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I hope, I may affirm (witnout any offence to the they were made, and to which they must re. great) that sheep and kine are very useful, and turn, and pay at last for their sustenance. that wolves and foxes are pernicious creatures. Behold the original and primitive nobility of They are, without dispute, of all men the most all those great persons, who are too proud now, quiet, and least apt to be inflamed to the dis not only to till the ground, but almost to tread turbance of the commonwealth; their manner upon it. We may talk what we please of lilies, of life inclines them, and interest binds them, to and lions rampant, and spread eagles, in fields Jove peace; in our late mad and miserable d'or or d'argent ; but, if heraldry were guided civil wars, all other trades, even to the meanest, by reason, a plough in a field arable would be set forth whole troops, and raised up some great | the most poble and ancient arms. commanders, who became famous and mighty All these considerations make me fall into the for the mischiefs they had done : but I do not wonder and complaint of Columella, bow it remember the name of any one husbandman, should come to pass that all arts or sciences who had so considerable a share in the twenty (for the dispute, wbich is an art, and which a years ruin of his country, as to deserve the science, does not belong to the curiosity of us curses of his countrymen.
husbandmen) metaphysic, physic, morality, And if great delights be joined with so much | mathematics, logic, rhetoric, &c. which are innocence, I think it is ill done of men, not to all, I grant, good and useful faculties, (except take them here, where they are so tame, and only metaphysic, which I do not know whether ready at hand, rather than hunt for them in it be any thing or no) but even vaulting, fenccourts and cities, where they are so wild, and the ing, dancing, attiring, cookery, carring, and chase so troublesome and dangerous.
such-like vanities, should all have public schools We are here among the vast and noble scenes and masters; and yet that we should never see of nature; we are there among the pitiful shifts or hear of any man, who took upon him the of policy; we walk here in the light and open profession of teaching this so pleasant, so virtuways of the divine bounty ; we grope there in ous, so profitable, so honourable, so necessary the dark and confused labyrinths of human ma art. lice: our senses are here feasted with the clear | A man would think, when he is in serious buand genuine taste of their objects; which are all mour, that it were but a vain, irrational, and sophisticated there, and for the most part over- | ridiculous thing for a great company of men whelmed with their contraries. Here pleasure and women to run up and down in a room tolooks, methinks, like a beautiful, constant, and gether, in a hundred several postures and figures, modest wife; it is there an impudent, tickle, to no purpose, and with no design; and thereand painted harlot. Here is harmless and fore dancing was invented first, and only pra'cheap plenty; there guilty and expenceful lux- tise:l anciently, in the ceremonies of the heaury.
then religion, which consisted all in mommery I shall only instance in one delight more, the and madness: the latter being the chief glory most natural and best-natured of all others, a of the worship, and accounted divine inspiration : perpetual companion of the husbandman; and this, I say, a severe man would think, though that is, the satisfaction of looking round about I dare not determine so far against so customhim, and seeing nothing but the effects and im- ary a part, now, of good-breeding. And yet, provements of his own art and diligence; to be who is there among our gentry, that does not always gathering of some fruits of it, and at the entertain a dancing-master for his children, as same time to behold others ripening, and others soon as they are abie to walk? But, did erer þudding: to see all his fields and gardens co- | any father provide a tutor for his son, to invered with the beauteous creatures of his own struct him betimes in the nature and improveindustry; and to see, like God, that all his ments of that land which he intended to leare works are good :
him? That is at least a superfluity, and this a
defect, in our manner of education: and there. — Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; fore I could wish (but cannot in these times much
hope to see it) that one college in each unirerAgricolæ tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus 4. sity were erected, and appropriated to this
study, as well as there are to medicine and the On his heart-strings a secret joy does strike. civil law: there would be no need of making a
body of scholars and fellous, with certain enThe antiquity of his art is certainly not to be dowments, as in other colleges; it would sufcontested by any other. The thiec first men infice, if, after the manner of balls in Oxford, the world, were a gardener, a ploughman, and there wore only four professors constituted (fur a grazier; and if any man object that the secoud it would be too much work for only one master, of these was a murtherer, I desire he would con- or principal, as they call him there) to teach sider, that as soon as he was so, he quited our these four parts of it: First, Aration, and all profession, and turned builder. It is for this things relating to it. Secoudly, Pasturage. reason. I suppose, that Ecclesiasticus s forbids Thirdly, Gardens, Orchards, Vineyai-ls, and us to hate husbandry; “because," says he, Woods. Fourthly, all parts of Rural Oecu“ the Most High has created it." We are all nomy; which would contain the government born to this art, and taught by nature to nou of Bees, Swine, Poultry, Decoys, Ponds, &c. rish our bodies by the same earth out of which and all that which Varro calls villaties pas
tiones, together with the sports of the field Virg. Æn, i. 504, &c. Chap. vii. 15. (which ought to be looked upon not only as
pleasures, but as parts of house-keeping), and extant (if Homer, as some think, preceded him, the domestical conservation and uses of all that but I rather believe they were contemporaries); is brought in by industry abroad. The business and he is the first writer too of the art of husof these professors should not be, as is com bandry: “ he has contributed (says Columella) monly practised in other arts, only to read not a little to our profession;" I suppose, he pompous and superficial lectures, out of Virgil's means not a little honour, for the matter of his Georgics, Pliny, Varro, or Columella; but to instructions is not very important; his great aninstruct their pupils in the whole method and tiquity is visible through the gravity and simplicourse of this study, which might be run through city of his stile. The most acute of all his sayperhaps with diligence in a year or two; and the ings concerns our purpose very much, and is continual succession of scholars, upon a moderate couched in the rererend obscurity of an oracle taxation for their diet, lodging, and learning, Πλέον ήμισυ σανίδα, The half is more than the would be a sufficient constant revenue for main whole. The occasion of the speech is this; his tenance of the house and the professors, who brother Perseus had, by corrupting some great should be men not chosen for the ostentation of inen, (Bacinéas dwodáy8s, great bribe-eaters he critical literature, but for solid and experimental calls them) gotten from him the half of his knowledge of the things they teach; such men, estate. It is no matter (says he); they have so industrious and public-spirited, as I conceive not done me so much prejudice as they imagine: Mr. Hartlib6 to be, if the gentleman be yet alive; but it is needless to speak further of my
NÝT101, 88° isadiy, x. r. do thoughts of this design, unless the present disposition of the age allowed more probability of Unhappy they, to whom God has not reveal'd, bringing it into execution. What I have further By a strong light which must their sense conto say of the country life, shall be borrowed from trole, the poets, who were always the most faithful That half a great estate's more than the whole: and affectionate friends to it. Poetry was born Unhappy, from whom still conceal'd does lie among the shepherds.
Of roots and herbs the wholesome luxury.
Nescio quâ natale solum dulcedine Musas
This I conceive to have been honest Hesiod's Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui 7. | meaning. From Homer we must not expect
much concerning our affairs. He was blind, and The Muses still love their own native place; could neither work in the country, nor enjoy the 'has secret charms, which nothing can deface. pleasures of it ; his helpless poverty was likeliest
| to be sustained in the richest places; he was to The truth is, no other place is proper for their delight the Grecians with fine tales of the wars, work; one might as well undertake to dance in and adventures of their ancestors ; his subject a crowd, as to make good verses in the midst of removed him from all commerce with us, and noise and tumult,
yet, methinks, he made a shift to show his good
will a little. For, though he could do us no boAs well might corn, as verse, in cities grow; nour in the person of his hero Ulysses (much less Invain the thankless glebe we plough and sow: of Achilles), because his whole time was conAgainst th’upnatural soil in vain we strive ; sumed in wars and voyages; yet he makes his Tis not a ground, in which these plants will father Laertes a gardener all that while,and seekthrive.
ing bis consolation for the absence of his son in
the pleasure of planting and even dunging his It will bear nothing but the nettles or thorns own grounds. Ye see he did not contemn us of satire, which grow most naturally in the worst peasants; nay, so far was he from that insolence, earth; and therefore almost all poets, except that he always styles Eumæus, who kept the those who were not able to eat bread without the hogs, with wonderful respect, dy úpábov, the bounty of great men, that is, without what they divine swineherd: he could have done no more could get by flattering of them, bave not only | for Menelaus or Agamemnon. And Theocritus withdrawn themselves from the vices and vani (a very ancient poet, but he was one of our own ties of the grand world,
tribe, for he wrote nothing but pastorals) gave
the same epithet to an husbandman, pariter vitiísque jocisque • Altius humanis exeruere caput,
&peilelo dios ággárns',
into the innocent happiness of a retired life; but the divine husbandman replied to Hercules, who hare commended and adorned nothing so much was but dos himself. These were civil Greeks, by their ever-living poems. Hesiod was the first and who understood the dignity of our calling ; or second poet in the world that remains yet Among the Romans we have, in the first place,
our truly-divine Virgil, who, though by the fa.6 A gentleman, of whom it may be enough to
vour of Mæcenas and Augustus he might have say, that he had the honour to live in the friend
been one of the chief men of Rome, yet chose ship of Mede and Milton. The former of these
rather to employ much of his time in the exgreat men addressed some letters to him, and
ercise, and much of his immortal wit in the praise the latter, his “ Tractate on Education.” Hurd. | and instructions, of a rustic life ; who, though he 7 Orid. 1 Ep. ex Pont, iii. 35. Ovid. Fast. i. 300.
oldyll. xxv. ver. 51.
had written before whole books of pastorals and | Latin verses (though of another kind), and have georgics, could not abstain in his great and im- the confidence to translate them. I can only say, perial poem from describing Evander, one of his that I love the matter, and that ought to cover best princes, as living just after the homely man many faults; and that I run not to contend with ner of an ordinary countryman. He seats him those before me, but follow to applaud them. in a throne of maple, and lays bim but upon a bear's-skin; the kine and oxen ate lowing in his court-yard; the birds under the eves of his window call him up in the morning; and when he
A Translation out of Virgil. goes abroad, only two dogs go along with him for his guard : at last, when he brings Æneas into
Georg. Lib. II. 458. his royal cottage, he makes him say this memorable compliment, greater than ever yet was Oh happy (if his happiness he knows) spoken at the Escurial, the Louvre, or our White- | The country swain, on whom kind Heaven bestows ball:
At home all riches, that wise nature needs;
Whom the just earth with easy plenty feeds, Hæc (inquit) limina victor
"Tis true, no morning tide of clients comes, Alcides subiit, bæc illum regia cepit :
And fills the painted channels of his rooms, Aude, hospes , contemnere opes : & te quoque Adoring the rich figures, as they pass, dignum
In tapestry wrought, or cut in living brass ; Finge Deo rebúsque veni non asper egenis '. Nor is his wool superfluously dy'd
With the dear poison of Assyrian pride: This humble roof, this rastic court (said he) Nor do Arabian perfumes vainly spoil Receiv'd Alcides, crown'd with victory :
The native use and sweetness of his oil, Scorn not, great guest, the steps where he has trod; | Instead of these, his calm and harmless life, But contemn wealth, and imitate a god. Free from th’alarms of fear, and storms of strife,
Does with substantial blessedness abound, The next man, whom we are much obliged to, | And the soft wings of Peace cover him round: both for his doctrine and example, is the next Through artless grots the murmuring waters glide; best poet in the world to Virgil, his dear friend | Thick trees both against heat and cold provide, Horace; who, when Augustus had desired Mæ- | From whence the birds salute him ; and his ground cenas to persuade him to come and live domesti- / With lowing herds and bleating sheep does sound; cally and at the same table with him, and to be And all the rivers and the forests nigh, secretary of state of the whole world under him, Both food and game, and exercise, supply. or rather jointly with him, for he says, ut nos Here a well-harden'd, active youth we see, in epistolis scribendis adjuvet, could not be Taught the great art of cheerful poverty. tempted to forsake his Sabin, or Tiburtin manor, Here, in this place alone, there still do shine for so rich and so glorious a trouble. There was Some streaks of love, both human and divine; never, I think, such an example as this in the From hence Astræa took her flight, and here world, that he should have so much moderation | Still her last footsteps upon Earth appear. and courage as to refuse an offer of such great- 'Tis true, the first desire, which does control ness, and the emperor so much generosity and All the inferior wheels that move my soul, . goodnature as not to be at all offended with his Is, that the Muse me her high-priest would make, refusal, but to retain still the same kindness, and | Into her holiest scenes of mystery take, express it often to him in most friendly and fa- | And open there, to my mind's purged eye, miliar letters, part of which are still extant. If I Those wonders, which to sense the gods deny : should produce all the passages of this excellent | How in the Moon such change of shapes is found, author upon the several subjects which I treat of | The Moon, the changing world's eternal bound; in this book, I must be obliged to translate half | What shakes the solid Earth, what strong disease bis works ; of which I may say more truly than Dares trouble the firm centre
Dares trouble the firm centre's ancient ease; in iny opinion he did of Homer,
What makes the sea retreat, and what advance
“ (Varieties too regular for chance);" Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, | What drives the chariot on of winter's light, quid non,
| And stops the lazy waggon of the night. Planiùs & meliùs Chrysippo & Crantore dicit ? | But, if my dull and frozen blood deny
To send forth spirits, that raise a soul so high, I shall content myself upon this particular in the next place, let woods and rivers be theme with three only, one out of his Odes, the My quiet, though inglorious, destiny. other out of his Satires, the third out of his Epis. In life's cool vale let my low scene be laid ; tles; and shall forbear to collect the suffrages of | Cover me, gods, with Tempe's thickest shade. all other poets, which may be found scattered Happy the man, I grant, thrice happy, he, up and down through all their writings, and es- Who can through gross effects their causes see: pecially in Martial's. But I must not omit to | Whose courage from the deeps of knowledge make some excuse for the bold undertaking of
springs, my own unskilful pencil upon the beauties of a Nor vainly fears inevitable things; face that has been drawn before by so many great
But masters; especially, that I should dare to do it in Through all th' alarms of Death and Hell below.
Happy ! but, next such conquerors, happy they, 'Virg. Æn. viii. 365. : 1Ep. ii. 3. Whose humble life lies not in fortune's way.
They unconcern'd, from their safe distant seat,
Hor. EPOD. ODE 11.
Ilappy the man, whom bounteous gods allow Nor can ev'n Rome their steady course misguide, With his own hands paternal grounds to plough With all the lustre of her perishing pride.
Like the first golden mortals happy, he, Them never yet did strife or avarice draw
| From business and the cares of money free! Into the noisy markets of the law,
No human storms break off at land bis sleep;
From all the cheats of law he lives secure,
Nor does th' affronts of palaces endure.
Some with bold labour plough the faithless He to the lusty bridegroom elm docs join :
Sometlmes he shears his flock, and sometimes he Some their vain wealth to earth again commit: Stores up the golden treasures of the bee. With endless cares some brooding o'er it sit: He sees his lowing herds walk o'er the plain, Country and friends are by some wretches sold, Whilst neighbouring hills lowe back to them To lie on Tyrian beds, and drink in gold;
again ; No price too high for protit can be shown ;
And, when the season, rich as well as gay, Not brother's blood, nor hazards of their own : All her autumnal bounty does display, Around the world in search of it they roam, How is he pleas'd th' increasing use to see It makes ey'n their antipodes their home; Of his well-trusted labours bend the tree! Meanwhile, the prudent husbandman is found, Of which large shares, on the glad sacred days, In mutual duties striving with his ground,
He gives to friends, and to the gods repays. And half the year he care of that does take, With how much joy does he, beneath soine shade That half the year grateful returns does make. By aged trees' reverend embraces made, Each fertile month does some new gifts present, His careless head on the fresh green recline, And with new work his industry content.
His head uncharg'd with fear or with design. This the young lamb, that the soft fleece, doth By hiin a river constantly complains, yield;
The birds above rejoice with various strains, This loads with hay, and that with corn, the field : And in the solemn scene their orgies keep, All sorts of fruit crown the rich autumn's pride : Like dreams, mix'd with the gravity of sleep! And on a swelling hill's warm stony side, Sleep, which does always there for entrance waity The powerful princely purple of the vine, And nought within against it shuts the gate. Twice dy'd with the redoubled Sun, does shine. Nor does the roughest season of the sky, In th’ evening to a fair ensuing day,
| Or sullen Jove, all sports to him deny. With joy he sees his flocks and kids to play: | He runs the mazes of the nimble hare, And loaded kine about his cottage stand,
His well-mouth'd dogs' glad concert rends the Inviting with known sound the milker's hand; Or with game bolder, and rewarded more, [air; And when from wholesome labour he doth come, | He drives into a toil the foaming boar; With wishes to be there, and wish'd-for home, Here flies the hawk t' assault, and there the net He meets at door the softest human blisses, To intei cept, the travailing fowl, is set; His chaste wife's welcome, and dear children's And all his malice, all his craft, is shown kisses.
In innocent wars on beasts and birds alone. When any rural holidays invite
This is the life from all misfortunes free, His genius forth to innocent delight,
From thee, the great one, tyrant Love, from On earth's fair bed, beneath some sacred shade,
thee; Amidst his equal friends carelessly laid,
And, if a chaste and clean, though homely wife He sings thee, Bacchus, patron of the vine; Be added to the blessings of this life. The beechen bowl foams with a flood of wine, Such as the ancient Sun-burnt Sabins were, Not to the loss of reason, or of strength:
Such as Apulia, frugal still, dues bear,-To active games and manly sport, at length, Who makes her children and the house her care, Their mirth ascends, and with fill'd veins they see And joyfully the work of life does share, Who can the best at better trials be.
Nor thinks herself too noble or too fine From such the old Hetrurian virtue rose;
To pin the sheepfold or to milch the kine; Such was the life the prudent Sabins chose: Who waitz at door against her husband come Such, Remus, and the god, his brother, led; From rural duties, late and wearied, home, From such firm-footing Rome grew (he world's Where she receives him with a kind embrace, head.
A cheerful fire, and a more cheerful face; Such was the life that, ev'n till now, does raise And fills the bowl up to her homely lord, The honour of poor Saturn's golden days: | And with domestic plenty loads the board ; Before men, born of earth, and buried there, Not all the lustful shell-fish of the sea, Let-in the sea their mortal fate to share:
Dress'd by the wanton hand of Luxury,
Of costly names that glorify a feast,
THE COUNTRY MOUSE.
| Behind a hanging, in a spacious room
(The richest work of Mortclake's noble loom) A Paraphrase upon Horace, Book II. Sat. vi. They wait a while, their wearied limbs to rest,
Till silence should invite them to their feast. Ar the largest foot of a fair hollow tree, “ About the hour that Cynthia's silver light Close to plough'd ground, seated commodiously,
Had touch'd the pale meridies of the night;" His ancient and hereditary house,
At last, the various supper being done, There dwelt a good substantial country mouse;
It happen'd that the company was gone Frugal, and grave, and careful of the main,
Into a room remote, servants and all, Yet one who once did nobly entertain
To please their noble fancies with a ball. A city mouse, well-coated, sleek, and gay,
Our host leads forth his stranger, and does find A mouse of high degree which lost his way,
All fitted to the bounties of his mind. Wantonly walking forth to take the air,
Still on the table half-fill'd dishes stood, And arriv'd early, and belighted, there,
And with delicious bits the floor was strew'd. For a day's lodging: the good hearty host
The courteous mouse presents him with the best, (The ancient plenty of his hall to boast)
And both with fat varieties are blest. Did all the stores produce, that might excite,
Th'industrious peasant every where does range, With various tastes, the courtier's appetite.
And thanks the Gods for his life's happy change. Fitches and beans, peason and oats, and whcat,
Lo! in the midst of a well-freighted pye, And a large chesnut, the delicious meat feat. / They both at last glutted and wanton lie; Which Jove himself, were he a mouse, would | When, see the sad reverse of prosperous fate, And, for a haut goust, there was mixt with these
And what fierce storms on mortal glories wait! The swerd of bacon, and the coat of cheese:
With hideous noise down the rude servants come, The precious reliques which, at harvest, he
Six dogs before run barking into th' room; Had gather'd from the reaper's luxury.
The wretched gluttons fly with wild affright, “ Freely" (said he) “ fall on, and never spare,
And hate the fullness, which retards their flight. The bounteous gods will for to morrow care.''
Our trembling peasant wishes now, in vain, And thus at ease, on beds of straw, they lay,
That rocks and mountains cover'd him again; And to their genius sacrific'd the day:
Oh, how the change of his poor life he curst! Yet the nice guest's Epicurean mind,
“ This, of all lives" (said he)" is sure the worst : (Though breeding made him civil seem and kind) |
Give me again, ye gods, my cave and wood ! Despis’à this country feast; and still his thought | With peace, let tares and acorns be my food!" Upon tlie cakes and pies of London wrought. “ Your bounty and civility” (said he), “Which I'm surpris'd in these rude parts to see, I Shows that the gods have given you a mind
mind A PARAPHRASE UPON The 10th EPISTLE OF THE Too poble for the fate which here you find.
First Book of Horace.
HORACE TO FUSCUS ARISTIUS.
Health, to the lover of the city, thee;
In all things else, we agree like married doves. Where thousand beauteous shes about you move,
But the warm nest and crowded dove house thua And, by high fare, are pliant made to love. Dost like; I loosely fly from bough to bough, We all, ere long, must render up our breath; And rivers drink, and all the shining day No cave or hole can shelter us froin death. Upon fair trees or mossy rocks I play; Since life is so uncertain, and so short,
In fine, I live and reign, when I retire Let 's spend it all in feasting and in sport.
From all that you equal with Heaven admire; Cume, worthy sir, come with me and partake Like one at last from the priest's service ficd, All the great things that mortals happy make." Loathing the honied cakes, I long for bread. Alas! what virtue hath sufficient arms
Would I a house for happiness erect, T'oppose bright honour, and soft pleasure's Nature alone should be the architect, charms:
She'd build it more convenient than great, What wisdom can their magic force repel ? And doubtless in the country choose her seat; It draws this reverend hermit from his cell. Is there a place doth better helps supply It was the time, when witty poets tell,
Against the wounds of Winter's cruelty? • “ That Phoebus into Thetis' bosom fell:
Is there an air, that gentlier does assuage She blush'd at first, and then put out the light, The mad celestial Dog's, or Lion's, rage? And drew the modest curtains of the night." Is it not there that sleep(and only there) Plainly the truth to tell, the Sun was set, Nor noise without, nor cares within, does fear? When to the town our wearied travellers get: Does art through pipes a purer water bring, To a lord's house, as lordly as can be,
Than that, which Nature strains into a spring? Made for the use of pride and luxury,
Can all your tap'stries, or your pictures show They come; the gentle courtier at the door More beauties, than in herbs and flowers do Stops, and will hardly enter in before:
grow? “ But 'tis, sir, your command, and being so, Fountains and trees our wearied pride do please, I'm sworn t'obedience; and so in they go." Ev'n in the midst of gilded palaces,