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And in your towns, that prospect gives delight, | The specious inconveniences, that wait
| By fools desir'd, by wicked men possest. Does but in vain with those true joys contend, Thus, thus (and this deserv'd great Virgil's Which Nature did to mankind recommend.
Th' ambassadors, which the great emperor sent Ridiculous, and wretched by the trade,
To offer him a crown, with wonder fourid Than he, who sells a solid good, to buy
The reverend gardever hoeing of his ground; The painted goods of pride and vanity.
Uuwillingly, and slow, and discontent, If thou be wise, no glorious fortune choose, From bis lov'd cottage to a throne he went ; Which 'tis but pain to keep, yet grief to lose! And oft he stopt, in bis triumphant way: For, when we place ev'n trifles in the heart, And oft look'd back, and oft was heard to say, With trifles too, unwillingly we part,
Not without sighs, Alas ! I there forsake An humble roof, plain bed, and bumely board, A happier kingdom than I go to take ! More clear, untainted pleasures do afford, Thus Aglaüs (a man unknown to men, Than all the tumult of vain greatness brings But the gods knew, and therefore lov'd him then) To kings, or to the favourites of kings.
Thus liv'd obscurely then without a name, The horned deer, by nature arm'd so well,
Aglaüs, now consign'd t' eternal fame. Did with the horse in common pastore dwell, For Gyges, the rich king, wicked and great, And, when they fought, the field it always wan, . Presun'd, at wise Apollo's Delphic seat reye, Till the ambitious horse begg'd help of man, Presum'd, to ask, “ Oh thou, the whole world's And took the bridle, and thenceforth did reign See'st thou a man that happier is than 1?" Bravely alone, as lord of all the plain;
The god, who scorn'd to flatter man, reply'd, But never after could the rider get
“Aglaüs happier is.” But Gyges cry'd, From off his back, or from his mouth the bit. In a proud rage, “Who can that Aglaüs be! So they, who poverty too much do fear,
We have heard, as yet, of no such king as he.” T'avoid that weight, a greater burthen bear; And true it was, through the whole Earth around That they might power above their equals have, No king of such a name was to be found. To cruel inasters they theinselves enslave.
“ [s some old hero of that name alive, For gold, their liberty exchang'd we see,
Who his high race docs from the gods derive? That fairest flower which crowns humanity 3. Is it some mighty general, that has done And all this mischief does upon them light, | Wonders in fight, and god-like honours won ? Only, because they know not how, aright,
Is it some man of endless wealth ?” said he. That great, but secret, happiness to prize,
« None, none of these.” “Who can this Aglaüs That's laid up in a little, for the wise :
After long search, and rain inquiries past, be? That is the best and easiest estate,
In an obscure Arcadian vale at last Which to a man sits close, but not too strait; (Th' Arcadian life has always shally been) 'Tis like a shoe ; it pinches and it burns,
Near Sopho's town (wbich he but once had scen) Too narrow; and too large, it overturns.
This Aglaus, who monarch's envy drew,
With his own hands, in his own little ground. Chide and reproach, despise and langh at me. So, gracious God! (if it may lawful be, Money was made, not to command our will, Among those foolish gods to mention thee) But all our lawful pleasures to fulfil :
So let me act, on such a private stage,
This quiet port let my tost sessel gain ;
Let my life sleep, and learn to love hei enda
Lib. IV. Plantarum,
v. Blest be the man (and blest he is) whom e'er
To J. Evelyn, Esquire.
I never had any other desire so strong and so
like to covetousness, as that one which I have , 3 The poet, as usual, expresses his own feeling : had always, that I might be master at last of a but he does 'nore, he expresses it very classically. small house and large garden, with very morteThe allusion is to the ancient custom of wearing rate conveniences joined to them, and there de. wreaths or garlands of flowers, on any occasion of dicate the remainder of my life only to the cula joy and festivity. HURD.
ture of them, and study of nature;
And there (with no design beyond my wall) whole ( recommend to mankind the search of that fes and entire to lie,
licity, which you instruct them how to find and In no unactive ease, and no unglorious poverty. to enjoy. Or as Virgil has said, shorter and better for me Happy art thou, whom God does bless that I might there
With the full choice of thine own happiness;
And happier yet, because thou 'rt blest
With prudence, how to choose the best :
In books and gardens thou hast plac'd aright (though I could wish that he had rather said, (Things, which thou well dost understand; nobilis oti, when he spoke of his own.) But And both dost make with thy laborious hand) several accidents of my ill-fortune have disap Thy noble, innocent delight; pointed me hitherto, and do still, of that feli- And in thy virtuous wife, where thou again dost city; for though I have made the first and
meet hardest step to it, by abandoning all ambitions Both pleasures more refin'd and sweet ; and hopes in this world, and by retiring from the The fairest garden in her looks, noise of all business and almost company, yet I And in her mind the wisest books. stick still in the inn of a hired house and garden, Oh, who would change these soft, yet solid joys, among weeds and rubbish ; and without that For empty shows and senseless noise ; pleasantest work of human industry, the im And all which rank ambition breeds, provement of something which we call (not very Which seem such beauteous flowers, and are properly, but yet we call) our own. I am gone
such poisonous weeds? out from Sodom, but I am not yet arrived at my little Zoar. “O let me escape thither (is it not When God did man to his own likeness make, a little one?) and my soul shall live." I do not As much as clay, though of the purest kind, look back yet; but I have been forced to stop, By the great potter's art refin'd, and make too many halts. You may wonder, Could the divine impression take, sir, (for this seems a little too extravagant and He thought it fit to place him, where pindarical for prose) what I mean by all this A kind of Heaven too did appear, preface; it is to let you know, that though I | As far as Earth could such a likeness bear: ' have missed, like a chymist, my great end, yet That man no happiness might want, I account my affections and endeavours well re- | Which Earth to her first master could afford, warded by something that I have met with by He did a garden for him plant the by ; which is, that they have procured to By the quick hand of his omnipotent word. me some part in your kindness and esteem ; and | As the chief help and joy of human life, thereby the honour of having my name so ad- He gave him the first gift; first, ev'n before a vantageously recommended to posterity, by the
wife. epistle you are pleased to prefix to the most useful book that has been written in that kind , For God, the universal architect, and which is to last as long as months and "T had been as easy to erect years.
A Louvre or Escurial, or a tower Among many other arts and excellencies, That might with Heaven communication hold, which you enjoy, I am glad to find this favour- | As Babel vainly thought to do of old: ite of mine the most predominant; that you I He wanted not the skill or power; choose this for your wife, though you have In the world's fabric those were shown, hundreds of other arts for your concubines; And the materials were all his own. though you know them, and beget sons upon But well he knew, what place would best agree them all (to which you are rich enough to allow With innocence and with felicity; great legacies), yet the issue of this seems to be | And we elsewhere still seek for them in vain; designed by you to the main of the estate; you | If any part of either yet remain, have taken most pleasure in it, and bestowed If any part of either we expect, most charges upon its education : and I doubt / This may our judgment in the search direct; not to see that book, which you are pleased to God the first garden made, and the first city promise to the world, and of which you have
Cain. given us a large earnest in your calendar, as accomplished, as any thing can be expected 0 blessed shades! O gentle, cool retreat from an extraordinary wit, and no ordinary ex- ! From all th’immoderate heat, penses, and a long experience. I know nobody in which the frantic world does burn and sweat! that possesses more private happiness than you | This does the Lion-star, ambition's rage ; do in your garden; and yet no man, who makes This avarice, the Dog-star's thirst, assuage; his happiness more public, by a free communi- Every where else their fatal power we see, cation of the art and knowledge of it to others. They make and rule man's wretched destiny: All that I myself am able yet to do, is only to They neither set, nor disappear,
But tyrannize o'er all the year : 4 Virg. Georg. iv. 564.
Whilst we ne'er feel their flame or influence s Mr. Evelyn's Kalendarium hortense; de
here. dicated to Mr Cowley— The title explains the The birds that dance from bough to bough, propriety of the compliment, that this book was And sing above in every tree, to last as long as incnths and years. HURD.
Are not from fears and cares more free
Than we, who lie, or sit, or walk, below,
When the great Hebrew king did almost strain And should by right be singers too.
The wondrous treasures of his wealth and braia, What prince's choir of music can excel
| His royal southern guest to entertain; That, which within this shade does dwell ? Though she on silver floors did tread, To which we nothing pay or give;
With bright Assyrian carpets on them spread, They, like all other poets, live
To hide the metal's poverty; Without reward, or thanks for their obliging | Though she look'd up to roofs of gold, pains:
And rought around her could behold 'Tis well if they become not prey :
But silk and rich embroidery,
And Babylonish tapestry,
Though Opbir's starry stones met every where. But to our plants, art's music too,
her eye; The pipe, theorbo, and guittar, we owe;
Though she berself and her gay host were drest The lute itself, which once was green and mute, With all the shining glories of the East; When Orpheus strook th' inspired lute,
| When lavish Art her costly work had done, The trees danc'd round, and understood
The honour and the prize of bravery By sympathy the voice of wood.
| Was by the garden from the palace won ;
And every rose and lily there did stand These are the spells, that to kind sleep invite, Better attir'd by Nature's hand 7. And nothing does within resistance make, The case thus judg'd against the king we see, Which yet we moderately take;
By one, that would not be so rich, though wiser Who would not choose to be awake,
far than he. While he's encompast round with such delight, To th'ear, the nose, the touch, the taste, and Nor does this happy place only dispense sight!
Such various pleasures to the sense; When Venus would her dear Ascanius keep
Here health itself does live, A prisoner in the downy bands of sleep,
That salt of life, which docs to all a relish give, She odorous herbs and flowers beneath him Its standing pleasure, and intrinsic wealth, spread,
The body's virtue, and the soul's good-fortune, As the most soft and sweetest bed; [head.
health. Not her own lap would more have charm'd his The tree of life, when it in Eden stood, Who, that has reason, and his smell,
Did its immortal head to Heaven rear; Would not among roses and jasmine dwell, It lasted a tall cedar, till the flood; Rather than all his spirits choak
Now a small thorny shrub it does appears
Nor will it thrive too every where :
'Tis only here an ever-green. The earth itself breathes better perfumes here, If, through the strong and beauteous fence Than all the female men, or women, there,
Of temperance and innocence, Not without cause, about them bear.
And wholesome labours, and a quiet mind,
Any diseases passage find,
They must not think here to assail
A land unarmed or without a guard; (And was, perhaps, i th’ right, if rightly under. They must fight for it, and dispute it hard,
His life he to his doctrine brought, [stood) Before they can prevail: And in a garden 's shade that sovereiga pleasure Scarce any plant is growing here, sought :
Which against death some weapon does not Whoever a true epicure would be,
bear. May there find cheap and virtuous luxury.
Let cities boast, that they provide Vitellius's table, which did hold
For life the omaments of pride; As many creatures as the ark of old ;
But 'tis the country and the field,
That furnish it with staff and shield.
Where does the wisdom and the power divine
In a more bright and sweet reflection shine ? Help'd with a little art and industry,
Where do we finer strokes and colours see Allows the meanest gardener's board.
Of the Creator's real poetry,
Than when we with attention look
If we could open and intend our eye,
We all, like Moses, should espy
Ev'n in a bush the radiant Deity.
But we despise these his inferior ways
(Though no less full of miracle and praise) : But with no sense the garden does comply,
Upon the flowers of Heaven we gaze; None courts, or flatters, as it does, the eye. The stars of Earth no wonder in us raise,
Though these perhaps do, more than they, I purged from the incommodities. If1 were bat
| in his conuition, I should think it hard measure, Although no part of mighty Nature be
without being convinced of any crime, to be se. More stor’d with beauty, power and mystery; questered from it, and made one of the principal Yet, to encourage human industry,
officers of state. But the reader may think that God has so order'd, that no other part
what I now say is of small authority, because I Such space and such dominion leaves for Art: never was, nor ever shall be, put to the trial : 1
can therefore only make my protestation, We no-where Art do so triumphant see, As when it grafts or buds the tree:
If ever I more riches did desire In other things we count it to excel,
Than cleanliness and quiet do require : If it a docile scholar can appear
If e'er ambition did my fancy cheat, To Nature, and but imitate her well;
With any wish, so mean as to be great ; It over-rules, and is her master, here.
Continue, Heaven, still from me to remove It imitates her Maker's power divine,
The humble blessings of that life I love. And changes her sometimes, and sometimes does refine :
I know very many men will despise, and some It does, like grace, the fallen tree restore
pity me, for this humour, as a poor-spirited fel. To its blest state of Paradise before:
low; but I am content, and, like Horace, thank Who would not joy to see his conquering hand | God for being so. O’er all the vegetable world command ? And the wild giants of the wood receive
Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quódque pasilli What law he's pleas'd to give?
Finxerunt animi 8.
I confess, I love littleness almost in all things,
A little convenient estate, a little cheerful house, The golden fruit, that worthy is Of Galatea's purple kiss :
a little company, and a very little feast; and, if I He does the savage hawthorn teach
were ever to fall in love again (which is a great To bear the medlar and the pear :
passion, and therefore, I hope, I have done with He bids the rustic plum to rear
it) it would be, I think, with prettiness, rather A noble trunk, and be a peach.
than with majestical beauty. I would neither Ev'n Daphne's coyness he does mouk,
wish that my mistress, nor my fortune, should be And weds the cherry to her stock,
a bona roba, nór, ás Homer uses to describe his Though she refus'd Apollo's suit;
beauties, like a daughter of great Jupiter for the Ev'n she, that chaste and virgin tree,
stateliness and largeness of her person ; but, as Now wonders at herself, to see
Lucretius says, That she's a mother made, and blushes in her Parvoła, pumilio, Xapótor uta, tota merum sal 9. fruit.
Where there is one man of this, I believe there Metbiuks, I see great Dioclesian walk i are a thousand of Senecio's mind, whose ridiIn the Salonian garden's noble sbade,
culous affectation of grandeur Seneca the elder ! Which by his own imperial hands was made: describes to this effect : “Senecio was a man of a I see him smile, methinks, as he does talk
turbid and confused wit, who could not endure to With the ambassadors, who coine in vain
speak any but mighty words and sentences, till T'entice him to a throne again.
this humour grew at last into so notorious a habit, “ Ifl, my friends” (said he) “ should to you show | or rather disease, as became the sport of the whole All the delights which in these gardens grow,
town : he would have no servants, but huge, mas. 'Tis likelier much, that you should with me stay, sy fellows; no plate or household-stuff, but thrice Than 'tis, that you should carry me away: as big as the fashion: you may believe me, for I And trust me not, my friends, if every day, speak it without raillery, his extravagancy came I walk not here with more delight,
at last into such a madness, that he would not put Than ever, after the most happy sight,
on a pair of shoes, each of which was not big In triumpb to the Capitol I rode,
enough for both his feet: he would eat nothing To thank the gods, and to be thought myself, but what was great, nor touch any fruit but horsealınost a god.”
plums and pound-pears: he kept a concubine, that was a very giantess, and made her walk too always in chiopins, till at last he got the surnante
of Senecio Grandio, which Messala said, was not VI.
his cognomen, but his cognomentum: when he de
claimed for the three hundred Lacedæmonians, OF GREATNESS.
who alone opposed Xerxes's army of above three
hundred thousand, he stretched out his arms, and « SINCE we cannot attain to greatness "(says the the stood on tiptoes, that he might appear the taller,
rejoice. I sieur de Montagne)"' let us bave our revenge by and cried out, in a very loud voice;
rejoice.'-We wondered, I remember, what new railing at it:" this he spoke but in jest. I believe rejo
leserea great fortune had befallen his eminence, Xerxes he desired it no more than I do, and had less rea- great fortune nad o son ; for be enjoyed so plentiful and honourable a fortune in a most excellent country, as allowed 81 Sat. iv. 17. 9 Lucr. iv. 1155. him and the real convenicrices of it, separated and I i Suasoriarum Liber. Suas. ll.
(says he) is all mine own. He, who took away / playing at dice; and that was the main fruit of the sight of the sea, with the canvas veils of so his sovereignty. l omit the madnesses of Camany ships'”—and then he goes on so, as I know ligula's delights, and the execrable sordidness of not what to make of the rest, whether it be the those of Tiberius. Would one think that .Augustus fault of the edition, or the orator's own burley way | himself, the highest and most fortunate of manof nonseuse.
kind, a person endowed too with many excellent This is the character that Seneca gives of this parts of nature, should be so hard put to it somehyperbolical fop, whom we stand amazed at, and times for want of recretations, as to be found yet there are very few men who are not in some playing at nuts and bouding-stones, with little things, and to some degrees, Grandios. Is any Syrian and Moorish boys, whose company he thing inore common, than to see our ladies of qua- | took delight in, for their prating and their wanlity wear such high shoes as they cannot walk in, tonness? without one to lead them; and a gown as long
Was it for this that Rome's best blood he spilt again as their body, so that they cannot stir to
With so much falsehood, so much guilt? the next room without a page or to two hold it up?
Was it for this that his ambition strove I may safely say, that all the ostentation of
To equal Cesar, first; and after, Juve ? our grandees is, just like a train, of no use in
Greatness is barren, sure, of solid' joys; the world, but horribly cumbersome and incom
Her merchandize (I fear) is all in toys; modious. What is all this, but a spicc of Grundio?
She could not else, sure, so uncivil be, how tedious would this be, if we were always bound
To treat his universal majesty, to it! I do believe there is no king, who would
His new-created Deity, not rather be deposed, than endure every day of
With nuts, and bounding-stones, and boys. his reign all the ceremonies of his coronation. The mightiest princes are glad to fly often from
But we must excuse her for this meagre enterthese majestic pleasures (which is, methinks, no
tainment; she has not really wherewithal to make small disparagement to them) as it were for refuge
such feasts as we imagine. Her guests must be to the most contemptible divertisements and mean
contented sometimes with but slender cates, and est recreations of the vulgar, nay, even of chil
of child with the same cold meats served over and over dren. One of the most powerful and fortunate
f the most powerful and fortunate again, even till they become nauseous. When princes ? of the world, of late, could find out no you have pared away all the vanity, what solid delight so satisfactory, as the keeping of little and natural contentment does there remain, which singing birds, and hearing of them, and whistling | may not be had with five hundred pounds a year? to them. What did the emperors of the whole Not so many servants or horses ; but a few good world ? If ever any men had the free and full ones, which will do all the business as well : not enjoyment of all human greatness (nay that so many choice dishes at every meal; but at sewould not suffice, for they would be gods too), veral meals all of them, which makes them both they certainly possessed it: and yet one of them, the more healthy, and the more pleasant ; not so who styled himself lord and god of the earth, rich garments, nor so frequent changes; but as could uot tell how to pass bis whole day pleasantly, warın and as comely, and so frequent change too, without spending constantly two or three hours as is every jot as good for the master, though not in catching of flies, and killing them with a bod- for the tavlor or valet de chambre : not such a kin, as if his godship had been Beelzebub 3, One stately palace, nor gilt rooms, or the costliest sorts of his predecessors, Nero, (who never put any of tapestry; but a convenient brick house, with bounds, nor met with any stop to his appetite) decent wainscot, and pretty forest-work hangings. quld divert himself with no pastime more agree. Lastly (for I omit all other particulars, and will able than to run about the streets all night in a dis- end with that which I love inost in both conditions) guise, and abuse the women, and affront the men not whole woods cut in walks, nor vast parks, nor whom he met, and sometimes to beat them, and fountain or cascade-gariens; but herb, and flowsometimes to be beaten by them : this was one of er, and fruit gardens, which are more useful, and his imperial nocturnal pleasures. His chiefest in the water every whit as clear and wholesome, as the day was, to sing and play upon a fiddie, in the if it darted from the breasts of a marble nymph, habit of a minstrel, upon the public stage: he was or the urn of a river-god. prouder of the garlands that were given to his di. If, for all this, you like better the substance of vine voice (as they called it then) in those kind of that former estate of life, do but consider the prizes, than all his forefathers were, of their inseparable accidents of both : servitude, disquiet, triumphs over nations : he did not at his death | danger, and most commonly guilt, inlerent in the complain, that so mighty an emperor, and the last one; in the other liberty, tranquillity, security, of all the Cæsarian race of deities, should be and innocence. And when you have thought upon brought to so shameful and miserable an end ; but this, you will confess that to be a truth which only cried out, “ Alas, what pi'y it is, that so appeared to you, before, but a ridiculous paraexcellent a musician should perish in this man- dox, that a low fortune is better guarded and ner 4!” His uncle Claudius spent half his time at attended than an high one. If, indeed, we look
only upon the flourishing head of the tree, it aps ? Louis XIII.—The Duke de Luynes, the Con
con pears a most beautiful object, stable of France, is said to have gained the favour of this powerful and fortunate prince by training
- sed quantum vertice ad auras up singing birds for him. ANON.
Ætherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit S. 3 Beelzebub signifies the lord of flies. Cowley. $-Qualis artifex pereo! Sueton. Nero.
Virg. Georg. ii. 291.