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rack, that forces men to say what they have no tion.” This was spoken as became the bravest. mind to!
man who was ever born in the bravest commonI have wondered at the extravagant and bar- wealth. But with us generally, no condition barous stratagem of Zopirus, and more at the passes for servitude, that is accompanied with praises which I find of so deformed an action; great riches, with honours, and with the service who, though he was one of the seven grandees of of many inferiors. This is but a deception of Persia, and the son of Megabıses, who bad freed the sight through a false medium; for if a groom before his country from an ignoble servitude, slit
serve a gentleman in his chamber, that gentlehis own nose and lips, cut off his own ears, scourg- man a lord, and that lord a prince; the groom, ed and wounded his whole body, that he might, the gentleman, and the lord, are as much ser-, * under pretence of having been mangled so inhu
vants one as the other; the circumstantial difmanly by Darius, be received into Babylon (then ference of the one's getting only his bread and besieged by the Persians) and get into the com
wages, the second a plentiful, and the third a sumand of it by the recommendation of so cruel a perfluous estate, is no more intrinsical to this sufferance, and their hopes of his endeavouring inatter, than the difference between a plain, a to revenge it. It is great pity the Babylonians rich, and gaudy livery. I do not say, that he suspected not his falsehood, that they might who sells his whole time and his own will for have cut off his hands too, and whipt him back one hundred thousand is not a wiser meragain. But the design succeeded; he betrayed chant than he who does it for one hundred the city, and was made governor of it. What pounds ; but I will swear they are both mere brutish master ever punished his offending slave chants, and that he is happier than both, who with so little mercy,as ambition did this Zopirus ?
can live contentedly without selling that estato and yet how many are there in all nations, who to which he was born. But this dependance imitate him, in some degree, for a less reward;
upon superiors is but one chain of the lovers of who, though they endure not so much corporal power: pain for a small preferment or some honour (as
Amatorem trecentæ they call it), yet stick not to commit actions, by
Pirithoum cohibent catenæ, which they are more shamefully and more lastingly stigmatised ! But you may say, though Let us begin with him by break of day: for by these be the most ordinary and open ways to that time he is besieged by two or three hundred greatness, yet there are narrow, thory, and suitors; and the hall and antichambers (all the little-trodden paths too, through which some out-works) possessed by the enemy: as soon as men find a passage by virtuous industry. This chamber opens, they are ready to break into grant, sometimes they may; but then that in- that, or to corrupt the guards, for entrance. dustry must be such,as cannot consist with liber- | This is so essential a part of greatness, that ty, though it may with honesty.
whosoever is without it, looks like a fallen faThou art careful, frugal, painful; we commend vourite, like a person disgraced, and condemned a servant so, but not a friend.
to do what he pleases all the morning. There Well then, we must acknowledge the toil and are some who, rather than want this, are condrudgery which we are forced to endure in this tented to have their rooms filled up every day ascent; but we are epicures and lords when once with murmuring and cursing creditors, and to we are gotten up into the high places. This is charge bravely through a body of them to get to but a short apprenticeship, after which we are their coach. Now I would fain know which is the made free of a royal company, If we fall in love worst duty, that of any one particular person with any beauteous woman, we must be content who waits to speak with the great man, or the that they should be our mistresses whilst we woo great man's, who waits every day to speak with them : as soon as we are wedded and enjoy, it is all company. we shall be the roasters. I am willing to stick to this similitude in the
Aliena negotia centum case of greatness : weenter into the bonds of it, like Per caput, & circa saliunt latus those of matrimony: we are bewitched with the
a hundred businesses of other men (many unjust, outward and painted beauty, and take it for bet- and most impertinent) fly continually about his ter or worse, before we know its true nature and head and ears, and strike him in the face like interior inconveniences. A great fortune (says Dorres. Let us contemplate him a little at Seneca) is a great servitude; but many are of another special scene of glory, and that is bis that opinion which Brutus imputes (I hope un- table. Here he seems to be the lord of all nature: trulyo even to that patron of liberty, his friend the earth affords him her best metals for his Cicero: “We fear (says he to Atticus) death, dishes, her best vegetables and animals for his and banishment, and poverty, a great deal too food; the air and sea supply him with their much. Cicero, I am afraid, thinks these to be the choicest birds and fishes; and a great many men, worst of evils; and, if he have but some persons, who look like masters, attend upon him; and from whom he can obtain what he has a mind to, yet, when all this is done, even all this is but and others who will flatter and worship him, seems
table d'hoste; it is crowded with people for whom to be well enough contented with an honourable he cares not, with many parasites and some servitude, if any thing indeed ought to be called spies, with the most burthensome sort of guests, honourable in so base and contumelious a condi- the endeavourers to be witty. * This parenthesis does honour to the writer's
7 Hor. 3 Od. iv. 79. sepse, as yell as candour, Hurp.
& Hor. 2 Sat, vi, 341
But every body pays him great respect; every | jealousy, fear, envy, grief, and all the et cætera body commends his meat, that is, his money; of their passions, which are the secret, but conevery body admires the exquisite dressing and stant, tyrants and torturers of their life, I omit ordering of it, that is, his clerk of the kitchen, here, because, though they be symptoms most or his cook; every body loves his hospitality, frequent and violent in this disease, yet they are that is, his vanity. But I desire to know why common too in some degree to the epidemical the honest inn-keeper, who provides a public disease of life itself. table for his profit, should be but of a mean pro
But the ambitious man, though he be so many fession; and he, who does it for his honour, a ways a slave (o toties servus !) yet he bears it munificent prince. You will say, because one bravely and heroically ; he struts and looks big sells, and the other gives : nay, both sell, upon the stage; he thinks himself a real prince though for different things; the one for plain in his masking-habit, and deceives too all the money, the other for I know not what jewels, foolish part of his spectators : he is a slave in whose value is in custom and in fancy. If then saturnalibus. The covetous nian is a downright his table be made “a snare” (as the Scriptures servant, a draught-horse without bells or feaspeaks) “ to his liberty,” where can he hope for thers : ad metalla damnatus, a man condemned freedom? There is always, and every where, to work in mines, which is the lowest and hardest some restraint upon him. He is guarded with condition of servitude; and, to increase his microwds, and shackled with formalities. The half sery, a worker there for he knows not whom : hat, the whole hat, the half smile, the whole “He heapeth up riches, and knows not who shall smile, the nod, the embrace, the positive part- enjoy them 3 ;" it is only sure, that he himself ing with a little bow, the comparative at the mid- neither shall nor can enjoy them. He is an indidle of the room, the superlative at the door; and, gent, needy slave; he will hardly allow himself if the person be pan huper sebastus, there is a hy- clothes and board-wages : persuperlative ceremony then of conducting him to the bottom of the stairs, or to the very gate :
Unciatim vix de demenso suo, as if there were such rules set to these Leviathans, Suum defraudans genium, comparsit miser *; as are to the sea, “ Hitherto shalt thou go, and no further !"
He defrauds not only other men, but his owa Perditur hæc inter misero lux ?,
genius; he cheats himself for money. But the
servile and miserable condition of this wretch is Thus wretchedly the precious day is lost. so apparent, that I leave it, as evident to every
How many impertinent letters and visits must he man's sight, as well as judgment. receive, and sometimes answer both too as imperti- It seems a more difficult work to prove that nently! He never sets his foot beyond his threshold, the voluptuous man too is but a servant : what unless, like a funeral, he have a train to follow him; can be more the life of a freeman, or, as we say as if, like the dead corpse, he could not stir, till the ordinarily, of a gentleman, than to follow nothing bearers were all ready. “ My life (says Horace, but his own pleasures ? Why, I will tell you who speaking to one of these magnificos) is a great is that true freeman, and that true gentleman, deal more easy and commodious than thine, in not he who blindly follows all his pleasures (the that I can go into the market, and cheapen what very name of follower is servile); but he who raI please, without being wondered at; and take tionally guides them, and is not hindered by my horse and ride as far as Tarentum, without outward impediments in the conduct and enjoy. being missed.” It is an unpleasant constraint to ment of them. If I want skill or force to restrain be always under the sight and observation, aud the beast that I ride upon, though I bought it, censure, of others; as there may be vanity in it, and call it my own, yet in the truth of the mattır, so methinks there should be vexation, too, of spi- I am at that time rather his inan, than he my rit: and I wonder how princes can endure to have horse. The voluptuous men (wbom we have faltwo or three hundred men stand gazing upon them len upon) may be divided, I think, into the lustwhilst they are at dinner, and taking notice of ful and luxurious, who are both servants of the every bit they eat. Nothing seems greater and belly; the other, whom we spoke of before, the more lordly than the multitude of domestic ser- ambitious and the covetous, were xaxa Ingiay, vants ; but even this too, if weighed seriously, evil wild beasts: these are yaçéens asyal, slow is a piece of servitude ; unless you will be a ser- bellies, as our translation renders it, but the word vant to them (as many men are) the troubleágyad (which is a fantastical word, with two diand care of yours in the government of them all, is rectly opposite significations) will bear as well much more than that of every one of them in their the translation of quick or diligent bellies; and observance of you. I take the profession of a both interpretations may be applied to these men. school-master to be one of the most useful, and Metrodorus said, “ that he had learnt annews which ought to be of the most honourable in a paççi xaşlgerlas, to give his belly just thanks commonwealth; yet certainly all his fasces and for all his pleasures." This, by the calumniators tyrannical authority over so many boys takes of Epicurus's philosophy, was objected as one of away his own liberty more than theirs.
the most scandalous of all their sayings ; which, I do but slightly touch upon all these particu- according to my charitable understanding, may lars of the slavery of greatness: I shake but a admit a very virtuous sense, which is, that he few of their outward chains ; their anger, hatred, thanked his own belly for that moderation, in the
3 Ps. xxxxix. 6. 4 Phorm. Act I, Sc. i. ver. 43.
customary appetites of it, which can only give a I'll beg no more : if more thou’rt please to give, man liberty and happiness in this world. Let I'll thankfully that overplus receive : this suffice at present to be spoken of those great if beyond this no more be freely sent, triumviri of the world; the covetous man, who | I'll thank for this and go away content. is a mean villain, like Lepidus ; the ambitious, who is a brave one, like Octavius; and the voluptuous, who is a loose and debauched one, like
MARTIAL, Lib. I. Ep. Ivi. Mark Antony :
Vota tui breviter, &c. Quisam igitur liber? Sapiens, sibique imperiosus 5 :
Well then, sir, you shall know how far extend
The prayers and hopes of your poetic friend. Not Oenomaus 6, who commits himself wholly He does not palaces nor manors crave, to a charioteer, that may break his neck ; but would be no lord, but less a lord would have ; the man,
The ground he holds, if he his own can call,
He quarrels not with Heaven because 'tis small : Who governs his own course with steady hand; Let gay and toilsome greatness others please, Who does himself with sovereign power com
He loves of homely littleness the ease. mand;
Can any man in gilded rooms attend, Whom neither death nor poverty does fright; | And his dear hours in humble visits spend, Who stands not aukwardly in his own light
When in the fresh and beauteous fields he may Against the truth; who can, when pleasures with various healthful pleasures fill the day? knock
If there be nian (ye gods!) I ought to hate, Loud at his door, keep firm the bolt and lock ; Dependance and attendance be his fate : Who can, though Honour at his gate should stay still let him busy be, and in a crowd, In all her masking cloaths, send her away, And very much a slave, and very proud : And cry,“ ke gone, I have no mind to play.” Thus he perhaps powerful and rich may grow;
No matter, O ye gods! that I'll allow: This, I confess, is a freeman : but it may be said, But let him peace and freedom never see; . that many persons are so shackled by their for- Let him not love this life, who loves not me! tune, that they are hindered from enjoyment of that manumission which they have obtained from virtue. I do both understand, and in part
MARTIAL, Lib. II. Ep. liii. fee!, the weight of this objection; all I can answer to it is, that we must get as much liberty as
Vis fieri liber? &c. we can, we must use our utmost endeavours, and, when all that is done, be contented with the Would you be free? 'Tis your chief wish you length of that line which is allowed us.
say ; ask me, in what condition of life I think the Come on; I'll show thee, friend, the certain way; most allowed; I should pitch upon that sort of If to no feasts abroad thou lov'st to go, people, whom King James was wont to call the While bounteous God does bread at home bestow; happiest of our nation, the men placed in the If thou the goodness of thy cluaths dost prize country by their fortune above an high constable, By thine own use, and not by others' eyes; and yet beneath the trouble of a justice of peace; if (only safe from weathers) thou canst dwell in a moderate plenty, without any just argument In a small house, but a convenient shell ; for the desire of increasing it by the care of If thou, without a sigh, or golden wish, many relations; and with so much knowledge and Canst look vpon thy beechen bowl and dish ; love of piety and philosophy (that is, of the If in thy mind such power and greatness be, study of God's laws, and of his creatures) as may | The Persian king's a slave compar'd with thee. afford bim matter enough never to be idle, though without business; and never to be melancholy, though without sin or vanity.
MARTIAL, Lib. II. Ep. Ixviii. I shall conclude this tedious discourse with a prayer of mine in a copy of Latin verses, of which
Quod te nomine ? &c. I remember no other part; and (pour faire bonne bouche) with some other verses upon the That I do you with humble bows no more, same subject :
And danger of my naked head, adore;
That I, who “ Lord and master,” cry'd erewhile, Magne Deus, quod ad has vitæ brevis attinet Salute you, in a new and different style, horas,
By your own name, a scandal to you now ; Da mihi, da panem libertatemque, nec ultrà Think not that I forget myself or you : Sollicitas effundo preces : si quid datur ultra, By loss of all things, by all others sought, Accipiam gratus ; si non, contentus abibo. This freedom, and the freeman's hat, is bought.
A lord and master no man wants, but he
Who o'er himself has no authority;
And follies, without which lords cannot live. 3 [or. 2 Sat. vii. 83.
If thou from fortune dost no servant crave, Virg. Georg. üi. 7.
Believe it, thou no master peed'st to have.
Who keep your primitive powers and rights so
Of all material lives the highest place FREEDOM with Virtue takes her seat;
To you is justly given; Her proper place, her only scene,
And ways and walks the nearest Heaven. Is in the golden mean,
Whilst wretched we, yet vain and proud, think fit She lives not with the poor nor with the great.
To boast, that we look up to it. The wings of those Necessity has clipt,
Ev'n to the universal tyrant, Love, And they ’re in Fortune's bridewell whipt
You homage pay but once a year: To the laborious task of bread;
None so degenerous and unbirdly prove, These are by various tyrants captive led.
As his perpetual yoke to bear; Now wild Ambition with imperious force
None, but a few unhappy household fowl, Ridcs, reins, and spurs, them like th' unruly
Whom human lordship does control: horse ;
Who from their birth corrupted were
By bondage, and by man's example here.
He's no small prince who every day
Thus to himself can say; If any few among the great there be
Now will I sleep, now eat, now sit, now walk, From these insulting passions free,
Now meditate alone, now with acquaintance talk; Yet we ev'n those, too, fetter'd see
This I will do, here I will stay,
(For we, before, have nothing to provide, Impertinences round them flow:
Nor, after, are to render an account) These are the small uneasy things
To Dover, Berwick, or the Cornish mount, Which about greatness still are found,
If thou but a short journey take, And rather it molest than wound:
As if thy last thou wert to make, Like gnats, which too much heat of summer
Business must be dispatch'd, ere thou canst part, brings ;
Nor canst thou stir, unless there be But cares do swarm there, too, and those have
A hundred horse and men to wait on thee, As, when the honey aoes too open lie, (stings:
And many a mule and many a cart; A thousand wasps about it fly :
What an unwieldly man thou art ! Nor will the master ev'n to share admit;
The Rhodian Colossus so The master stands aloof, and dares not taste of A journey, too, might go, it.
Where honour,or where conscience, does not bind, 'Tis morning; well; I fain would yet sleep on;
Nor other law shall shackle me ; You cannot now; you must be gone
Slave to myself I will not be,
Nor shall my future actions be confin'd
Who by resolves and vows engag'd does stand And a spring-tide of clients is come in.
For days, that yet belong to Fate,
Before it falls into his hand :
The bondman of the cloister so, And get some blessed hours of liberty :
All that he does receive does always owe; With a few friends, and a few dishes, dine,
And still, as time comes in, it goes away And much of mirth and moderate wine.
Not to enjoy, but debts to
pay. To thy bent mind some relaxation give,
Unhappy slave, and pupil to a bell, And steal one day out of thy life to live.
Which his hours-work, as well as hours, does tell! Oh happy man (he cries) to whom kind Heaven Unhappy, till the last, the kind releasing knell, Has such a freedom always given !
If life should a well-order'd poem be, Why, mighty madman, what should hinder thee (In which he only hits the white From being every day as free?
Who joins true profit with the best delight)
The more heroic strain let others take, In all the free born nations of the air,
Mine the Pindaric way I'll make; (free, Never did bird a spirit so mean and sordid bear,
The matter shall be grave, the numbers loose and As to exchange his native liberty
It shall not keep one settled pace of time, Of soaring boldly up into the sky,
In the same tune it shall not always chime, His liberty to sing, to perch, or fly.
Nor shall each day just to his neighbour rhyme; When, and wherever he thought good,
A thousand liberties it shall dispense, And all his innocent pleasures of the wood, And yet shall manage all without offence For a more plentiful or constant food.
Or to the sweetness of the sound, or greatness of Nor ever did ainbitious rage
the sense; Make him into a painted cage,
Nor shall it never from one subject start, Or the false forest of a well-hung room,
Nor seek transitions to depart, For honour, and preferment, come.
Nor its set way o'er stiles and bridges make, Now, blessings on you all, ye heroic race,
Nor through lanes a com ass take,
As if it fear'd some trespass to commit.
Tu mihi curarum requies, tu nocte vel atra
Lumen, & in solis tu mihi turba locis",
With thee for ever I in woods could rest,
Where never human foot the ground has prest, As if his generous hunger understood
Thou from all shades the darkness canst exclude That he can never want plenty of food,
And from a desert banish solitude.
And yet our dear self is so wearisome to us, that To kites, and meaner birds, he leaves the mangled we can scarcely support its conversation for an prey.
hour together. This is such an odd temper of mind, as Catullus expresses towards one of his
mistresses, whom we may suppose to have been II.
of a very unsociable humour 3: OF SOLITUDE.
Odi, & amo: quare id faciam fortasse requiris. NUNQUAM minus solus, quam cum solus, is now
Nescio; sed fieri sentio, & excrucior. become a very vulgar saying. Every man, and almost every boy, for these seventeen hun
I hate, and yet I love thee too ; dred years, has had it in his mouth. But it was How can that be? I know not how ; at first spoken by the excellent Scipio, who was Only that so it is I know; without question a most eloquent and witty per- And feel with torment that 'tis so. son, as well as the most wise, most worthy, most happy, and the greatest of all mankind. His
It is a deplorable condition, this, and drives a meaning, no doubt, was this, that he found more
man sometimes to pitiful shifts, in seeking lion satisfaction to his mind, and more improvement to avoid himself. of it, by solitude than by company; and, to The truth of the matter is, that neither he show that he spoke not this loosely or out of va- who is a fop in the world, is a fit man to be alone; nity, after he had made Rome mistress of almost
nur he who has set his heart much upon the world, the whole world, he retired himself from it by a though he have never so much understanding; voluntary exile, and at a private house, in the so that solitude can be well fitter, and sit right, middle of a wood, near Linternum', passed the but upon a very few persons. They must have remainder of his glorious life no less gloriously enough knowledge of the world to see the vanity This house Seneca went to see so long after with of it, and enough virtue to despise all vanity; if great veneration; and, among other things, de the mind be possessed with any lust or passions, xcribes his baths to have been of so mean a struc
a man had better be in a fair, tban in a food ture, that now, says he, the basest of the peo- alone. They may, like petıy thieves, cheat us ple would despise them, and cry out, “ Poor perhaps, and pick our pockets, in the midst of Scipio understood not how to live.” What an au
company; but, like robbers, they use to strip thority is here for the credit of retreat! and happy and bind, or murder us, when they catch us had it been for Hannibal, if adversity could have alone. This is but to retreat from men, and fall taught him as much wisdom as was learnt by into the hands of devils. It is like the punishScipio from the highest prosperities. This would ment of parricides among the Roinans, to be be no wonder, if it were as truly as it is colourably sowed into a bag, with an ape, a dug, and a and wittily said by Monsieur de Montagne, serpent. « That ambition itself might teach us to love soli- The first work therefore that a man must do, tude; there is nothing does so much hate to have to make himselt capable the good of solitude, companions.” It is true, it loves to have its el-is, the very eradication of all lusts ; for how is it bows free, it detests to bave company on either possible for a inan to enjoy himself, while his afside ; but it delights above all things in a train | fections are tied to things without himself? In the behind, aye, and ushers too before it. But the second place, he must learn the heart and get the greatest part of men aje so far from the opinion habit of thinking; for this too, no less than wellof that noble Roman, that if they chance at any speaking, depends upon much practice ; and cotime to be without company, they are like a be- gitation is the thing which distinguishes the solicalmed ship; they never move but by the wind of iude of a god from a wild beast. Now because other men's breath, and have no oars of their own
the soul of man is not by its own nature or obser. to steer withal. It is very fantastical and contra- vation furnisbed with sufficient inaterials to work dictory in human nature, that men should love theinselves above all the rest of the world, and upon, it it is necessary for it to bave continual re
course to learning and books for fresh supplies, yet never endure to be with themselves. When
so that the solitary life will grow indigent, and they are in love with a mistress, all other persons be ready to starve, without them; but if once we are importunate and burthensome to them.
be thoroughly engaged in the love of letters, inTecum vivere amem, tecum obeam lubens, stead of being wearied with the length of any day, they would live and die with her alone.
we shall only complain of the shortness of our
whole life. Sic ego secretis possum bene vivere sylvis, Quà nulla humano sit via trita pede.
1 4 Tibull. xiii. 9. » Seneca Epist. lxxxvi,
3 De amore Sho,