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Shall change their course to pleasure, ease, and | Anon dry ground appears, and from his ark
Surfeit, and lust; till wantonness and pride[sloth, The ancient sire descends, with all his train:
. Raise out of friendship hostile deeds in peace. Then with uplifted hands, and eyes devout,
The conquer'd also, and enslav'd by war,

Grateful to Heaven, over bis head beholds
Shall, with their freedom lost, all virtue lose A dewy cloud, and in the cloud a bow
And fear of God; from whom their piety feign'd Conspicuous with three listed colours gay,
In sharp contést of battle found no aid

Betokening peace from God, and covenant new. Against invaders; therefore, cool'd in zeal, Whereat the heart of Adam, erst so sad, Thenceforth shall practise how to live secure, Greatly rejoic'd; and thus his joy broke forth, Worldly or dissolute, on what their lords

“O thou, who future things canst represent Shall leave them to enjoy; for the Earth shall bear As present, eavenly instructor! I revive More than enough, that temperance may be tried: At this last sight; assur'd that Man shall live, So all shall turn degenerate, all deprav'd; With all the creatures, and their seed preserve. Justice and temperance, trutb and faith, forgot; Par less I now lament for one whole world One man except, the only son of light

Of wicked sons destroy'd, than I rejoice In a dark age, against example good,

For one man found so perfect, and so just, Agaiust allurement, custom, and a world That God vouchsafes to raise another world, Offended : fearless of reproach and scorn, From him, and all his anger to forget. (Heaven Or violence, he of their wicked ways

But say, what mean those colour'd streaks in Shall them admonish; and before them set Distended, as the row of God appeas'd ? The paths of righteousness, how much more safe, Or serve they, as a flowery verge, to bind And full of peace; denouncing wrath to come, The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud, On their impenitence; and shall return

Lest it again dissolve, and shower the Earth?" Of them derided, but of God observ'd

To whom the arch-angel. “Dextrously tbou The one just man alive; by his command

Sofwillingly doth God remit his ire, [aim'st; Shall build a wonderous ark, as thou beheldst, Though late repenting him of Man deprar'd; To save bimself, and household, from amidst

Griev'd at his heart, when looking down be saw A world devote to universal wrack.

The whole Earth fill'd with violence, and all flesh No sooner he, with them of man and beast

Corrupting each their way; yet, those removid, Select for life, shall in the ark be lodg'd, Such grace shall one just man find in his sight, And shelter'd round; but all the cataracts That he relents, not to blot out mankind ; Of Heaven set upen on the Earth shall pour And makes a covenant never to destroy Rain, day and night; all fountains of the deep, The Earth again by flood ; nor let the sea Broke up, shall heave the ocean to usurp Surpass his bounds; nor rain to drown the world, Beyond all bounds; till inundation rise

With man therein or beast; but, when he brings Above the highest hills: then shall this mount Over the Earth a cloud, will therein set Of Paradise by might of waves be mov'd His triple-colour'd bow, whereon to look, Out of his place, push'd by the horned flood, And call to mind his covenant: day and night, With all his verdure spoil'd, and trees adrift, Seed-time and harvest, heat and hoary frost, Down the great river to the opening gulf, Shall hold their course ; till fire purge all things And there take root an island salt and bare,

new, The haunt of seals, and orcs, and sea-mews' Both Heaven and Earth, wherein the just shall clang :

dwell.”
To teach thee that God attributes to place
No sanctity, if none be thither brought
By men who there frequent, or therein dwell.
And now, what further shall ensue, behold.”

PARADISE LOST.
He look’d, and saw the ark hull on the flood,
Which now abated; for the clouds were fled,
Driven by a keen nurth-wind, that, blowing dry,

BOOK XII.
Wrinkled the face of deluge, as decay'd;
And the clear Sun on his wide watery glass

THE ARGUMENT,
Gaz'd hot, and of the fresh wave largely drew,
As after thirst; which made their flowing shrink The angel Michael continues, from the flood,
From standing lake to tripping ebb, that stole to relate what shall succeed: then, in the
With soft foot towards the deep; who now had mention of Abrabam, comes by degrees to
stopt

explain, who that seed of the woman shall His sluices, as the Heaven his windows shut. be, which was promised Adam and Eve in the The ark no more now floats, but seems on ground, Fall; his incarnation, death, resurrection, Fast on the top of some high mountain fix'd. and ascension; the state of the church till And now the tops of hills, as rocks, appear ;

his second coming. Adam, greatly satisfied With clamour thenee the rapid currents drive, and recomforted by these relations and proTowards the retreating sea, their furious tide. mises, descends the hill with Michael ; wakens Forthwith from out the ark a raven flies,

Eve, who all this while had slept, but with And after him, the surer messenger,

gentle dreams composed to quietness of mind A dove sent forth once and again to spy [light : and submission, Michael in either hand leads Green tree or ground, whereon his foot may them out of Paradise, the fiery sword waving The second time returning, in his bill

behind them, and the Cherubim taking their An olive-leaf he brings, pac ific sign :

stations to guard the place

As one who in his journey bates at noon, Authority usurp'd, from God not given :
Though bent on speed ; so here the arch-angel He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl,
paus'd

Dominion absolute; that right we hold
Betwixt the world destroy'd and world restor'd, By his donation ; but man over men
If Adam aught perhaps might interpose;

He made not lord ; such title to himself
Then, with transition sweet, new speech resumes. Reserving, human left from human free.

“Thus thou hast seen one world begin, and But this usurper his encroachment proud And Man, as from a second stock, proceed. (end; Stays not on man; to God his tower intends Much thou hast yet to see; but I perceive Siege and defiance: wretched man ! what food Thy mortal sight to fail; objects divine Will he convey up thither, to sustain Must needs impair and weary human sense : Himself and his rash army; where thin air Henceforth what is to come I will relate;

Above the clouds will pine bis entrails gross, Thou therefore give due audience, and attend. And famish him of breath, if not of bread ?

“This second source of men, while yet but few, To whom thus Michael, "Justly thou abhorr's And while the dread of judgment past remains That son, who on the quiet state of men Fresh in their minds, fearing the Deity,

Such trouble brought, affecting to subdue
With some regard to what is just and right Rational liberty ; yet know withal,
Shall lead their lives, and multiply apace ;

Since thy original lapse, true liberty
Labouring the soil, and reaping plenteous crop,

Is lost, which always with right reason dwells Com, wine, and oil; and, from the herd or flock, Twinn'd, and from her hath no dividual being : Oft sacrificing bullock, lamb, or kid, [feast, Reason in man obscur'd, or not obey'd, With large wine-offerings pour'd, and sacred Immediately inordinate desires, Shall spend their days in joy vnblam'd ; and And upstart passions, catch the government dwell

From reason; and to servitude reduce Long time in peace, by families and tribes, Man, till then free. Therefore, since he permits Under paternal rule: till one shall rise

Within himself unworthy powers to reign Of proud ambitious heart; who, not content Over free reason, God, in judgment just, With fair equality, fraternal state,

Subjects him from without to violent lords; Will arrogate dominion undeserv'd

Who oft as undeservedly enthrall Over his brethren, and quite dispossess

His outward freedom : tyranny must be; Concord and law of nature froin the Earth; Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse, Hunting (and men not beasts shall be his game) Yet sometimes nations will decline so low With war, and hostile soare, such as refuse

From virtue, which is reason, that ng wrong, Subjection to bis empire tyrannous :

But justice, and some fatal curse annex'd, A mighty hunter thence he shall be styl'd Deprives them of their outward liberty; Before the Lord; as in despite of Heaven,

Their inward lost : witness the irreverent son Or from Heaven, claiming second sovranty ;

Of him who built the ark; who, for the shame And from rebellion shall derive his name,

Done to his father, heard this heavy curse, Though of rebellion others he accuse.

Servant of servants, on his vicious race. He with a crew, whom like ambition joins Thus will this latter, as the former world, With him or under him to tyrannize,

Still tend from bad to worse; till God at last,
Marching from Eden towards the west, shall find Wearied with their iniquities, withdraw
The plain, wherein a black bituminous gurge His presence from among them, and avert
Boils

out from under ground, the mouth of Hell : His holy eyes; resolving from thenceforth
Of brick, and of that stuff, they cast to build To leave them to their own polluted ways;
A city and tower, whose top may reach to And one peculiar nation to select
Heaven;

From all the rest, of whom to be invok'd,
And get themselves a name ; lest, far dispers’d

A nation from one faithful man to spring : In foreign lands, their memory be lost; Him on this side Euphrates yet residing, Regardless whether good or evil fame.

Bred up in idol-worship: 0, that men But God, who oft descends to visit men

(Canst thou believe?) should be so stupid Unseen, and through their habitations walks

grown,

[flood, To mark their doings, them beholding soon, While yet the patriarch liv'd, who 'scap'd the Comes down to see their city, ere the tower As to forsake the living God, and fall Obstruct Heaven-towers; and in derision sets To worship their own work in wood and stone Upon their tongues a various spirit, to rase For guds! Yet him God the Most High vouchQuite out their native language; and, instead,

safes To sow a jangling noise of words unknown : To call by vision, from his father's house, Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud,

His kindred, and false gods, into a land Among the builders; each to other calls

Which he will show him; and from him will Not understood; till hoarse, and all in rage, A mighty nation; and upon bim shower (raise As mock'd they storm: great laughter was in His benediction so, that in his seed Heaven,

All nations shall be blest : he straight obeys; And looking down, to see the hubbub strange, Not knowing to what land, yet firm believes : And hear the din: thus was the building left I see him, but thou canst not, with what faith Ridiculous, and the work Confusion nam'd.” He leaves his gods, his friends, and native soil,

Whereto thus Adam, fatherly displeas'd. Ur of Chaldæa, passing now the ford “ O execrable son! so to aspire

To Haran; after him a cumbrous train Above his brethren; to himself assuming Of herds and flocks, and numerous servitude;

Not wandering poor, but trusting all his wealth Divided, till his rescued gain their shore:
With God, who call'd him, in a land unknown. Such wonderous power God to his saint will lend,
Canaan he now attains ; I see his tents (plain 'Though present in his angel; who shall go
Pitch'd about Sechem, and the neighbouring Before them in a cloud, and pillar of fire;
Of Moreh; there by promise he receives By day a cloud, by night a pillar of fire ;
Gift to his progeny of all that land,

To guide them in their journey, and remove From Hamath northward to the desert south; Behind them, while the obdurate king pursues: (Things by their names I call, though yet un- All night he will pursue; but his approach nam'd ;)

Darkness defends between till morning watch; From Hermon east to the great western sea; Then through the fiery pilar, and the cloud, Mount Hermon, yonder sea; each place behold God looking forth will trouble all his host, In prospect, as I point them; on the store And craze their chariot-wheels: when by comMount Carmel; here, the double-founted stream, Moses once more his potent rod extends (mandJordan, true limit eastward; but his sons Over the sea; the sea his rod obeys; Shall dwell to Senir, that long ridge of hills. On their embattled ranks the waves return, This ponder, that all nations of the Earth And overwhelm their war: the race elect Shall in his seed be blessed : by that seed Safe towards Canaan from the shore advance Is meant thy great Deliverer, who shall bruise Through the wild desert, not the readiest way; The serpent's head; whereof to thee anon Lest, entering on the Canaanite alarm'd, Plainlier shall be reveal'd. This patriarch blest, War terrify them inexpert, and fear Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call, Return them back to Egypt, choosing rather A son, and of his son a grand-child, leaves; Inglorious life with servitude; for life Like him in faith, in wisdom, and renown: To noble and ignoble is more sweet The grand-child, with twelve sons increas'd, Untraind in arms, where rashness leads not on. From Canaan, to a land hereafter call'd (departs This also shall they gain by their delay Egypt, divided by the river Nile;

In the wide wilderness; there they shall found See where it flows, disgorging at seven mouths Their government, and their great senate choose Into the sea : to sojourn in that land

Through the twelve tribes, to rule by laws or. He comes, invited by a younger son

dain'd: In time of dearth ; a son, whose worthy deeds God from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top Raise him to be the second in that realm

Shall tremble, he descending, will himself
Of Pharaoh : there he dies, and leaves his race In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpets' sound,
Growing into a nation; and, now grown, Ordain them laws; part, such as appertain
Suspected to a sequent king, who seeks

To civil justice; part, religious rites
To stop their overgrowth, as inmate guests Of sacrifice; informing them, by types
Too numerous ; whence of guests he makes them And shadows, of that destin'd Seed to bruise
slaves

The serpent, by what means he shall achieve
Inhospitably, and kills their infant males : Mankind's deliverance. But the voice of God
Till by two brethren (these two brethren call To mortal ear is dreadful: they beseech
Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim That Moses might report to them his will,
His people from enthralment, they return And terrour cease; he grants what they be-
With glory, and spoil, back to their promis'd | Instructed that to God is no access, (sought,
But first, the lawless tyrant, who denies [land. Without mediator, whose high office now
To know their God, or message to regard, Moses jn figure bears; to introduce
Must be compellid by signs and judgments dire; One greater, of whose day he shall foretel,
To blood unshed the rivers must be turn'd; And all the prophets in their age the times
Frogs, lice, and flies, must all his palace fill Of great Messiah shall sing. Thus, laws and
With loath'd intrusion, and fill all the land; Establish’d, such delight bath God in men (rights
His cattle must of rot and murren die ;

Obedient to his will, that he rouchsafes Botches and blains must all his tiesh emboss, Among them to set up his tabernacle; And all his people; thunder mix'd with hall, The Holy One with mortal men to dwell : Hail mix'd with fire, must rend the Egyptian By his prescript a sanctuary is fram'd sky,

[rolls; Of cedar, overlaid with gold; therein And wheel on the Earth, devouring where it An ark, and in the ark his testimouy, What it devours not, herb, or fruit, or grain, The records of his covenant; over these A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down A mercy-seat of gold, between the wings Must eat, and on the ground leave nothing green; of two bright cherubim; before him bum Darkness must overshadow all his bounds, Seven lamps as in a zodiac represeuting Palpable darkness, and blot out three days; The heavenly fires; orer the tent a cloud Last, with one midnight-stroke, all the first-born Shall rest by day, a fiery gleam by night; Of Egypt must lie dead. Thus with ten wounds Save when they journey, and at length they The river-dragon tam'd at length submits Conducted by his angel, to the land (come, To let his sojourners depart, and oft

Promis'd to Abraham and his seed :— the rest Humbles his stubborn heart; but still, as ice Were long to tell; how many battles fought; More harden'd after thaw; till, in his rage How many kings destroy'd; and kingdoms won; Pursuing whom he late dismiss'd, the sea Or how the Sun shall in mid Heaven stand still Swallows him with his host; but them lets pass, A day entire, and night's due course adjourn, As on dry land, between two crystal walls; Man's voice commanding, •Sun, in Gilean Aw'd by the rod of Moses so to stand

stand,

сего

And thou, Moon, in the vale of Aialon,

And his next son, for wealth and wisdom fam'd, Till Israel overcome ! so call the third

The clouded ark of God, till then in tents From Abraham, son of Isaac; and from him Wandering, shall in a glorious temple enshrine His whole descent, who thus shall Canaan win.” Such follow him, as shall be register'd

Here Adam interpos'd. “O sent from Heaven, Part goed, part bad; of bad the longer scroll; Enlightener of my darkness, gracious things Whose foul idolatries, and other faults Thou hast reveald; those chiefly, which con- Heap'd to the popular sum, will so incense

God, as to leave them, and expose their land, Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Their city, his temple, and his holy ark, Mine eyes true-opening, and my heart much with all his sacred things, a scorn and prey eas'd;

[become To that proud city, whose high walls thou saw'st Erewhile perplex'd with thonghts, what would Left in confusion ; Babylon thence callid. Of me and all mankind : but now I see

There in captivity he lets them dwell (back, His day, in whom all nations shall be blest; The space of seventy years; then brings them Favour unmerited by me, who sought

Remembering mercy, and his covenant sworn Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. To David, stablish'd as the days of Heaven. This yet I apprehend not, why to those

Return'd from Babylon by leave of kings (God Among whom God will deign to dwell on Earth Their lords, whom God dispos'd, the house of So many and so various laws are given;

They first re-edify; and for a while So many laws argue so many sins

In mean estate live moderate ; till grown Among them; how can God with such reside?” In wealth and multitude, factiuus they grow:

To whom thus Michael. “ Doubt not but that But first among the priests dissention springs, Will reign among them, as of thee begot ; [sin Men who attend the altar, and should most And therefore was law given them, to evince Endearour peace: their strife pollution brings Their natural pravity, by stirring up

Upon the temple itself: at last they seize Sin against law to fight : that when they see The sceptre, and regard not David's sons ; Law can discover sin, but not remove,

Then lose it to a stranger, that the true Save by those shadowy expiations weak,

Anointed king Messiah might be born The blood of bulls and goats, they may conclude Barr'd of his right; yet at his birth a star, Some blood more precious must be paid for Unseen before in Heaven, proclaims bim come; man;

And guides the eastern sages, who inquire Just for unjust ; that in such righteousness His place, to offer incense, myrrh, and gold : To them by faith imputed, they may find His place of birth a solemn angel tells Justification towards God, and peace

To simple shepherds, keeping watch by nights Of conscience; which the law by ceremonies They gladly thither haste, and by a quire Cannot appease: nor man the moral part Of squadron'd angels hear his carol sung. Perform; and, not performing, cannot live. A virgin is his mother, but his sire So law appears imperfect; and but given. The power of the Most High: he shall ascend With purpose to resign them, in full time, The throne hereditary, and hound his reign Up to a better covenant; disciplin'd [rit; With Earth's wide bounds, his glory with the From shadowy types to truth; from flesh to spi

Heavens." From imposition of strict laws to free

He ceas'd, discerning Adam with such joy Acceptance of large grace; from servile fear Surcharg'd, as had like grief been dew'd in tears, To filial; works of law to works of faith. Without the vent of words; which these he And therefore shall not Moses, though of God

breath’d. Highly belov'd, being but the minister

“O prophet of glad tidings, finisher Of law, his people into Canaan lead;

Of utmost hope ! now clear I understand (vain ; · But Joshua, whom the Gentiles Jesus call, What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in His name and office bearing, who shall quell Why our great Expectation should be call'd The adversary-serpent, and bring back

The seed of woman : virgin mother, hail, Through the world's wilderness long-wanderd High in the love of Heaven; yet from my loins Safe to eternal Paradise of rest.

[man Thou shalt proceed, and from thy womb the Mean while they, in their earthly Canaan plac'd,

Son Long time shall dwell and prosper, but when sins of God Most High ; su God with man unites. National interrupt their public peace,

Needs must the serpent now his capital bruise Provoking God to raise them enemies ;

Expect with mortal pain: say where and wben From whom as oft he saves them penitent Their fight, what stroke shall bruise the victor's By judges first, then under kings; of whom

heel." The second, both for piety renown'd

To whom thus Michael. “ Dream not of their And puissant deeds, a promise shall receive As of a duel, or the local wounds (fight, Irrevocable, that his regal throne

Of head or heel : not therefore joins the Son For ever shall endure; the like shall sing Manhovo to godhead, with more strength to All prophecy, that of the royal stock

Thy enemy; nor so is overcome [foil Of David (so I name this king) shall rise Satan, whose fall from Heaven, å deadlier A son, the woman's seed to thee foretold,

bruise, Foretold to Abraham, as in whom shall trust Disabled, not to give thee thy death's wound; All nations; and to kings foretold, of kings Which he, who comes thy Saviour, shall recure, The last; for of his reign shall be no end. Not by destroying Satan, but his works But first, a long succession must ensue; In thee, and in thy seed: dor can this be

But by fulfilling that which thou didst want, When this world's dissolution shall be ripe, Obedience to the law of God, impos'd

With glory and power to judge both quick and On penalty of death, and suffering death ;

dead; The penalty to thy transgression due,

To judge the unfaithful dead, but to reward And due to theirs which out of thine will grow: His faithful, and receive them into bliss, So only can high Justice rest appaid.

Whether in Heaven or Earth; for then the Earth The law of God exact he shall fulfil

Shall all be Paradise, far happier place Both by obedience and by love, though love Than this of Eden, and far happier days.”' Alone fulbl the law; thy punishment

So spake the arch-angel Michaël; then pausid, He shall endure, by coming in the flesh

As at the world's great period; and our sire, To a reproachful life, and cursed death; Replete with joy and wonder, thus replied. Proclaiming life to all who shall believe

“O Goodness infinite, Goodness immense! In his redemption; and that his obedience, That all this good of evil shall produce, Imputed, becomes theirs by faith;, his merits And evil turn to good; more wonderful To save them, not their own, though legal, Than that which by creation first brought forth works.

Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand, For this he shall live hated, be blasphem'd, Whether I should repent me now of sin Seiz'd on by force, judg'd, and to death con. By me done, and occasion'd; or rejoice (spring , demn'd

Much more, that much more good thereof shall A shameful and accurs'd, nail'd to the cross To God more glory, more good-will to men By his own nation; slain for bringing life : From God, and over wrath grace shall abound. But to the cross he nails thy enemies,

But say, if our Deliverer up to Heaven The law that is against thee, and the sins Must re-ascend, what will betide the few Of all mankind with bim there crucified,

His faithful, left among the unfaithful herd, Never to hurt them more who rightly trust The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide In this his satisfaction : so he dies,

His people, who defend ? Will they not deal But soon revives ; Death over him no power Worse with his followers than with him they Shall long usurp; ere the third dawning light

dealt?” Return, the stars of morn shall see him rise “ Be sure they will,” said the angel; but Out of his grave, fresh as the dawning light,

from Heaven Thy ransom paid, which man from death re- He to his own a Comforter will send, deems,

The promise of the Father, who shall dwell His death for man, as many as offer'd life His Spirit within them; and the law of faith, Neglect not, and the benefit embrace

Working through love, upon their hearts shall By faith not void of works: this God-like act To guide them in all truth; and also arm (write, Annuls thy doom, the death thon should'st have With spiritual armour, able to resist In sin for ever lost from life ; this act [died, Satan's assaults, and quench bis fiery darts; Shall bruise the head of Satan, crush his What man can do against them, not afraid, strength,

Though to the death ; against such cruelties Defeating Sin and Death, his two main arnis; With inward consolations recompens'd, And fix far deeper in bis head their stings And oft supported so as shall amaze Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's Their proudest persecutors; for the Spirit, heel,

Pour'd first on his Apostles, whom he sends Or theirs whom he redeems ; a death, like sleep, To evangelize the nations, then on all A gentle wafting to immortal life.

Baptiz'd, shall them with wonderous gifts endue Nor after resurrection shall he stay

To speak all tongues, and do all iniracles, Longer on Earth, than certain times to appear As did their Lord before them. Thus they win To his disciples, men who in his life

Great numbers of each nation to receive Still follow'd him ; to them shall leare in charge With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: at To teach all nations what of him they learn'd

length And his salvation; them who shall believe Their ministry perform’d, and race well run, Baptizing in the profluent stream, the sign Their doctrine and their story written left, Of washing them from guilt of sin to life

They die; but in their room, as they forewam, Pure, and in mind prepar'd, if so befall,

Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous For death, like that which the Redeemer died.

wolves, All nations they shall teach; for, from that day, Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins

To their own vile advantages shall turn Salvation shall be preach'd, but to the sons Of lucre and ambition; and the truth Of Abraham's faith wherever through the With superstitions and traditions taint, So in his seed all nations shall be blest. [world ; Left only in those written records pure, Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend Though not but by the Spirit understood. With victory triumphing through the air Then shall they seek to avail themselves of Over his foes and thine ; there shall surprise

names, The serpent, prince of air, and drag in chains Places, and titles, and with these to join Through all his realm, and there confounded Secular power; though feigning still to act Then enter into glory, and resume [leave; | By spiritual, to themselves appropriating His seat at God's right hand, exalted high The Spirit of God, promis'd alike, and given Above all names in Heavens and thence shall To all believers; and, from that pretence, come,

Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force

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