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had written before whole books of pastorals and | Latin verses (though of another kind), and have georgics, could not abstain in his great and im- the confidence to translate them. I can only say, perial poem from describing Evander, one of his that I love the matter, and that ought to cover best princes, as living just after the homely man- many faults; and that I run not to contend withe ner of an ordinary countryman. He seats him those before me, but follow to applaud them. in a throne of maple, and lays bim but upon a bear's-skin; the kine and oxen ate lowing in his court-yard; the birds under the eves of his window call him up in the morning; and when he
A Translation out of VIRGIL. goes abroad, only two dogs go along with him for his guard : at last, when he brings Æneas into
Georg. Lib. II. 458. his royal cottage, he makes him say this memorable compliment, greater than ever yet was Oh happy (if his happiness he knows), spoken at the Escurial, the Louvre, or our White- The country swain, on whom kind Heaven bestows ball:
At home all riches, that wise nature needs;
Whom the just earth with easy plenty feeds. Hæc (inquit) limina victor
'Tis true, no morning tide of clients comes, Alcides subiit, hæc illum regia cepit:
And fills the painted channels of his rooms, Aude, hospes, contemnere opes : & te quoque Adoring the rich figures, as they pass, dignum
In tapestry wrought, or cut in living brass ; Finge Deo rebúsque veni non asper egenis '. Nor is his wool superfluously dy'd
With the dear poison of Assyrian pride: This humble roof, this rustic court (said he) Nor do Arabian perfumes vainly spoil Receiv'd Alcides, crown'd with victory :
The native use and sweetness of his oil, Scorn not, great guest, the steps where he has trod; Instead of these, his calm and harmless life, But contemn wealth, and imitate a god. Free from th’alarms of fear, and storms of strife,
Does with substantial blessedness abound, The next man, whom we are much obliged to, And the soft wings of Peace cover him round: both for his doctrine and example, is the next Throughartless grots the murmuring waters glide; best poet in the world to Virgil, his dear friend Thick trees both against heat and cold provide, Horace; who, when Augustus had desired Mæ- From whence the birds salute him ; and his ground cenas to persuade him to come and live domesti- With lowing herds and bleating sheep does sound; cally and at the same table with him, and to be And all the rivers and the forests nigh, secretary of state of the whole world under him, Both food and game, and exercise, supply. or rather jointly with him, for he says, ut nop Here a well-harden'd, active youth we see, in epistolis scribendis adjuvet, could not be Taught the great art of cheerful poverty. tempted to forsake his Sabin, or Tiburtin manor, Here, in this place alone, there still do shine for so rich and so glorious a trouble. There was Some streaks of love, both human and divine; never, I think, such an example as this in the From hence Astræa took her fight, and here world, that he should have so much moderation Still her last footsteps upon Earth appear. and courage as to refuse an offer of such great- 'Tis true, the first desire, which does control ness, and the emperor so much generosity and all the inferior wheels that move my soul, goodnature as not to be at all offended with his Is, that the Muse me her high-priest would make, refusal, but to retain still the same kindness, and into her holiest scenes of mystery take, express it often to him in most friendly and fa- And open there, to my mind's purged eye, miliar letters, part of which are still extant. If I Those wonders, which to sense the gods deny: should produce all the passages of this excellent How in the Moon such change of shapes is found, author upon the several subjects which I treat of The Moon, the changing world's eternal bound; in this book, I must be obliged to translate half What shakes the solid Earth, what strong disease bis works; of which I may say more truly than Dares trouble the firm centre's ancient ease; in my opinion he did of Homer,
What makes the sea retreat, and what advance
“ (Varieties too regular for chance);" Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, What drives the chariot on of winter's light, quid non,
And stops the lazy waggon of the night. Planiùs & meliùs Chrysippo & Crantore dicit ?. But, if my dull and frozen blood deny
To send forth spirits, that raise a soul so high, I shall content myself upon this particular In the next place, let woods and rivers be theme with three only, one out of his Odes, the My quiet, though inglorious, destiny. other out of his Satires, the third out of his Epis. In life's cool vale let my low scene be laid ; tles; and shall forbear to collect the suffrages of Cover me, gods, with Tempe's thickest shade. all other poets, which may be found scattered Happy the man, I grant, thrice happy, he, up and down through all their writings, and es- Who can through gross effects their causes see: pecially in Martial's. But I must not omit to Whose courage from the deeps of knowledge. make some excuse for the bold undertaking of springs, my own unskilful pencil upon the beauties of a Nor vainly fears inevitable things; face that has been drawn before by so many great But does his walk of virtue calmly go masters; especially, that I should dare to do it in Through all th' alarms of Death and Hell below.
Happy ! but, next such conquerors, happy they, · Virg. Æn. viii. 365.
: 1 Ep. ii. 3. Whose humble life lies not in fortune's way.
They unconcern'd, from their safe distant seat,
Hor. EPOD. ODE II.
II Appy the man, whom bounteous gods allow Nor can ev'n Rome their steady course misguide, With his own hands paternal grounds to plough With all the lustre of her perishing pride.
Like the first golden mortals happy, he, Them never yet did strife or avarice draw From business and the cares of money free! Into the noisy markets of the law,
No human storms break off at land bis sleep ; The camps of gowned war; nor do they live No loud alarms of nature, on the deep: By rules or forms, that many madmen give.
From all the cheats of law he lives secure, Duty for Nature's bounty they repay,
Nor does th' affronts of palaces endure. And her sole laws religiously obey. [main, Sometimes, the beauteous, marriageable vine
Some with bold labour plough the faithless He to the lusty bridegroom elm docs join : Some rougher storms in prince's courts sustain: Sometimes he lops the barren trees around, Some swell up their slight sails with popular fame And grafts new life into the fruitful wound; Charm'd with the foolish whistlings of a name: Sometimes he shears his flock, and sometimes he Some their vain wealth to earth again commit: Stores up the golden treasures of the bee. With endless cares some brooding o'er it sit : He sees his lowing herds walk o'er the plain, Country and friends are by some wretches sold, Whilst neighbouring hills lowe back to them To lie on Tyrian beds, and drink in gold;
again; No price too high for protit can be shown ; And, when the season, rich as well as gay, Not brother's blood, nor hazards of their own : All her autumnal bounty does display, Around the world in search of it they roam, How is he pleas'd th' increasing use to see It makes ev'n their antipodes their home; Of his well-trusted labours bend the tree! Meanwhile, the prudent husbandman is found, Of which large shares, on the glad sacred days, In mutual duties striving with his ground, He gives to friends, and to the gods repays. And half the year he care of that does take, With how much joy does he, beneath some shade That half the year grateful returns does make. By aged trees' reverend embraces made, Each fertile month does some new gifts present, His careless head on the fresh green recline, And with new work his industry content. His head uncharg'd with fear or with design. This the young lamb, that the soft fleece, doth | By him a river constantly complains, yield;
The birds above rejoice with various strains, This loads with hay, and that with corn, the field : And in the solemn scene their orgies keep, All sorts of fruit crown the rich autumn's pride : Like dreams, mix'd with the gravity of sleep! And on a swelling hill's warm stony side, Sleep, which does always there for entrance wait, The powerful princely purple of the vine, And nought within against it shuts the gate. Twice dy'd with the redoubled Sun, does shine. Nor does the roughest season of the sky, In th’ evening to a fair ensuing day,
Or sullen Jove, all sports to him deny. With joy he sees his flocks and kids to play: He runs the mazes of the nimble hare, And loaded kine about his cottage stand,
His well-mouth'd dogs' glad concert rends the Inviting with known sound the milker's hand; Or with game bolder, and rewarded more, (air; And when from wholesome labour he doth come, He drives into a toil the foaming boar; With wishes to be there, and wish'd-for home, Here flies the hawk t'assault, and there the net He meets at door the softest human blisses, To intercept, the travailing fowl, is set ; His chaste wife's welcome, and dear children's And all his malice, all his craft, is shown kisses.
In innocent wars on beasts and birds alone. When any rural holidays invite
This is the life from all misfortunes free, His genius forth to innocent delight,
Froin thee, the great one, tyrant Love, from On earth's fair bed, beneath some sacred shade, Amidst bis equal friends carelessly laid, And, if a chasie and clean, though homely wife He sings thee, Bacchus, patron of the vine; Be added to the blessings of this life, The beechen bowl foams with a flood of wine, Such as the ancient Sun-burnt Sabins were, Not to the loss of reason, or of strength:
Such as Apulia, frugal still, dves bear,To active games and manly sport, at length, Who makes her children and the house her care, Their mirth ascends, and with blld veins they see And joyfully the work of life does share, Who can the best at better trials be.
Nor thinks herself too noble or too fine From such the old Hetrurian virtue rose;
To pin the sheepfold or to milch the kine; Sach was the life the prudent Sabins chose: Who waits at door against her husband come Such, Remus, and the god, his brother, led; From rural duties, late and wearied, home, From such firm-footing Rome grew the world's Where she receives him with a kind embrace, head.
A cheerful fire, and a more cheerful face; Such was the life that, ev'n till now, does raise And fills the bowl up to her homely lord, The honour of poor Saturn's golden days : And with domestic plenty loads the board ; Before men, born of earth, and buried there, Not all the lustful shell-fish of the sea, Let-in the sea their mortal fate to share:
Dress'd by the wanton hand of Luxury, Before new ways of perishing were sought; Not ortolans, nor godwits, nor the rest Before unskilful death on anvils wrought; Of costly names that glorify a feast, Before those beasts, which human life sustain, Are at the princely tables better cheer, By men, unless to the gods use, were slain. Than lamo and kid, lettuce and olives, here.
THE COUNTRY MOUSE.
Behind a hanging, in a spacious room
(The richest work of Mortclake's noble loom) A Paraphrase upon Horace, Book II. Sat. vi. They wait a while, their wearied limbs to rest,
Till silence should invite them to their feast. Ar the largest foot of a fair hollow tree,
“ About the hour that Cynthia's silver light Close to plough'd ground, seated commodiously, Had touch'd the pale meridies of the night ;" His 'ancient and hereditary house,
At last, the various supper being done, There dwelt a good substantial country mouse;
It happen'd that the company was gone Frugal, and grave, and careful of the main,
Into a room remote, servants and all, Yet one who once did nobly entertain
To please their noble fancies with a ball. A city mouse, well-coated, sleek, and gay,
Our host leads forth his stranger, and does find A mouse of high degree which lost his way,
All fitted to the bounties of his mind. Wantonly walking forth to take the air,
Still on the table half-fill'd dishes stood, And arriv'd early, and belighted, there,
And with delicious bits the floor was strew'd. For a day's lodging : the good hearty host
The courteous mouse presents him with the best, (The ancient plenty of his hall to boast)
And both with fat varieties are blest. Did all the stores produce, that might excite,
Th’ industrious peasant every where does range, With various tastes, the courtier's appetite.
And thanks the Gods for his life's happy change. Fitches and beans, peason and oats, and whcat,
Lo! in the midst of a well-freighted pye, And a large chesnut, the delicious meat [eat. They both at last glutted and wanton lie; Which Jove himself, were he a mouse, would When, see the sad reverse of prosperous fate, And, for a haut goust, there was mixt with these
And what fierce storms on mortal glories wait! The swerd of bacon, and the coat of cheese :
With hideous noise down the rude servants come, The precious reliques which, at harvest, he
Six dogs before run barking into th' room; Had gather'd from the reaper's luxury.
The wretched gluttons fly with wild affright, “ Freely" (said he) “ fall on, and never spare,
And hate the fullness, which retards their flight. The bounteous gods will for to morrow care."
Our trembling peasant wishes now, in vain, And thus at ease, on beds of straw, they lay,
That rocks and mountains cover'd him again; And to their genius sacrific'd the day:
Oh, how the change of his poor life he curst! Yet the nice guest's Epicurean mind,
“ This, of all lives" (said he) “ is sure the worst : (Though breeding made him civil seem and kind) Give me again, ye gods, my cave and wood ! Despis'd this country feast; and still his thought with peace, let tares and acorns be my food!” Upon the cakes and pies of London wrought. “ Your bounty and civility” (said he), “Which I'm surpris'd in these rude parts to see, Shows that the gods have given you a mind
A PARAPHRASE UPON The 10th EPISTLE OF THE Too noble for the fate which here you find.
First Book of HORACE.
HORACE TO FUSCUS ARISTIUS.
Health, to the lover of the city, thee; And taste the generous luxury of the court,
A difference in our souls, this only proves ; Where all the mice of quality resort;
In all things else, we agree like married doves. Where thousand beauteous shes about you move,
But the warm nest and crowded dove house thug And, by high fare, are pliant made to love. Dost like; I loosely fly from bough to bough, We all, ere long, must render up our breath ;
And rivers drink, and all the shining day No cave or hole can shelter us from death. Upon fair trees or mossy rocks I play; Since life is so uncertain, and so short,
In fine, I live and reign, when I retire Let's spend it all in feasting and in sport. From all that you equal with Heaven admire; Cume, worthy sir, come with me and partake Like one at last from the priest's service ficd, All the great things that mortals happy make."
Loathing the honied cakes, I long for bread. Alas! what virtue hath sufficient arms
Would I a house for happiness erect, T'oppose bright honour, and soft pleasure's Nature alone should be the architect, charms:
She'd build it more convenient than great, What wisdom can their magic force repel ? And doubtless in the country choose her seat; It draws this reverend hermit from his cell. Is there a place doth better helps supply It was the time, when witty poets till,
Against the wounds of Winter's cruelty? .“ That Pbæbus into Thetis' bosom fell:
Is there an air, that gentlier does assuage She blush'd at first, and then put out the light, The mad celestial Dog's, or Lion's, rage ? And drew the modest curtains of the night.” Is it not there that sleep(and only there) Plainly the truth to tell, the Sun was set,
Nor noise without, nor cares within, does fear? When to the town our wearied travellers get : Does art through pipes a purer water bring, To a lord's house, as lordly as can be,
Than that, which Nature strains into a spring? Made for the use of pride and luxury,
Can all your tap'stries, or your pictures show They come; the gentle courtier at the door More beauties, than in herbs and flowers do Stops, and will hardly enter in before:
grow? “ But 'tis, sir, your command, and being so, Fountains and trees our wearied pride do please, I'm sworn t'obedience; and so in they go." Ev'n in the midst of gilded palaces,
And in your towns, that prospect gives delight, The specious inconveniences, that wait
By fools desir'd, by wicked men possest.
praise) The man who changes gold for burnish'd brass, The old Corycian yeoman passid his days; Or small right gems for larger ones of glass, Thus his wise life Abdolonymus spent : Is not, at length, more certain to be made Th’ainbassadors, which the great emperor sent Ridiculous, and wretched by the trade,
To offer him a crown, with wonder fourid Than he, who sells a solid good, to buy
The reverend gardener horing of his ground; 'The painted goods of pride and vanity.
Uuwillingly, and slow, and discontent, If thou be wise, no glorious fortune choose, From bis lov'd cottage to a throne he went; Which 'tis but pain to keep, yet grief to lose! And oft he stopt, in his triumphant way: For, when we place ev'n trifles in the heart, And oft look'd back, and oft was heard to say, With trifles too, inwillingly we part.
Not without sighs, Alas! I there forsake An humble roof, plain bed, and homely board, A happier kingdom than I go to take ! More clear, untainted pleasures do afford, Thus Aglaüs (a man unknown to men, Than all the tumult of vain greatness brings But the gods knew, and therefore lov'd him then) To kings, or to the farourites of kings.
Thus liv'd obscurely then without a name, The horned deer, by nature arm'd so well, Aglaüs, now consign'd t eternal fame. Did with the horse in common pasture dwell, For (yges, the rich king, wicked and great, And, when they fought, the field it always wan, Presum'd, at wise Apollo's Delphic seat (eye, Till the ambitious horse begg'd help of man, Presum'd, to ask, “ Oh thou, the whole world's And took the bridle, and thenceforth did reign See'st thou a man that happier is than I?” Bravely alone, as lord of all the plain ;
The god, who scorn'd to flatter man, reply'd, But never after conld the rider get
“Aglaüs happier is.” But Gyges cry'd, From off his back, or from his mouth the bit.
In a proud rage, " Who can that Aglaüs be! So they, who poverty tow much do fear,
We have heard, as yet, of no such king as he.” Tavoid that weight, a greater Lurthen bear; And true it was, through the whole Earth around That they might power above their eqnals have, No king of such a name was to be found. To cruel masters they themselves enslave.
“ Is some old hero of that name alive, For gold, their liberty exchang'd we see,
Who his high race docs from the gods derive? That fairest flower which crowns humanity 3. Is it some mighty general, that has done And all this mischief does upon them light, Wonders in tight, and god-like honours won ? Only, because they know not how, aright,
Is it some man of endless wealth ?” said he. That great, but secret, happiness to prize, “ None, none of these.” “Who can this Aglais That 's laid up in a little, for the wise :
After long search, and rain inquiries past, [be? That is the best and easiest estate,
In an obscure Arcadian vale at last Which to a man sits close, but not too strait; (Th’ Arcadian life has always sharly been) "Tis like a shoe ; it pinches and it burus,
Near Sopho's town (which he but once had seen) Too narrow; and too large, it overturns.
This Aglaus, who monarch's envy drew, My dearest friend ! stop thy desires at last, Whose liappiness the gods stood witness to, And chearfnily enjoy the wealth thou hast: This mighty Aglaüs, was labouring found, And, if me still seeking for more you see, With his own hands, in his own little ground. Chide and reproach, despise and laugh at me. So, gracious God! (if it may lawful be, Money was made, not to command our will, Among those foulish gods to mention thee) But all our lawful pleasures to fulfil :
So let me act, on such a private stage,
This quiet port let my tost vessel gain ;
THE COUNTRY LIFE,
Lib. IV. Plantarum.
To J. Evelyn, Esquire.
I never had any other desire so strong and so
like to coretousness, as that one which I have 3 The poet, as usual, expresses his own feeling : had always, that I might be master at last of a but he does more, he expresses it very classically. small house and large garden, with very moreThe al usion is to the ancient custom of wearing rate conveniencez joined to them, and there de. wreaths or garlands of flowers, on any occasion of dicate the remainder of my life only to the cule joy and festivity. HURD,
ture of thells, and study of nature;
I am gone
And there (with no design beyond my wall) whole ( recommend to mankind the search of that fes and entire to lie,
licity, which you instruct them how to find and In no unactive ease, and no unglorious poverty. to enjoy. Or as Virgil has said, shorter and better for me Happy art thou, whom God does bless that I might there
With the full choice of thine own happiness;
And happier yet, because thou 'rt blest Studiis florere ignobilis oti 4 :
With prudence, how to choose the best :
In books and gardens thou hast plac'd aright (though I could wish that he had rather said, (Things, which thou well dost understand; nobilis oti, when he spoke of his own.) But And both dost make with thy laborious hand) several accidents of my ill-fortune have disap- Thy noble, innocent delight; pointed me hitherto, and do still, of that feli- And in thy virtuous wife, where thou again dost city; for though I have made the first and
. step to it, by abandoning all ambitions Both pleasures more refin'd and sweet ; and hopes in this world, and by retiring from the The fairest garden in her looks, noise of all business and almost company, yet I And in her mind the wisest books. stick still in the inn of a hired house and garden, Oh, who would change these soft, yet solid joys, among weeds and rubbish ; and without that For empty shows and senseless noise; pleasantest work of human industry, the im- And all which rank ambition breeds, provement of something which we call (not very Which seem such beauteous flowers, and are properly, but yet we call) our own.
such poisonous weeds? out from Sodom, but I am not yet arrived at my little Zoar. “O let me escape thither (is it not When God did man to his own likeness make, a little one?) and my soul shall live." I do not As much as clay, though of the purest kind, look back yet; but I have been forced to stop, By the great potter's art refin'd, and make too many halts. You may wonder, Could the divine impression take, sir, (fur this seems a little too extravagant and He thought it fit to place him, where pindarical for prose) what I mean by all this
A kind of Heaven too did appear, preface; it is to let you know, that though i| As far as Earth could such a likeness bear: have missed, like a chymist, my great end, yet That man no happiness might want, I account my affections and endeavours well re- Which Earth to her first master could afford, warded by something that I have met with by He did a garden for him plant the by ; which is, that they have procured to By the quick hand of his omnipotent word. me some part in your kindness and esteem; and As the chief help and joy of human life, thereby the honour of having my name so ad- He gave him the first gift; first, ev'n before a vantageously recommended to posterity, by the
wife. epistle you are pleased to prefix to the most useful book that has been written in that kinds, For God, the universal architect, and which is to last as long as months and "T had been as easy to erect years.
A Louvre or Escurial, or a tower Among many other arts and excellencies, That might with Heaven communication hold, which you enjoy, I am glad to find this favour- As Babel vainly thought to do of old : ite of mine the most predominant; that you
He wanted not the skill or power ; choose this for your wife, though you have
In the world's fabric those were shown, hundreds of other arts for your concubines; And the materials were all his own. though you know them, and beget sons upon But well he knew, what place would best agree them all (to which you are rich enough to allow With innocence and with felicity; great legacies), yet the issue of this seems to be And we elsewhere still seek for them in vain ; designed by you to the main of the estate; you If any part of either yet remain, have taken most pleasure in it, and bestowed If any part of either we expect, most charges upon its education : and I doubt This may our judgment in the search direct; not to see that book, which you are pleased to God the first garden made, and the first city promise to the world, and of which you have
Cain. given us a large earnest in your calendar, as accomplished, as any thing can be expected blessed shades! O gentle, cool retreat from an extraordinary wit, and no ordinary ex- From all th’immoderate heat, penses, and a long experience. I know nobody In which the frantic world does burn and sweat! that possesses more private happiness than you This does the Lion-star, ambition's rage ; do in your garden; and yet no man, who makes This avarice, the Dog-star's thirst, assuage; his happiness more public, by a free communi- Every where else their fatal power we see, cation of the art and knowledge of it to others. They make and rule man's wretched destiny: All that I myself am able yet to do, is only to They neither set, nor disappear,
But tyrannize o'er all the year; 4 Virg. Georg. iv. 564.
Whilst we ne'er feel their flame or influence s Mr. Evelyn's Kalendarium hortense; de
here. dicated to Mr Cowley—The title explains the The birds that dance from bough to bough, propriety of the compliment, that this book was And sing above in every tree, to last as long as mcnths and years. HURD.
Are not from fears and cares more free