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certain hopes that he was happy. Sweden- man’s, it can never become woman's; or vice borg said, 'Yes, I have seen him, and he is versa. The sexual distinction is founded upon well off, and not only he, but all the kings of the two radical attributes of God, — upon his the house of Oldenburg, who are all associated divine love, and his divine wisdom; whereof together. This is not the happy case with our the former is feminine, and the latter mascuSwedish kings.' Swedenborg then told him line. The union of these in Him is the dithat he had seen no one so splendidly minis- vine marriage; and the creation proceeds distered to in the world of spirits as the Empress tinctly from them, and images, or aspires to, a Elizabeth of Russia, who died in 1762. As marriage in every part. The lightning fiats Tuxen expressed astonishment at this, Swe-twine and kiss ere ever they separate. The denborg continued: “I can also tell you the world would be, and the church is, an everreason, which few would surmise. With all lasting wedlock. Therefore there are marher faults she had a good heart, and a certain riages in heaven, and heaven itself is a marconsideration in her negligence. This induced riage. The text that “in heaven they neither her to put off signing many papers that were marry, nor are given in marriage,' is to be from time to time presented to her, and which understood in a spiritual sense. It signifies at last so accumulated, that she could not ex- that the marriage of the soul with its Lord, amine them, but was obliged to sign as many or what is the same thing, the entrance of as possible upon the representation of her man into the church, which is the bride of the ministers : after which she would retire to her Lamb, must be effected in this world, or it closet, fall on her knees, and beg God's for- cannot have place afterwards. It also signigiveness, if she, against her will, had signed fies, that angels, whether men or women, any thing that was wrong. When this con- already have the marriage principle in them versation was ended, Swedenborg went on as a ground of their angelship, or they could board his vessel, leaving a firm friend and fu- not acquire it after death : hence they are virture disciple in General Tuxen.

tually married, and do not marry, nor are

given in marriage. It is as though it had Conjugial Love.

been said, that no one goes to heaven, but 336. “It is probable that Swedenborg went those who already are in heaven; or have from Stockholm to London in the middle of heaven in them, and are heaven. But this the year, according to what he signified to Scripture by no means excludes the blessed Kant's friend. However on November 8, from that conjugial union which is their sum1768, we again meet him at Amsterdam, mary bliss, and which is the foregone concluwhither he had gone to print another impor- sion of their admission to eternal life. The tant work, The Delights of Wisdom concern- text, however, does exclude sensual and nating Conjugial Love, and ihe Pleasures of In- ural views of marriage, and so is suitable in sanity concerning Scortatory Love. This its form to the Jewish mind and the corporeal book he published with his name, as written nature, which otherwise would have conceived by Emanuel Swedenborg, a Swede.

only carnally of a celestial bond. 337. “In every new view of mankind, and 339. “We must guard, however, against in each fresh system of doctrines which pro- supposing that the spiritual is not real and fesses to apply itself to the wants of an age, bodily; for every thing inward has its last the subject of marriage can hardly fail to resort in substantive organization. The bodies have an important place; in many systems, of angels are as ours in every part, but more indeed, it furnishes the experimentum crucis, expressive, plastic, and perfect. Their conand at once decides their pretensions. It now jugial union, which is true chastity and playdevolves upon us to say a few words upon ful innocence, is bodily like our own; nay, this topic, in its connection with Swedenborg's far more intimate : its delights, immeasurably doctrines.

more blessed and perceptible than on earth, 338. “ The author affirms, upon a union commence in the spirit, and are of the spirit of experimental with rational evidence, that even in the body: its powers, springing from sex is a permanent fact in human nature, a divine fountain, are marred by no languor, that men are men, and women, women, in the but spire in an unconsuming flame of perenhighest heaven as here upon earth: that it is nial virility. This world, however, and not the soul which is male or female, and that sex the other, is the theatre of prolification; the is thence derived into the mortal body and the fixed soil of nature alone produces new benatural world; therefore that the difference ings; whence angelic marriages do not engenof sexes is brighter and more exquisite in der natural but spiritual births, which are the proportion as ihe person is high, and the various endowments of love and wisdom ; sphere is pure. The distinction not only wherefore, by this offspring or in-spring, the reaches to the individual, but it is atomically partners breed in themselves human fulness, ininute besides ; every thought, affection and which consists in desiring to grow wise on the sense of a male is male, and of a female is man's part, and in loving whatever belongs to feminine. The smallest drop of intellect or wisdom on the wife’s. Thus conjugial love is will is inconvertible between the sexes; if a means of their eternal progression, by which they become younger and younger, more and dence, and placed so merely on the pedestal more deeply the sons and daughters of the of religion and divine necessity, as in SweAlmighty, and are born again from state to denborg's system: with him it is the ideal of state as happier children in the cycle of wed- union, and every thing in the sexual commerce ded satisfactions.

is tried and judged by its tendency or approxi340. “To conjugial love our author assigns mation to indissoluble marriage. Well may the highest position in the soul: in its descent the state be guarded, which is to be eternal : it is the gate by which the human race enters well may the force be subject to heavenly into existence; in its ascent and upper faculty rules, whose effects extend through all genit is the door through which the Lord enters erations in the lines of time, and upward into the mind. It is the appointed source of through the hierarchies of that past, which is all creatures, from which beneath springs gen- but the depth and height of the present. eratiort, and regeneration comes through it 343. “ Such, at least, is the consequence of from above. The purity of the source deter- the creed, that sexual distinctions are eternal, mines the world's condition at any given period, and monogamy their divine end : it evidentinfluencing posterities organically, and the ly confers the heart of spirituality upon the mind and will in their finest springs. Nay, marriage tie, and tends to maintain it for both upon this depends the spiritual world itself ; divine and human reasons. Nor are the cefor earthly marriage is the seminary of heaven, lestial reports devoid of interest in the matas adultery is the seminary of hell

. Children ter; for were it not for them, the sanctity of born of parents imbued with truly conjugial marriage would fail of present experience, love, derive from those parents the conjugial and come in time into the hands of the philosprinciple of goodness and truth, which gives ophers who keep no account of their receipts. ibem an inclination and faculty, if sons, to perceive whatever appertains to wisdom, and if

(344. In the latter part of this work, and sepadaughters, to love the things that wisdom teaches. rate from it, is a short treatise on what might be

called, “ The Infernal Pleasures of Insanity, con341. “It is plain that of an affection so ex

cerning Scortatory Love: " for none but infernal alted there are few patterns to be found on spirits, and those whose minds are under their inearth, and that even where it dwells, it may Auence, can possibly take delight in the grossest not be manifest ; and for this reason our au- perversions of all that is good and true. But let it thor was obliged to describe it from experi- never be forgotten, that what Swedenborg says on ence in heaven, where it reigns in open day these unpleasant subjects, is by no means designed as a fundamental love. Fact alone supplies this essay, the important distinctions must be con,

as doctrinals for the New Church ; and in reading description, and the facts of conjugial union stantly kept up, between the phrases “ it is right," were not given on this globe in that age; it (fas est,) and it is allowed or permitted, (bicet ;) the was then needful to explore the heavens, in former having reference to the laws of Divine Order, which that ancient love is stored. For this and the latter, to those of Divine Permission, to purpose, as the ages are differenced by this prevent greater evils. very affection, he prayed to the Lord to be 345. In this tract the author has given a virtual allowed to visit them, and travelled in spirit commentary on the Divine Command -.“ Thou

shalt not commit adultery." “ His object is to do with an angel guide to the golden, silver, copper, what no Protestant theologian has ever done, to iron, and still later periods; that is to say, to lay open from its inmost grounds the entire morale the men and women who are still in those of the seventh commandment. In accomplishing states. And every where he learned from the this object he has, with a masterly power of analybest and the eldest the tale of their faithful sis, discriminated between the different degrees of loves; or, as in the lower ages, observed that guilt which attach to the greater or less departure que decadence of their state was in propor: front of his offending hath this extent, no more.'

from the strict rules of chastity. The head and tion to their want of fealty to the primeval | Viewed in the light of Criminal Jurisprudence, it bond. He learned that the marriage of one bears the same relation to the command Thou man with one wife is the law of heavenly shalt not cominit adultery,' as the statute law on union, corresponding to the unity of God, to the different degrees of manslaughter does to the the singleheartedness of man, to the marriage command « Thou shalt not kill. The statute laws of the good with the true, and of the Lord wisely discriminate between murder and manwith the church. Polygamy, however, and slaughter in the first, second and third degrees, varying unions, were the sign and the cause But who, for that reason, would think of charging

awarding a different degree of penalty to each. of a broken religion, and the avenues of sen- the laws with laxity of morals,' or with encoursuality towards hell. He brought back to this aging murder ? earth the documents of the other life on this 346. “Yet the charge of encouraging vice has point, the Reports of the great epochs, and as little foundation in truth when applied to Swethese are given in his memorable relations, denborg as it would have if applied to the laws. a series of narratives between the ethical chap- He discriminates the sins under this head into ters, which complete by experience the field eight degrees, and teaches that the greater the

departure from the right, the greater the sin and which is given through doctrine in the latter.

consequent penalty, and of course, the slighter the 342. “ Never was monogamy so rescued departure from strict rectitude, the less grievous from the baser justifications of worldly pru- the sin and consequent penalty. He shows how,

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when a man's heart appears to be fully set in him to do evil in this respect, he may be restrained

Christ's Power over all Flesh. from plunging into still greater evils than he is

349. In this year, (1768) we have the folalready in the practice of, and how he may be led lowing, concerning the Lord's power, and the into a state of comparatively less evil, and finally bodies of angels, in a letter to Dr. Oettinger. back into the paths of true virtue. In all this there is no intimation that any such practices are any “ You suggest a doubt in respect to Christ's thing else than grievous sins, which are to be even having power given Him over all flesh, and yet the more strenuously striven against than other sins : angels and heavenly beings (Angeli et Calites) have which is a reason for his being more minute. His not flesh, but lucid bodies. To this be pleased constant language in regard to them is, that they to receive kindly the following reply: That by all are vile,' detestable to christians,' and 'lead to flesh, there spoken of, is meant every man, wherehell.'"]— N. Church Repository, vol. i. pp. 621,622.* | fore in the Word mention is sometimes made of

As to 347. “We cannot quit the Conjugial Love all flesh, which is to denote every man. without noticing to the reader the author's what concerns the bodies of the angels, they do

not appear lucid, but, as it were, fleshy, for they penetration upon a subject where a studious

are substantial and not material, and things subold bachelor might be expected to have no stantial are not translucent before the angels. experience. It is an instance of the sym- Every material thing, or substance, is originally pathy of genius, which can place itself in the derived from what is substantial, and every man position of its object, and look outward from cometh into this substantiality when he pats off, the hearts of alien things. Thus it was that by death, the material films or coverings, which is Swedenborg analyzed the male and the female the reason why man after death is a inan, but soul, and their faculties of conjunctivity; thus purer than before, comparatively as what is subthat he dived into the recesses of wedded life, Lord has power, not only over all men,

stantial is purer than what is material. That the

but also and laid down a science and a series of its over all angels, is evident from His own words in agreements and disagreements; that he ex- Matthew: * All power is given to me in heaven, and amined its love, its friendship, and its favor, in earth,' (xxviii. 18).” Documents, pp. 152, 153. at the different periods of life; that he described to the life, but in formal propositions, Doctrines of the New Church, and Comthe jealousies of the state, its burning fire

mencement of Persecution. against those that infest wedded love, and its

350. “Swedenborg remained in Amsterhorrid fear for the loss of that love;' and dam during the winter of 1768–69, and early finally thus that he depicted the love of chil- in the spring of the latter year published his dren, the spiritual offspring of conjugial love, Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New in its successive derivations; and childless Church, in which work, as he says, "are himself, appreciated the circulation of inno- fully shown the errors of the existing doccence and peace, that the hearts of the young trines of justification by faith alone, and of the establish in the home. Much, however, that imputation of the righteousness or merits of he has said belongs to his peculiar seership : Jesus Christ,' which doctrines, he expected, much of the psychology is of more than earth- might probably be extirpated by this book. ly fineness ; the distinctions are those of spir- He circulated it freely throughout Holland itual light, and the delicacy of the affections and Germany; but, on second thoughts, sent is that of spiritual heat; which is not sur-only one copy to Sweden, to Dr. Beyer, reprising, for the wives of heaven had been questing him to keep it to himself.

For communicative to our author.” Wilkinson's true divinity in Sweden was in a wintry Biography, pp. 158–171.

state ; and in general, towards the North 348. For a full representation of the sub- Pole there is a greater length of spiritual ject of Conjugial Love, as indeed all other night than in the southern parts; and those spiritual and theological subjects which the who stand in that darkness may be supposed author has treated of, the reader is referred to kick and stumble more than others against to the “ COMPENDIUM” of his writings. And every thing in the New Church which is the we may say here, once for all

, that as this Sum- produce of an unprejudiced reason and undermary of his Life is designed both for a Prefix standing; yet we are to admit some excep, to that work, and also to be published sepa- tions to this observation in the ecclesiastical rately, it may account both for the brevity order.' of this analysis of his writings, and for what 351. “Swedenborg's anticipations with reof unnecessary fulness also there may appear gard to his native country were not falsified in some of the notices of his theological works. by the event, for already on the 22d of March, Also, for some repetition of occurrences which 1769, Dr. Ekebom, dean of the theological are inserted both in the Life and in the Com- faculty of Gottenburg, had delivered to the

The object here is a double one Consistory there a deposition of objections to serve as a fitting Prefix to the COMPEN-against Swedenborg's theological writings, DIUM, and to be published separately also. laden with untruth, and full of personal re

* On the subject of Marriage and its opposites, see Noble's Approaches. The dean branded his doctrine peal, Sec. 6, Part 4, N.C. Repository, Vol. 1, pp. 621-2, and Al. as in the highest degree heretical, and on Layinan's Reply to Dr. Pond, Chap. x. p. 154. These moment

| points the most tender to every Christian,

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Socinian ;' get stated further, that he did the Soul and the Body, which he designed

not know Assessor Swedenborg's religious to give to the world in the French capisystem, and should take no pains to come at tal. He had spoken well in his theological the knowledge of it. As for Swedenborg's works of the noble French pation,' had chief works, he did not possess them, and taken care to communicate his works to public had neither read nor seen them. • Is not bodies and select individuals in France, where this,' says Swedenborg in reply, “ to be blind also they had been in considerable request, in the forehead, and to have eyes behind, and now he desired to issue something from and even those covered with a film? To the French press. It is probable that had his sce and decide upon writings in such a man- present plan succeeded, he intended also to ner, can any secular or ecclesiastical judge publish in Paris that great summary of his regard otherwise than as criminal ?' For doctrines which he was then about to write, che rest our author's reply consisted in a cita- and which was his last performance. tion of some of the leading doctrines in his 353. “ Arrived in Paris he submitted his works, those particularly on the divine trinity, tract to M. Chevreuil, Censor Royal and Docthe holiness of Scripture, the unity of charity tor of the Sorbonne, who after having read it, and faith, and the direction of faith towards informed him that a tacit permission to publish one person, namely, our Savior Jesus Christ; would be granted him, on condition, as was and he denied that his doctrine was heretical customary in such cases,' that the title should according to judgments pronounced by the say, 'printed at London,' or 'at Amsterchief ecclesiastical bodies in Sweden. “Re- dam.' Swedenborg would not consent to this, specting the other point,' says our author, and the work therefore was not printed at • namely, the charging those doctrines with Paris. Hereupon a calumnious letter was Socinianism, the same is a horrid blasphemy circulated in Gottenburg, which alleged that and untruth; forasmuch as Socinianism signifies he had been ordered to quit Paris, which he a negation of the divinity of our Lord Jesus denied as “a direct falsehood,' and appealed Christ, when, in fact, His divinity, in this for the truth of the case to M. Creutz, the doctrine of the New Church is principally Swedish ambassador to France. confirmed and proved, and that the Savior 354. “Rumor has been busy with him upon has so fully completed the reconciliation and this journey. The French Biographie Uniredemption of man, that without his coming verselle connects him with an artist named no man could have been saved, see Apoc. Rev. Elie, who it is alleged supplied him with 67, and in many other places; in consequence money, and furthered his presumed designs. whereof, I consider the word Socinian to be a Indeed he has been accused of a league with scoffing and a diabolical reviling. This, with the illuminés, and with a certain politico-theothe rest of the Doctor's “ Reflections,” may be logical free masonry, centuries old but always considered in the same sense as “the food invisible, which was to overturn society, and which the dragon cast out of his mouth after foster revolutions all over the world. We the woman, that he might cause her to be can only say, that our researches have not swallowed up by the flood, during the time elicited these particulars, and that every authat she was yet in the wilderness” (Apoc.thentic document shows that Swedenborg stood xii. 15). And it may come to pass that the always upon his own basis, accepted money froin same which is mentioned in verse 17, may no one, and was just what he appeared likewise take place : “And the dragon was theological missionary, and nothing more. wroth with the woman, and went to make war Still as there is generally a grain of truth in with the remnant of her seed, who kept the even the most preposterous lies, we shall be commandments of God, and have the testi- glad to look out in this direction for biographmony of Jesus Christ.” The tenor of Scrip-ical materials. Whatever else they be, they ture, the Apostolic Creed, and whatever was shall at least be welcome. not self-contradictory in the orthodoxy of the 355. “In the autumn of this year (1769), churches, he claimed to have upon his own Swedenborg had left Paris, and was in London, side. He requested of Dr. Beyer that his where he published his little brochure on The reply might be communicated to the bishop Intercourse between the Soul and the Body. and the Consistory, and intended afterwards It was during this sojourn of two or three to publish both sides, and possibly to found an months that the most intimate of his English action at law upon the proceedings, unless the friends, Dr. Hartley, Rector of Winwick, in dean should retract his scandal.

Northamptonshire, drew from him a short ac352. “ At the end of May or the beginning count of himself, as a means of refuting any of June, Swedenborg left Amsterdam, en route calumnies that might be promulgated after his for Paris, ' with a design, as he said, ' which departure. Dr. Hartley had thought that beforehand must not be made public.' It ap- Swedenborg was hardly safe in his own country, bears from this that he anticipated some diffi- and that possibly he was pressed for money. culty with regard to the object of bis mission. In course of this mild and modest document, This was no other than the publication of an- Swedenborg set him right on these topics. other little work, viz., The Intercourse between • I live,' says he, ‘on terms of familiarity


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and friendship with all the bishops of my comparison between them. The Catholic country, who are ten in number; as also with doctrinals are excerpted from the records of the sixteen senators, and the rest of the nobil- the Council of Trent; the Protestant, from ity; for they know that I am in fellowship the Formula Concordiæ composed by persons with angels. The king and queen also, and attached to the Augsburg Confession. These the three princes their sons, show me much churches indeed dissent upon various points, favor: I was once invited by the king and but are agreed as to the fundamentals, of a queen to dine at their table an honor which trinity of persons, of original sin, of the imis in general granted only to the nobility of putation of Christ's merits, and of justification the highest rank; and likewise, since, with by faith alone. Respecting the latter tenet, the hereditary prince. They all wish for my however, the Catholics conjoin the faith with return home: so far am I from being in any dan- charity or good works, while the leading Reger of persecution in my own country, as you formers, in order to effect a full severance seem to apprehend, and so kindly wish to pro- from the Romish communion as to the very vide against; and should any thing of the kind essentials of the church which are faith and befall me elsewhere, it cannot hurt me. charity, separated between the two. NeverI am a Fellow, by invitation, of the Royal theless the Reformers adjoin good works, and Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, but I even conjoin them to their faith, but in man never sought admission into any other literary as a passive subject, whereas the Roman society, as I belong to an angelic society, Catholics conjoin them in man as an active wherein things relating to heaven and the subject. The whole system of theology in soul are the only subjects of discourse and Christendom is founded upon an idea of three entertainment, whereas the things that occupy Gods, arising from the doctrine of a trinity the attention of our literary societies are such of persons, and falls when that doctrine is reas relate to the world and the body. jected, after which saving faith is possible. As to this world's wealth, I have what is suf-The faith of the present day has separated ficient, and more I neither seek nor wish for.' religion from the church, since religion con

356. “We presume that Swedenborg lodged sists in the acknowledgment of one God, and in with Shearsmith in Cold Bath Fields during the worship of Him from faith grounded in this short sojourn in London.

charity. The doctrine of the present church 357. “On his departure from England, he is interwoven with paradoxes, to be embraced had requested his friend, Dr. Messiter, to by faith; hence its tenets gain admission into transmit certain of his works to the Divinity the meinory only, and into no part of the unProfessors of the Universities of Edinburgh, derstanding above the memory, but merely Glasgow, and Aberdeen, and the letters which into confirmations below it. They cannot be passed upon this occasion furnish a testimony learned, or retained, without difficulty, nor be to his personal character from one who knew preached or taught without using great care him well. Dr. Hartley, Dr. Messiter (M. D.), to conceal their nakedness, because sound and Dr. Hampè, who was preceptor to George reason neither discerns nor perceives them. I., were his chief English friends.

They ascribe to God human properties in the 358. “In September he quitted London, worst sense of the term. The heresies of all and returned to Stockholm, arriving in the ages have sprung from the doctrine founded latter capital at the beginning of October. on the idea of three Gods. This has desoOn his arrival he was kindly received by all lated the church, and brought it to its conclasses of people, and at once invited by their summation. The Catholic laity, however, royal highnesses the hereditary prince and his have for the most part ceased to know any sister, with both of whom he conversed. He thing of the essential doctrinals of their also dined with several of the senators, and church, these being lost for them in the nutalked with the first members of the Diet, and merous formalities of that religion, and hence, with the bishops there present, who all be- if they recede in part from their outward haved very kindly to him, excepting his forms, and approach God the Savior immedinephew, Bishop Filenius. A storm, however, ately, taking the Sacrament in both kinds, had been brewing during his absence, and he they may be brought into the New Church now had to meet it. Dr. Hartley's fears were more easily than the Reformed communities. justified by the facts, though not by the ulti- 360. “ These are a few of the propositions mate event. But before we turn to this new of this little treatise, which for its destructive page of his life, we must give some account logic, is unequalled among Swedenborg's of the works, that he had just published abroad. works. If rational assault could have carried

359. “The Brief Exposition is the forerunner the outworks of the existing creeds, this of the True Christian Religion, to be noticed work would have had the effect ; and Swepresently. It is a criticism on the doctrines denborg would have been justified in his of the Catholic and Protestant churches, from hope, that the errors of the churches might the point of view of the New Church. The be extirpated' by a book. But an error author premises a statement of the doctrinal whose first condition lies in the prostration of views of the three churches, for the sake of the understanding, is good, so far, against


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