptized; and is attested, by the descent of By one man's disobedience lost, now sing the Holy Ghost, and by a voice from Heaven, Recover'd Paradise to all mankind, to be the Son of God. Satan, who is present, By one man's firm obedience fully tried upon this immediately flies up into the regions Through all temptation, and the tempter foil'd of the air: where, summoning his infernal In all bis wiles, defeated and repuls'd, council, he acquaints them with his appre- And Eden rais'd in the waste wilderness. hensions that Jesus is that seed of the Woman, Thou Spirit, who ledst this glorious eremite destined to destroy all their power, and points Into the desert, his victorious field, (thence out to them the immediate necessity of bring- | Against the spiritual foe, and brought'st him ing the matter to proof, and of attempting, By proof the undoubted Son of God, inspire, by snares and fraud, to counteract and de- As thou art wont, my prompted song, else mute, feat the person, from whom they have so much and bear through height or depth of Nature's to dread. This office he offers himself to un
[deeds dertake; and, his offer being accepted, sets With prosperous wing full summ'd, to tell of out on his enterprise.— In the mean time God, Above heroic, though in secret done, in the assembly of holy angels, declares that | And unrecorded left through many an age; he has given up bis Son to be tempted by Sa-Worthy to have not remain'd so long unsung. tan; but foretels that the tempter shall be Now had the great proclaimer, with a voice completely defeate by him :-upon which More awful than the sound of trumpet, cried the angels sing a hymn of triumph. Jesus is Repentance, and Heaven's kingdom nigh at hand jed up by the Spirit into the wilderness, while to all baptiz’d: to his great baptism Hock'd he is meditating on the commencement of his With awe the regions round, and with them great office of Saviour of mankind. Pursuing his meditations he narrates, in a soliloquy, From Nazareth the son of Joseph deem'd what divine and philanthrophic impulses he To the flood Jordan; came, as then obscure, bad felt from his early youth, and how his Unmark'd, unknown; but him the Baptist SOOR mother Mary, on perceiving these dispositions Descried, divinely warn'd, and witness bore in him, had acquainted him with the circum- As to his worthjer, and would have resigu'd stances of his birth, and informed him that To him his heavenly office; nor was long he was no less a person than the Son of God; His witness unconfirm'd: on him baptiz'd to which he adds what his own inquiries and Heaven open'd, and in likeness of a dove reflections had supplied in confirmation of this The Spirit descended, while the Father's voice great truth, and particularly dwells on the From Heaven pronounc'd him his beloved Son. recent attestation of it at the river Jordan. That heard the adversary, who, roving still Our Lord passes forty days, fasting, in the About the world, at that assembly fam'd wilderness, where the wild beasts become would not be last, and, with the voice divine mild and harmless in bis presence. Salan Nigh thunder-struck, the exalted man, to whom now appears under the form of an old peasant; Such high attest was given, a while survey'd and enters into discourse with our Lord, won- With wonder ; then, with envy fraught and rage, dering what could have brought him alone Flies to bis place, nor rests, but in mid air into so dangerous a place, and at the same To council summons all his mighty peers, time professing to recognize him for the per- Within thick clouds and dark ten-fold involvid, son lately acknowledged by John, at the river A gloomy consistory; and them amidst, Jordan, to be the Son of God. Jesus briefly With looks aghast and sad, he thus bespake. replies. Satan rejoins with a description of “O ancient powers of air, and this wide world, the diffioulty of supporting life in the wilder- (For much more willingly I mention air, ness; and entreats Jesus, if he be really the This our old conquest, than remember Hell, Son of God, to manifest his divine power, by Our hated habitation,) well ye know changing some of the stones into bread. Je- How many ages, as the years of men, sus reproves him, and at the same time tells This universe we have possess'd, and ruld, him that he knows who he is. Satan instantly In manner at our will, the affairs of Earth, avows himself, and offers an artful apology Since Adam and his facile consort Eve for himself and his conduct. Our blessed Lost Paradise, deceiv'd by me; though since Lord severely reprimands him, and refutes With dread attending when that fatal wound every part of his justification. Satan, with Shall be inflicted by the seed of Eve much semblance of humility, still endea- Upon my head. Long the decrees of Hearen vours to justify hi.nself; and, professing his Delay, for longest time to him is short; admiration of Jesus and his regard fur virtue, And now, too soon for us, the circling hours requests to be permitted at a future time to This dreaded time have compass'd, wherein we hear more of his conversation; but is answer- Must bide the stroke of that long-threaten'd ed, that this must be as he shall find per- (At least if so we can, and by the head (wound, mission from above. Satan then disappears, Broken be not intended all our power and the book closes with a short description of To be infring'd, our freedom and our being, night coming on in the desert,
In this fair empire won of Earth and air,)
For this ill news I bring, the woman's seed p. 70, &c. But the arguments, which he has Destin'd to this, is late of woman born. there given, are too diffuse; and want that con- His birth to our just fear gave no small cause : ciseness and energy which distinguish Mr, Dun. But his growth now to youth's full flower disc ster's, TODD,
All virtue, grace, and wisdom to achieve Then told'st her, doubting how these thing Things highest, greatest, multiplies my fear.
could be Before him a great prophet, to proclaim To her a virgin, that on her should come His coming, is sent harbinger, who all
The Holy Ghost, and the power of the Highests Invites, and in the consecrated stream
O'ershadow her. This man, born and now upPretends to wash off sin, and fit them, so To show him worthy of his birth divine [grown, Purified, to receive him pure, or rather
And high prediction, henceforth I expose To do him honour as their king : all come,
To Satan; let him tempt, and now assay And he himself among them was baptiz'd; His utmost subtlety, because he boasts Not thence to be more pure, but to receive And vaunts of his great cunning to the throng The testimony of Heaven, that who he is Of his a postacy: he might have learnt Thenceforth the nations may not doubt; I saw Less overweening, since he fail'd in Job, The prophet do him reverence ; on him, rising Whose constant perseverance overcame Out of the water, Heaven above the clouds Whate'er his cruel malice could invent. Unfold her crystal doors : thence on his head He now shall know I can produce a man, A perfect dove descend, (whate'er it meant,) Of female seed, far abler to resist And out of Heaven the sovran voice I heard, All his solicitations, and at length • This is my Son belov'd, in him am pleas’d.' All his vast force, and drive him back to Hell; His mother then is mortal, but his Sire
Winning, by conquest, what the first man losto He who obtains the monarchy of Heaven: By fallacy surpris'd. But first I mean And wiat will he not do to advance his Son? To exercise him in the wilderness; His first-begot we know, and sore have felt, There he shall first lay down the rudiments When his fierce thunder drove us to the deep: Of his great warfare, ere I send him forth Who this is we must learn, for Man he seems To conquer Sin and Death, the two grand foes, In all his lineaments, though in his face
By humiliation and strong sufferance: The glimpses of his father's glory shine.
His weakness shall o'ercome Satanic strength, Ye see our danger on the utmost edge
And all the world, and mass of sinful flesh,
To earn salvation for the sons of men.”
So spake the Eternal Father, and all Heaven The dismal expedition to find out
Admiring stood a space, then into hymns And rujn Adam; and the exploit perform’d Burst forth, and in celestial measures mov'd, Successfully : calmer voyage now
[once, Circling the throne and singing, while the hand Will waft me; and the way, found prosperous Sung with the voice, and this the argument. Induces best to hope of like success.”
“Victory and triumph to the Son of God, He ended, and his words impression left Now entering his great duel, not of arms, Of much amazement to the infernal crew, But to vanquish by wisdom hellish wiles ! Distracted, and surpris'd with deep dismay The Father knows the Son; therefore secure At these sad tidings; but no time was then Ventures his filial virtue, though untried, For long indulgence to their fears or grief: Against whate'er may tempt, whate'er seduce, Unanimous they all commit the care
Allure, or terrify, or undermine. And management of this main enterprise
Be frustrate, all ye stratagems of Hell, To him, their great dictator, whose attempt And, devilish machinations, come to naught !” At first against mankind so well had thriv'd So they in Heaven their odes and vigils tun'ds In Adam's overthrow, and led their march Mean while the Son of God, who yet some days From Hell's deep-vaulted den to dwell in light, Lodg'd in Bethabara, where John baptiz'd, Regents, and potentates, and kings, yea gods, Musing, and much revolving in his breast, Of many a pleasant realm and province wide, How best the mighty work he might begin So to the coast of Jordan he directs
Of saviour to mankind, and which way first His easy steps, girded with snaky wiles,
Publish his God-like office now mature, Where he inight likeliest find this new-declar'd, One day forth walk'd alone, the Spirit leading This Man of men, attested Son of God,
And his deep thoughts, the better to converse Temptation and all guile on him to try;
With solitude, till, far from track of men, So to subvert whom he suspected rais'd
Thought following thought, and step by step led To end his reign on Earth, so long enjoy'd : He enter'd vow the bordering desert wild, [on, But, contrary, unweeting he fulfill'd
And, with dark shades and rocks environ'd The purpos'd council, pre-ordain'd and fix'd, His holy meditations thus pursued. [round, Of the Most High; who, in full frequence “0, what a multitude of thoughts at once bright
Awaken'd in me swarm, while I consider of angels, thus to Gabriel smiling spake. What from within I feel myself, and here
“ Gabriel, this day by proof thou shalt behold, What from without comes often to my ears, Thou and all angels conversant on Earth Ill sorting with my present state compard! With man or men's affairs, how I begin
When I was yet a child, no childish play To verify that solemn message, late
To me was pleasing ; all my mind was set On which I sent thee to the virgin pure
Serious to learn and know, and thence to do In Galilee, that she should bear a son,
What might be public good; myself I thought Great in renown, and call’d the Son of God; Born to that end, born to promote all truth,