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imagination and memory; also of the affections of land the third, long prior to his time; but he the animus. Of the intellect, that is, of thought shows that it was never delineated after such a and of the will; and of the affections of the ration- manner, nor in any way that could convey a al mind : also, of instinct.

"Lastly, of the Soul; and of its state in the precise idea respecting it; much less was imBody, its intercourse, affection, and immortality; plied the existence of the Foramen he describes. and of its state when the body dies. The work to

The channel of communication seemed to conclude with a Concordance of Systems.”

be referred, chiefly, to the posterior part of 132. This design, be it observed, was not

the lateral ventricles, whilst the Foramen of laid out in nubibus and built up there like the Monro, is situated at their anterior part,

Now in the Regnum Animale, p. 207, note magnificent philosophy of Coleridge, but, for the most part, was actually realized in the () the following striking observation occurs : course of a few years. The first part of the

“ The communicating Foramina in the Cerework, treating of the Abdominal Viscera; the brum are called Anus and Vulva, Besides the second part, treating of the Thoracic Viscera; passage or emissary canal of the lymph ; by and the third part, treating of the skin, the these the lateral ventricles communicate with senses of touch and taste, and organic forms each other, and with the third ventricle.” generally, - by way of introduction to the su

This work was printed in the year 1714-15;

but written, as we have reason to think, two perior region, — were published in 1744 and 1745. Many of the remaining subjects were or three years before its publication : hence also prepared for the press, and, the manu

the foramen here spoken of must have been scripts having been carefully preserved, are

described by Swedenborg from ten to twelve now in the course of publication. The cir- years prior to the earliest notice taken of it by

Dr. Monro. cumstance which occasioned the author to

135. We confess, however, to the justice abandon these labors, was the opening of his spiritual sight, of which we shall speak in the of a remark by Wilkinson on this subject. next chapter.

“ Swedenborg is not to be resorted to as an 133. From the above summary of the plan authority for anatomical facts

. It is said, inof Swedenborg's labors

, it is easy to see the deed, that he has made various discoveries in goal towards which the great philosopher was anatomy, and the canal named the “foramen

of Monro’ is instanced among these. tending


posing that it were so, it would be disbonoring “ When my task is accomplished,” he says, “I Swedenborg to lay any stress upon a circumam then admitted by common consent to the soul, stance so trivial. "Whoever discovered this fowho sitting like a queen in her throne of state, the body, dispenses laws, and governs all things by ramen was most probably led to it by the lucky her good pleasure, but yet by order and by truth. slip of a probe. But other claims are made This will be the crown of my toils, when I shall for our author by his injudicious friends. It have completed my course in this most spacious is said that he anticipated some of the most

But in olden time, before any racer could valuable novelties of more recent date, such as merit the crown, he was commanded to run seven the phrenological doctrine of the great Gall, times round the goal, which also I have deter- and the newly-practised art of animal magmined here to do."

netism. This is not quite fair: let every 134. Those who are skilled in anatomy and benefactor to mankind have his own honorahave read his Economia Regni Animalis, ble wreath, nor let one leaf be stolen from it state, that Swedenborg was familiar with many for the already laurelled brow of Swedenborg. truths in anatomy, which were unknown to True it is that all these things, and many other learned men of his day. A passage of more, lie in ovo in the universal principles communication between the right and left, or made known to him, but they were not develtwo lateral ventricles of the cerebrum, was oped by him in that order which constitutes thought to have been first discovered by a all their novelty, and in fact their distinct celebrated anatomist of Edinburgh. But this existence.” is a mistake.

136. Swedenborg's object was not to astonThe first discovery and description of this ish the world by discoveries in natural science ; passage was claimed by the celebrated anato- hence no pains were taken to give circulation mist, Dr. Alexander Monro, of Edinburgh, and to his discoveries. He affirms with the most has since been conceded to him by succeeding characteristic innocence, that "he knows he anatomists: hence it goes by the denomination shall have the reader's ear, if the latter be only of the Foramen of Monro. Dr. Monro read a persuaded that his end is God's glory and the paper before the Philosophical Society of public good, and not his own gain or praise.” Edinburgh, on this subject, December 13th, 137. Again, at the close of the Principia, 1764; but in his work entitled, “ Observations he says:on the Structure and Functions of the Nervous System,' he says that he demonstrated this Fo

“ In writing the present work, I have had no ramen to his pupils so early as the year 1753. the acquisition of a name or popularity: To me it

aim at the applause of the learned world, nor at He allows that a communication was known is a matter of indifference whether I win the favorand asserted to exist between those ventricles able opinion of every one or of no one, whether I



gain much or no commendation ; such things are 140. With this admirable spirit, and with not objects of regard to one whose mind is bent on talents only equalled by their modesty and untruth and true philosophy; should I, therefore, I selfishness, our author produced, in his fifty; . gain the assent or approbation of others, I shall fifth and fifty-seventh years, the “ Animal receive it only as a confirmation of my having pursued the truth. I have no wish to persuade any Kingdom.” There is in it, the clearness of the one to lay aside the principles of those illustrious faultless logician; the utmost severity of the and talented authors who have adorned the world, inductive reasoner; the order of the consumand in place of their principles to adopt mine : for mate philosophical architect ; the beauty, freethis reason it is that I have not made mention of dom, and universal cordiality of the mighty so much as of one of them, or even hinted at poet; the strength of a giant, and the playfulhis name, lest I should injure his feelings, or seem to impugn his sentiments, or to derogate from ness of a child. Never was the path of the praise which others bestow upon him. If the science so aspiring, or strewn with such lovely principles I have advanced have more of truth in and legitimate flowers, as in these two asthem than those which are advocated by others; tounding volumes. But praise is a needless if they are truly philosophical and accordant with tribute of their goodness; they point only to the phenomena of nature, the assent of the public applications and works, and beseech us, not to will follow in due time of its own accord; and in stand long in the stupefaction of amazement, this case, should I fail to gain the assent of those but to gather up our energies, and summon whose minds, being prepossessed by other principles, can no longer exercise an impartial judgment, our understanding, for whatever the arts and still I shall have those with me who are able to sciences have yet to contribute to the true addistinguish the true from the untrue, if not in the vancement of our race. Those only follow present, at least in some future age. Truth is their spirit, who are actively endeavoring to unique, and will speak for itself.”

extend their principles in new fields, unex138. Again, he observes in the Economy: plored even by the renowned author himself. Of what consequence is it to me that I should

141. The doctrines made use of by Swepersuade any one to embrace my opinions ? denborg in the "Animal Kingdom," are the Let his own reason persuade him. I do not Doctrines of Forms, of Order and Degrees, undertake this work for the sake of honor or of Series and Society, of Influx, of Correemolument; both of which I shun rather than spondence and Representation, and of Modifiseek, because they disquiet the mind, and be- cation. These doctrines themselves are truths cause I am content with my lot: but for the arrived at by analysis, proceeding on the basis sake of the truth, which alone is immortal, of general experience; in short, they are so and has its portion in the most perfect order many formulas resulting from the evolution of nature; hence in the series of the ends of of the sciences. They are perpetually illusthe universe from the first to the last, or to trated and elucidated throughout the “ Animal the glory of God; which ends he promotes : Kingdom,” but never stated by Swedenborg thus I surely know who it is that must reward in the form of pure science, perhaps because me.” Of his sincerity in these declarations, it would have been contrary to the analytic the repose which pervades his books, and the method to have so stated them, before the hearty pursuit of his subject at all times, bear reader had been carried up through the legitiincontestable witness.

mate stages, beginning from experience, or the 139. The absence of his laurels never lowest sphere. Each effect is put through troubled him, he was not afraid of pillage or all these doctrines, order that it may displagiarism, there was none of the fire of com-close the causes that enter it in succession, petition in him, he was never soured by neg. that it may refer itself to its roots and be lect, or disheartened by want of sympathy. raised to its powers, and be seen in connection, It is, however, remarkable how entirely the contiguity, continuity, and analogy with all foregoing works were unknown even to those other things in the same universe.* who knew him best personally. His intimate 142. One of the most important discoveries friend Count Höpken says, that “he made in the “ Animal Kingdom,” is that the lungs surprising discoveries in anatomy, which are supply the body and all its parts with motion, recorded somewhere iu certain literary transac- This is a discovery, not less wonderful in its tions,” evidently in complete ignorance of the consequences, than in its simplicity and obvigreat works that he had published, and more-ous truth. If the reader can once succeed in over ill informed upon the subject of the apprehending it, there will be no danger of 6 Transactions.” And yet Swedenborg was his letting it go again even among the perilnot mistaken in his estimate of his own ous quicksands of modern experience. It is powers, or in the belief that posterity had one of those truths that rest upon facts within work and interest in store in writings that, the range of the most ordinary observation, at the time, were utterly neglected. The his- and require but little anatomical investigation tory of literature is eloquent upon the fate to confirm and demonstrate them. It is visible of those who were before their age, and that in its ultimate effects during every action that fate was never more decisive for any man, or we perform and at every moment of our lives. more cheerfully acquiesced in by any, than

By a universo, Swedenborg appears to mean any completo Swedenborg

serios as referable to its unities.



Perhaps there is nothing in the history of tracts differently, according to the predicates physical science that is more illustrative of just mentioned; the intestines, for instance, the native ignorance of the mind, or that bet- from articulation to articulation, to and fro; ter shows how far we have departed from the the kidneys, from their circumference to their simplicity of nature, than the manner in which sinuosity or bilus, and vice versa, the neighthis grand office of the lungs has been over- borhood of their pelvis being their most quiet looked; particularly when coupled with the station and centre of motion: and so forth. fact, that it should have required a great and In a word, the expansion as a force assumes peculiarly instructed genius, by an elaborate the whole form of the structure of each organ. process, to place it once again under our men- In all cases the motion is synchronous in tal vision. But nature is simple and easy ; it times and moments with the respiration of the is man that is difficult and perplexed. Not lungs. The fluids in the organs follow the only in the lungs, but in the whole body, the path of the expansion and contraction, and primary office is disregarded, and the second. tend to the centre of motion, from which these ary substituted for it. It has been supposed motions begin, to which they return, and in that the lungs inspire simply to communicate which they terminate. The lungs, however, certain elements of the air to the blood ; and only supply the external moving life of the expire for no other end than to throw out by body; but were it not for them, the whole means of the returning air certain impurities organism would simply exist in potency, or from the blood. Under this view, their mo- more properly speaking, would cease to be; tion is only of use for other things, or instru- or were it permeated by the blood of the mentally, and not as a thing in itself, or prin- heart, a condition which can by no means cipally. And yet it is not confined to the be granted, — the latter would rule unconsphere in which these secondary offices of the trolled in all the members, subjugate their inlungs are performed, but pervades the abdo- dividualities, and not excite them to exercise men as sensibly as the chest, and according to any of the peculiar forces of which they are the showing of the experimentalists, extends the forms. "In a word, the whole man would also to the heart, the spinal marrow, and the be permanently in the fetal state, forever inhead. It was therefore incumbent on the choate and ineffective. physiologist to show what its function was in 143. There is no part of Swedenborg's sysall the regions where it was present, and to tem which is better worthy of attention than declare its action as a universal cause, as well the doctrine of the skin. As the skin is the as its action as a particular cause. Now the continent and ultimate of the whole system, motion itself which the lungs originate is their so all the forms, forces and uses of the interigrand product to the system ; the inspiration or parts coexist within it. Moreover as it is and expiration of the air are but one part of the extreme of the body, and the contact of its necessary accompaniments, being performed extremes, or circulation, is a perpetual law of in the chest alone. Granting that the inspi- nature, so from the skin a return is made to ration and expiration of the air are the partic- the other extreme, namely, to the cortical ular use of this motion in the chest, what then substances of the brain. Hence the first is the use of the rising and falling which the function of the skin is, “ to serve as a new lungs communicate to the abdomen, the heart, source of fibres.” For the fibres of one exthe spinal marrow, and the brain? What office, treme, to wit, the brain, also called by Sweanalogous to respiration, does the motion of denborg the fibres of the soul, could not of these parts communicate to the organs? It themselves complete the formation of the body, manifestly causes them all to respire, or to but could only supply its active grounds; and attract the various materials of their uses, as therefore these fibres proceed outwards to the the lungs attract the air. For respiration is skin, which is the most general sensorial expredicable of the whole system as well as nu-panse of the brain, and there generate the trition : otherwise the head would not be the papillæ ; and again emerging from the papillæ, head of the chest, nor the abdomen the abdo- and convoluted into a minute canal or pore, men of the chest ; but the human body would they take a new nature and name from their be as disconnected, and as easily dissipated, new beginning, and become the corporeal fibres, as the systems that have been formed respect- or the fibres of the body, which proceed from ing it. The universal use, therefore, of the without inwards to the brain, and unite themrespiratory motion to the body, is, to rouse selves to its cortical substances. These are every organ to the performance of its func- the passives of which the nervous fibres are tions by an external tractive force exerted the actives ; the veins or female forces of upon its common membranes; and by causing which the nervous fibres are the arteries or the gentle expansion of the whole mass, to males ; and “they suck in the purer elementenable the organ, according to its particular al food from the air and ether, convey it to fabric, situation, and connection, to respire or their terminations, and expend it upon the attract such blood or fluid, and in such quan- uses of life.” tity, as its uses and wants require, and only 144. Besides this, the skin has a series of such. Each organ, however, expands or con- other functions which there is not space to


dwell upon at present. Inasmuch as it is the but a few lines to each detail of his excessive most general covering of the body, therefore fruitfulness. Suffice it to say, that there is no it communicates by a wonderful continuity inquirer into the human body, either for the with all the particular coverings of the viscera purposes of medical or general intelligence, and organs, and of their parts, and parts of above all, there is no philosophical anatomist, parts. And as it communicates with all by who has done justice to himself, unless he has continuity of structure, so it also communi- humbly read and studied — not turned over cates by continuity of function; the whole and conceitedly dismissed – the Economy and body being therefore one grand sensorium of Animal Kingdom of Swedenborg. These the sense of touch. In short, the animal spirit works of course are past as records of anatomis the most universal and singular essence of ical fact, but in general facts, that are bigger the body and all its parts ; the skin, the most than anatomy, they have not been excelled, general and particular form corresponding to and none but a mean pride of science, or an that essence.

inaptitude for high reasons, would deter the 145. The professional reader of the “Animal inquirer from the light he may here acquire, Kingdom” will not fail to discover that the in spite of meeting a few obsolete notions, or author has fallen into various anatomical errors a few hundreds of incomplete experiments. of minor importance, and that there are occa- 148. In this connection we extract from the sionally marks of haste in his performance. London “ Forceps” for Nov., 1844, the followThis may be conceded without in any degree ing summary view of the “Animal Kingdom.” detracting from the character of the work.

- This is the most remarkable theory of the huThese errors do not involve matters of prin- man body that has ever fallen into our hands; and ciple. The course which Swedenborg adopt- by Emanuel Swedenborg, too! a man whom we ed, of founding his theory upon general expe- had always been taught to regard as either a fool, rience, and of only resorting to particular a madman, or an impostor, or perhaps an undefinafacts as confirmations, so equilibrates and ble compound of all the three. Wonders, it seems,

never will cease, and therefore it were better compensates all misstatements of the kind, henceforth to look out for them, and accept them that they may be rejected from the result as whenever they present themselves, and make them unimportant. To dwell upon them as serious, into ordinary things in that way. For thereby we and still more to make the merit of the theory may be saved froin making wonderful asses of hinge upon them, is worthy only of a “minute ourselves and our craft, for enlightened posterity philosopher," who has some low rule whereby to laugh at. io judge a truth, instead of the law of use.

“ To return to our book, we can honestly assure Such unhappily was the rule adopted by the to do in all cases), that we have carefully read

our readers (which is more than it would be safe reviewer of the “ Animal Kingdom” in the through both volumes of it, bulky though they be, * Acta Eruditorum Lipsiensia” (1747, pp. and have gained much philosophical insight from 507–514): the book was despised by this it into the chains of ends and causes that govern critic because Swedenborg had committed an in the human organism. What has the world error in describing the muscles of the tongue, been doing for the past century, to let this great and because he had cited the plates of Bidloo system slumber on the shelf, and to run after a and Verheyen, which Heister and Morgagni

host of little bluebottles of hypotheses which were had then made it a fashion to disparage ; and a single season? It is clear that it yet knows

never framed to live for more than a short part of for other equally inconclusive reasons. All nothing of its greatest men.' The fact is, it has they amounted to was, that Swedenborg had been making money, or trying to make it, and not accomplished the reviewer's end, however grubbing after worthless reputation, until it has thoroughly he had performed his own. lost its eyesight for the stars of heaven and the 146. But fortunately such criticisms are never

sun that is shining above it. decisive ; a single truth can outlive ten thou- the widest thing of the kind which medical litera

“ Emanuel Swedenborg's doctrine is altogether sand of them. The “ Animal Kingdom” ap- ture affords, and cast into an artistical shape of peals to the world at this time, a hundred consummate beauty. Under the rich drapery of years since the publication of the original, as ornament which diversifies his pages, there runs a a new production, having all the claims of an framework of the truest reasoning. The book is unjudged book upon our regards. For during a perfect mine of principles, far exceeding in inthat bundred years not a single writer has ap- finest efforts of Lord Bacon's genius. It treats of

tellectual wealth, and surpassing in elevation, the peared in the learned world, who has in the the loftiest subjects without abstruseness, being slightest degree comprehended its design, or all ultimately referable to the common sense of mastered its principles and details. · Intro- mankind. Unlike the German transcendentalists, ductory Remarks to the Animal Kingdom, by this gifted Swede fulfils both the requisites of the J. J. G. Wilkinson.

true philosopher; he is one “to whom the lowest 147. In stating, however, any one point as things ascend, and the highest descend, who is the remarkable in such a genius, we are in danger equal and kindly brother of all.'. There is no of having it understood that his clains in this trifling about him, but he sets forth his opinions,

irrespective of controversy, with :1 plainness of respect can be enumerated by any critic or affirmation which cannot be mistaken; and in such, biographer. On the contrary, we should have close and direct terms, that to give a full idea of w write a volume were we barely to devote bis system in other words would require ihat we

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lesser men should write larger volumes than his

Miscellaneous Works, Their Character and

Tendency “ The plan of the work is this : Swedenborg first gives extracts from the greatest anatoinists

150. Swedenborg, however, fulfilled but a of his own and former times, such as Malpighi, portion of his plan, being led to something Leuwenhock, Morgagni, Swammerdam, Heister, better than the direct reconstruction of the Winslow, &c., &c., so that these volumes contain sciences ; to something, from which that event a body of old anatomy (translated now into close will hereafter issue with a divine certitude of English) such as cannot be met with in this shape success ; but still, it is satisfactory to know, elsewhere. He then gives his own unencumbered that his manuscripts give an outline of his deductions from this experience,' under the heading analysis.' Each organ of the thorax and views on all the subjects of which he intended abdomen in this way has a twofold chapter allot- to treat. Thus, we have a continuation of the ted to its consideration, which chapter is a com- Chemical Specimens ; of the Animal King-, plete little essay, or we may say, epic, upon the dom, two treatises On the Brain, forming tosubject. The philosophical unity of the work is gether 1900 pages; a treatise on Generation astonishing, and serves to unlock the most abstruse two treatises on the Ear, and the sense of organs, such as the spleen, thymus gland, supra- Hearing; one On the Human Mind, involvrenal capsules, and other parts upon which Swedenborg has dilated with an analytic efficacy which ing the Five Senses, and the various faculties, the moderns have not even approached ; and of both concrete and abstract, the human loves which the ancients afforded scarcely an indication. and passions, and whatever follows therefrom; Upon these more mysterious organs, we think his a treatise on Common Salt; a tract on the views most suggestive and valuable, and worthy rise and fall of Lake Wenner, with a sketch of the whole attention of the better minds of the of the Cataracts of the river Gotha Elf; medical profession. .Of the doctrine of series, also several others on a variety of subjects, since called by the less appropriate term, 'homology,' he has afforded the most singular illustra- all of which clearly indicate the author's retions, not confining himself to the law of series searches and corresponding versatility of powin the solids, but boldly pushing it into the domain ers; and will make about 30 volumes, octavo. of the fluids, and this with an energy of purpose, 151. The treatise on Generation, above aland a strength of conception and execution, such luded to, has recently been translated into Engas is rarely shown by any nine men in these de- lish, by J. J. G. Wilkinson. It bears the folgenerate days.' We opened this book with sur

• The Generative Organs, eonprise, a surprise grounded upon the name and fame

lowing title:of the author, and upon the daring affirmative stand sidered Anatomically, Physically, and Philowhich he takes in limine ; we close it with a deep- sophically.” It is in two parts. Part I. laid wonder, and with an anxious wish that it may treats of The Male Generative Organs ; not appeal in vain to a profession which may gain Part II. treats of The Female Generative so much, both morally, intellectually, and scien- Organs. tifically, from the priceless truths contained it its

In the Advertisement to this Work, the pages."

Translator says:

“ The work, as it stands, 149. These are among the great works that is a worthy integrant part of that extraordirevolutionize our consciousness, and engender nary series of works, which, more than a cennew wants, and a new mind, in the human tury ago, appeared in Latin, and which, withsoul; and yet, it is surprising how little the in the last ten years, has been coming forth author was controversial, or directly critical ; in the English tongue. What its precise with the exception of his Fragment on Leib- merits may be, we will not prejudge; that is a nitz, he scarcely wages formal battle with an- question which belongs to the future. We other writer ; neither scolding science for its see in it great intuitions of order, with a most servility, nor metaphysical philosophy for its ingenious application to details : much that is artful obscurations, he supplies elevated truths as new to the human mind now, as when the on the stage of his own mind, and leaves them manuscript was written. We see in it also to gain their prevalence, without a syllable a constant amalgam of physics and metaof literary recommendation : a safe and the physics, like what there is in the human body only course ; for these principles inhabit a itself ; but which we do not know where to region, where they have no opponents ; where find in any author but Swedenborg. And old falsities are clean out of their senses, and moreover we recognize in it, an affinity to without being aware of the consequences of Man, an addiction to central truths and printhe admission, confess to seeing nothing at all. ciples, which is too absent from the corre But the medical bearing of these works, and sponding works of this age. Yet we own that their intimation of new principles and practices it is worth but little as a handbook for the to the healing art, render them of great kind of information now sought in the medivalue to the Profession and to the world. cal schools. In truth, the work is non-mediThe author shows, as no one else has con-cal: it is one of those productions, which ceived to do, how the whole corporeal system. must exist more and more in all departments, is a manifold organ of appropriation, exqui- and which are designed to promote a nonsitely responsive, in its several parts, to the professional, public, or universal view of the influences of the circumambient universe ; and matters in hand. Science, in its universals, is therefore, depending on cosmical and local cir- no tradesman, and works not for the improvecumstances for a vast supply of causes. ment of any calling; but solely because truth


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