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but, gentlemen, if you please, look not quite so loftily as only to see across some twenty-five hundred miles of ocean and a thousand miles of land, but look about you and around you in this metropolis. Ah! brethren, I once saw a man sold, and I stood by the auction block, while my wife, at a hundred yards distance, was trying to comfort a little mulatto woman, because her master would not let her see her husband again. A trader from the south wanted to take the man down the river, and a benevolent man in the vicinity wanted to buy him to keep him with his wife and child. I shall never forget the look of agony with which he gazed upon the trader, and then the ray of hope that seemed to illumine his face as he looked upon his friend; but, presently, the trader offered a sum that shut out all hope, for his friend turned upon his heel and departed. Then that man folded his arms, and I saw the twitching of the fingers, and I saw the convulsive workings of the throat; I saw the white tooth brought upon the lip, as if he would press the blood from under it; I saw the eyelids swollen with unshed tears; I saw the veins standing out like whipcords upon his brow, and the drops like beads upon his forehead-and I pitied him. It was human agony-and I pitied him. But as I looked at him, occasionally from his bloodshot eye there flashed a light that told of a wild, free spirit there-that told me there was a soul there that no human power could enslave; and then, black as he was, bought and sold as he was, he loomed up before me in the glorious attitude of a free man, compared with the miserable tobacco-chewing, whiskey-drinking, blaspheming slaves of lust that were bidding on their brother. A slave once stood up before his brethren, and said, "Bredren, dis poor ole body ob mine is Massa Carr's slave de bones and blood and sinews and muscles belong to my massa; he bought 'em in de market-place, and paid a price for 'em-Yes, bredren, dis poor ole body ob mine is Massa

Carr's slave-But, glory to God, my soul is de free man ob de Lord Jesus." There is not a poor slave to vice in this metropolis can say that; and the most pitiful slave on the face of God's footstool, is the man that is "bound by the cords of his own sin," that has sold himself for nought. There are many of your brethren in this city that are festering in the moral pool of degradation, and the question is, what shall we do for them? They are your brethren. Ay, see that poor miserable creature staggering through your street, the image of God wiped out, and the die of the devil stamped there; the body smitten with disease from head to heel, till he is as loathsome as Lazarus, when he lay at the rich man's door. Though ye gather your garments about you as ye pass him, he is your brother, and you have a responsibility resting upon you in reference to him and his degradation. See that heap of rags lying in that corner, with the bonnet pressed upon the face, covered with the mire of the streets;-there lies your sister.

"But," you say, "she is drunk."

Ah! madam, I do not say it would be so, but perhaps if you had been brought up with all the horrible surroundings that she has, if you had been exposed to the temptations that she has, you would be drunk too.

I ask you, is there not something noble and glorious in the fact of seeking out our brethren, not amid the circle of society in which we move, not looking at our visiting lists to find them, not looking around the pews in our places of worship to see them, not seeking for them among the Young Men's Christian Associations, but seeking for them in the midst of the haunts of vice and misery, making inquiries not only as to the fact of their degradation, but as to our responsibility in reference to that degradation? The most glorious men and women on the face of the earth have sought for their neighbours and their brethren out of their

own circle. The poor cobbler in Portsmouth that used to go down upon the wharf to find his neighbours among the wretched, ragged, miserable children, and bribe them with two or three roasted potatoes to come into his little shop, eighteen feet by six, that he might teach them to read and mend their clothes, and cook their food, he was a noble man, and JOHN POUNDS was the founder of ragged schools. JOHN HOWARD found his neighbours in lazar-houses of Europe; WILLIAM WILBERFORCE and his glorious compeers found their neighbours among the negroes of the West India plantations; ELIZABETH FRY found her neighbours among the half-mad women of Newgate; and she, the heroine of the nineteenth century, found her neighbours among the bruised, battered soldiers of the Crimea, and many a soldier in the hospitals of Scutari died with his glazed eye fixed with love and reverence on the angel face of FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. These are your noble men and women, these are God's heroes. And when we would bring the matter right down to our own personal responsibilities, the question arises, and I have asked it many times myself-and there is not probably a benevolent man or a philanthropist in this Association but has asked the question,-What shall be done to elevate the degraded masses ? That is the point-what is doing? Ragged schools-good! with all my heart I say, good! And God bless their patrons! Model lodging-houses-good, as far as they go. But you cannot make a model man by putting him in a model house. You have got to elevate the man to the house, or he will bring the house down to his level. It must be by elevating the man that the work will be done; and the working classes of this country must elevate themselves. Oh, if we could only inspire them with that! The glory of it! To elevate themselves! Society is doing a great deal for working men, for the lower classes;

but it seems to me sometimes as if they formed societies to obtain for them toys, and then formed other associations to teach them to play with them. As I said before, men of the world look with contempt on what is doing to elevate the degraded classes in a moral point of view. Some of our philanthropists, who "do love the working classes so much," propose to elevate them by excursion trains on the Sabdath. Now, I say you can never elevate a man nor a race by violating the law of God. "Remember the Sabbath-day, and keep it holy," is God's command. "But," they say, "these working classes, pent up in their wretched homes, need recreation and fresh air." Did you ever see a return excursion train? I went one Sabbath evening in the summer of 1854, for the purpose of seeing a company of men and women return from "rational recreation"-and such a sight it was! There you would see a man with his hat brought down over his eyes, and a thorn stick under his arm that he had cut from the hedges, tottering along in a most pitiable state; then you would see a woman with a child fastened upon her back with a shawl, and two or three more little ones coming along after her, crying, and dirty, and miserable. I never saw a set of men returning from twelve hours hard labour that looked as jaded, as disspirited, and as miserable as that whole excursion party. Now I say that is not the way to elevate the working classes. Look at New England. And when I say New England, I point you to a portion of the United States that is free from the curse of slavery, standing up in all its glory with the principle of the good old Puritans; and to those that sneer at Puritanism, I say, God send us more of it, if it teaches men to honour the Sabbath. In all New England there is not an excursion train running on the Sabbath-day -not one. I remember on one occasion, when an immense quantity of freight was to be brought from New York to

Boston, they undertook to run on the Sabbath-day. They came up with a large load of cotton, and on coming near to M- a bale caught fire, and there were not hands enough to roll it off; they then drove up to M, and rang the bells, and the people came down to the number of three hundred-" Help us," said the railway people, " to put out the fire." "No, you have no business to run that train on the Sabbath." They then sent up to one of the directors, and said, "If you speak a word, these men will bring us water; there is property being destroyed." "I voted in. the board of directors," he replied, "against this running on the Sabbath, and if you burn the whole freight, I will not raise a finger." And the two car-loads of cotton were destroyed; the company had to pay for it, but they ran no more trains on the Sabbath. I remember when they started a train from New York to Boston, and from Boston to New York at four o'clock on Sunday afternoon, to satisfy those wonderfully busy merchants that wanted their letters early on Monday morning-(and some of them professed to be Christian men, too)-Indignation meetings were held all along the line; and in Newhaven they decided on three things-first, to petition the Government to send no mail. that day; next, to petition the directors to send no train that day; and then, if that did not answer, they resolved on taking advantage of an old clause in their city charter, to attach the locomotive as a nuisance, and not let it pass through their city.

Now look at our working classes! I tell you, gentlemen, there is scarcely a country on the face of the earthI believe there is none, that can show such a mass of honest, moral, working men as the natives. I am not speaking of your imported monstrosities. Do not imagine I am saying a word against emigration; but let me say this, in regard to the emigration that is going on at the rate of


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