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themes and the song of songs for the progeny it longs for a heart of work in Swedenborg's of Adam. This was the end of the earliest revelations ; it desires to be certified that invoyages, and the last heroism of the ancient dustry is divine and immortal ; that the week heroes. For this Ulysses, emancipated from days preponderate in heaven; that beyond Circe, after so many mortal wanderings, visit the grave the useless classes are vile ; that the ed the shadowland of those dim times, where angels, like good artisans, eat because they yet immortal justice reigned, and gathered the labor.' Luxurious ease, bodiless cherubs, sky perpetuation of human passions in the stern floatings, everlasting prayers or anthems, are gait of Ajax, and from sorrowful words from an offence to the great God of the six days' the great Achilles. For this he brought back work, and Swedenborg, a working man, has the hieroglyphics of the spirit, in the waters brought us the tidings. The horny hand of of Tantalus, the wheel of Ixion, and the sieve the day springs opening to the
messenger. of Danaidæ. For this Æneas, Sibyl-instruct- 492. “ There is however a Sabbath in both ed, descended to Avernus, and through the the worlds - a day with a sacred number — a land beyond sleep and death, still found im- workday of the religious. And does not reperishable mankind, and present with his an- ligion coalesce with Swedenborg's informacestral spirits in their tide of prophecy, beheld tions? I marvel how any Christian man can the line of Roman glories issuing from the deride revelations in the abstract; how he closed race of Troy. O! depth and breadth can deem that the day of wonders is past, unand length unending of the life of our fore- less God be past; how he dares use phrases fathers! From Virgil to Dante the arch of against Swedenborg, which applied more widelight again sits upon the spiritual world ; earth ly would shatter his Bible from his hands. has no top but the poet-seer on which the Let infidelity be consistent in tearing away all eternal curve will lean. The Christian Hades revelations, let it number and compaginate vaults back to the heathen through the stern the graveyards of nature, and assiduously bind Italian song; Dante and Virgil are fellow-up the book of death ; but let Christianity be travellers, all but through heaven where Christ equally true to itself, and look for Christianity alone can reign. From Dante to Shakspeare every where, for life and revelations every and to Milton is the next gird of the baser where. Even heathenism glitters with a starflood. In Macbeth and Hamlet, the poet of light of immortality. But immortality and civilization links the worlds afresh, by the in- the spirit land lie in golden lakes in the Word troduction of an infernal band of ambition in of God: they wait to be explored by human the one case, by a reappearance of the dead adventure and experience. The Prophets in the other; if nothing more, he gives his and the Apocalypse are proof and countermighty vote for the supernatural life. The proof to Swedenborg's narrations : the visions Paradise Lost is all seership; imagination of John walk the waters with his; the nineshows again that there is no play room for the teenth century begins in him to reap the harhighest efforts but the spiritual world. The vest of supernatural intercourse of which personages, professedly superhuman, are hu- Christ Himself sowed the seeds in the first. man after all. Milton, who stamped the tra- All religion in its spiritual day, in its own ditions of his church with the gold mark of his archives, and in its first founders, stretches out. own genius, and who proves how much can be the free right hand of fellowship to this last attempted, and how little can be done with the seer. And here we conclude our examination Protestant imagination, at all events completed of witnesses to the character of Swedenborg's a poetic cycle of affirmations of the spiritual revelations. world. Not one high tuneful voice is absent 493. “ Are they final, or do we look for from our list; the morning stars of song' another? A rational revelation, we reply, is are strictly choral there. The lower world, the first step to a more rational: a religion well pleased, sees them all attempt what Swe- given up to the human mind is a progressive denborg accomplished. Yet while he mounts religion. A seer whose intellect is in his above them, it is not by a greater genius, but eyes, will be succeeded by other seers with by finer harmony of character and circum- better optics because greater intellects. Sights stance with God, leading to an appreciation more improbable ever await to be uncurtained. by the húmblest of realms unascended by It is God's truth that eye hath not seen, nor song, and to a conjunction of this world's busi- car heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of ness with similar but sublimer industry in the man to conceive those things which God hath spiritual heavens.
prepared for them that love him. This truth 491. “ For politics and morals are pene- is always ascending to God who gave it. The trated by the same spirit. The associative better heaven is known, the more it recedes temper of the epoch runs molten from that into that uncomprehended love. The seeing other world where the union of the race is eye disturbs not the unseen : the hearing ear closer knit than on this disunited earth. The lists not the song of songs; the heart's concepspirit of work lifting the arm with strokes in- tions are beggared by simple truth; and man, cessant as the steam engine's, lives from a athwart all revelations must wait upon his faith in work as the last comfort of mankind ; God.” Wilkinson's Biography, pp. 255-270.
494. It now remains for us to pass judg-would reveal to us clearly the meaning of his ment upon such a phenomenon as is present. Word? Now, we most broadly and distinctly ed to us in this Life of Swedenborg. What assert, that the whole of the Theological will the world say of it? To our apprehen- writings of Swedenborg have the tendency to sion, the Divine Providence is nowhere more prove that he was commissioned by the Lord conspicuous than in raising up, at such a time, to reveal the true nature of the Gospel to such a man. Let it ever be borne in mind mankind, through the unfolding of its spiritu
. that Swedenborg made his appearance at a al sense, and to declare the true nature of that time a little preceding that memorable event future state to which we are all hastening.” designated by him as the Last Judgment, 495. The appearance of Swedenborg at which, he affirms, took place in the spiritual such a time, unfolding such truths, so calm, so world in 1757. So that he was in the vigor deep, so perfectly possessed and assured, while and full glow of his successful life, at a little dealing with such eternal and momentous before, at the time of, and several years after, realities, can be no otherwise regarded than this eventful transaction which so changed as a most distinguished providence to a needy the condition of the church and world, and by and benighted world. Like the northern light which the doctrines of the New Jerusalem of his own country, sending its luminous rays could be given to mankind. How marked high up into the atmosphere of its winter cold and fitting a time, for the existence of such a and darkness, so has this Seer and Philosoman! It was then that a host of evils and pher of the latter ages made his appearance, falses were cleared away from the world of with the higher light of a divinely illuminated spirits, which had been gathering for ages, and understanding, piercing into and scattering which had so obstructed the influx of good and the darkness of centuries. truth from the heavens, that but little of the 496. And now, in view of all, considering pure doctrine of Christianity could at all make the wonderful character of the day in which its way into the world; and the same may be we live, especially in reference to the breaksaid of natural truth, in the various depart-ing up of old theologies — the downfall of ments of science and philosophy. And if any sectarianism - the freedom of the human one would perceive the cause of the wonder- mind in so many departments of knowledge ful advances of natural science and philoso- which have heretofore been barred and boltphy during the last century, let him look for it ed against all rational investigation, by the in the Last Judgment, which occurred in the church's tyranny and the prevailing ignorance spiritual world at about the time of the com- - and the very evident commencement of a mencement of this increase of light. Sweden- new spiritual era for mankind; in view of all borg, among the rest, came at this time. this, we cannot fail to have the most intense Here is Providence, strongly marked, which interest in the precise meaning which Swedenadapts the men to the ages. " It is also a borg embodied in his remark to Dr. Oetinger, remarkable circumstance, and should be an before quoted, in respect to what further sign instructive one, that when the doctrines of the might be given, in proof of his divine mission New Jerusalem were to be given to men, they and truthfulness. “ The sign given at this were revealed through the agency of one who day, (says Swedenborg) will be an illustration, stood by common consent in the first rank of and thence a knowledge and reception of the the learned men of his age.” But let it ever truths of the New Church. Some speaking be remembered that it is not as the promulgator illustration of certain persons may likewise of a new revelation, or the preacher of a new take place; this works more effectưally than gospel, that the claim is made for Swedenborg. miracles. Yet one token may perhaps still be
. * His office was to open the eyes of mankind given.” It is well understood from what is to the glories of the old one. And is this an believed to be a report of some private conoffice, or are these advantages, which we are versation, that Swedenborg remarked, that in justified in denying without examination? Is about one hundred years from his day, (we the world so well acquainted with the mean- do not know precisely what year to date from) ing of divine revelation, that no further in the principles and truths which he was instrustruction is necessary ? Dr. Adam Clarke, mental in teaching, would to a good extent speaking of the revelation of John, says, prevail. Have we not already the brightest • If it is a revelation, it is a revelation of omens of it? But what may be the speaking enigmas, and requires another revelation to illustration of certain persons,” and what that explain it'! And amidst the Babel of re- other “ token ” which may still be given ? ligious systems around us, is there nothing Who does not regard with the deepest interest required to direct us in this confusion of the spiritual foretellings of such a man, and tongues? Without affirming that the Lord who does not wait, in humble confidence, for has given us any further light, we would ask the fulfilments of the coming years ? One the most tenacious advocate for modern secta- thing is certain. The great Providential Man rianism, Would it not be a great advantage of the church has been born, and his word is to the world if such light could be given ? to “GROW CLEARER AND LOUDER THROUGH Would it not be an invaluable gift, if the Lord | ALL AGES.”
The Familiar Spirit.
elucidation from us; but we soon found that these [The following item should have come in at its proper place, things were not strange to him, which put us, subon page 97.]
sequently, inore upon our guard, not to speak to 497. In the letter of D. Paulus ab Indagine, him of common or unimportant matters, nor to adreferred to on said page, No. 386, we have the fol- vance any thing doubtful in which he might have lowing testimony concerning the familiar spirit. shown us to be mistaken. The conversation turn“I cannot forbear,” says he, “ to tell you some- ing upon analytical and algebraical calculation, as thing new about Swedenborg. Last Thursday I well as upon what is called the regula falsi (rule paid him a visit, and found him, as usual, writing. of false position), he desired us to bring forward He told me, 'that he had been in conversation that examples, which we accordingly did, proposing same morning, for three hours, with the deceased such as made it incumbent, in order to proceed king of Sweden. He had seen him already on the agreeably to rule, to use signs or symbols, as well as Wednesday; but, as he observed that he was deep- equations. The king did not require them, and afly engaged in conversation with the queen, who is ter a few minutes' reflection, he told us, without any still living, he would not disturb him. I allowed other aid than his own superior genius, in what way him to continue, but at length asked him, how it our examples might be solved, which we always was possible for a person who is still in the land of found to agree perfectly with our calculations. "I the living, to be met with in the world of spirits ? confess, that I have never been able to understand, He replied, that it was not the queen herself, but how, by mere reasoning, and without the aid of Al her spiritus familiaris, or her familiar spirit. I gebra, he was enabled to solve problems of this asked him what that might be? for I had nei- kind. It seemed, indeed, that the king was not sorther heard from him any thing respecting appear-ry to display before M. Polheim - a competent ances of that kind, nor had I read any thing judge in these things -a penetration and power about them. He then informed me, that every of reasoning, equalling those of the ablest matheman has either his good or bad spirit, who is not maticians. constantly with him, but sometimes a little removed “I will now relate to you, as I am peculiarly able from him, and appears in the world of spirits. But to do, what arose from this learned amusement, of this the man still living knows nothing; the spir- which is as follows:- Conversing one day with it, however, knows every thing. This familiar spir- the king upon arithmetic, and the mode of counting, it has every thing in accordance with his compan- we observed, that almost all nations upon reaching ion upon earth; he has in the world of spirits, the 10, began again; that those figures which occupy same figure, the same countenance, and the same the first place, never change their value, while those tone of voice, and wears also similar garments ; in in the second place, were multiplied tenfold, and so a word, this familiar spirit of the queen,' says Swe- on with the others; to which we added, that men denborg, .appeared exactly as he had so often seen had apparently begun by counting their fingers, and the queen herself at Stockholm, and had heard her that this method was still practised by the people ; speak. In order to allay my astonishment, he add- that arithmetic having been formed into a science, ed, that Dr. Ernesti, of Leipsic, had appeared to figures had been invented, which were of the utmost him in a similar manner in the world of spirits, and service ; and, nevertheless, that the ancient mode that he had held a long disputation with him.'” of counting had been always retained, in beginning Octonary Computus.
again after arriving at 10, and which is observed by
putting each figure in its proper place. The king (The following is an account of the Octonary Computus, for was of opinion, that had such not been the origin of mode of calculating by eighths,) mentioned on page 9, No. 22.] our mode of counting, a much better and more ge. Letter of M. Swederborg, Assessor of the Board of ometrical method might have been invented, and
Mines, to M. Nordberg, Author of the History of one which would have been of great utility in calcuCharles XII.
lations, by making choice of some other periodical 498. “Sir, — As you are now actually engaged nuinber than 10. That the number 10° had this upon the Life of Charles XII., I avail myself of the great and necessary inconvenience, that when diopportunity to give you some information concern- vided by 2, it could not be reduced to the number ing that monarch, which is, perhaps, new to you, and 1 without entering into fractions. Besides, as it worthy of being transmitted to posterity. I have al- comprehends neither the square, nor the cube, nor ready touched upon the subject, in the fourth part of the fourth power of any number, many difficulties iny Miscellanea, treating de Calculo novo Secagena- arise in numerical calculations. Whereas, had the rio, &c., whence M. Wolff has derived what he has periodical number been 8 or 16, a great facility said in bis Elementa Matheseos Universe, relative would have resulted, the first being a cube number, to this new Calculus,
of which the root is 2, and the second a square “ In 1716, when M. Polheim received the king's number, of which the root is 4, and that these numorders to repair to Lund, he engaged me to accom- bers being divided by 2, their primitive, the number pany him thither. Having been presented to his 1 would be obtained, which would be highly useful majesty, he often did us the honor of conversing with regard to money and measures, by avoiding a with us upon the different branches of mathematics, quantity of fractions. The king, after speaking at and particularly upon mechanics, the mode of cal- great length on this subject, expressed a desire that culating forces, and other problems of geometry and we should make a trial with some other number arithmetic. He seemed to take remarkable pleas- than 10. Having represented to him, thaťthis could ure in these conversations, and often put ques- not be done, unless we invented new figures, to tions, as if he merely proposed to gain some slight which, also, names altogether different from the an
cient ones must be given, as, otherwise, great con-| ly struck with his example in multiplication; and fusion would arise, he desired us to prepare an ex- when I consider the short time in which he accomample in point.
plished this, I cannot but regard him as a prince • We chose the number 8, of which the cube endowed with a genius and a penetration much root is 2, and which, being divided by 2, is reduced above those of other men ; whence I have been led to the primitive number 1. We also invented new to believe that, in all his other actions, he was guidfigures, to which we gave new names, and proceeded by greater wisdom than apparently belonged ed according to the ordinary method ; after which we to him. Certain it is, that he thought it beneath applied them to the cubic calculations, as well as to him to assume the air of a learned man, by affectmoney and to measures. The essay having been ing an imposing exterior. What he said to me, presented to the king, he was pleased with it: but it one day, regarding mathematics, expressed a senwas evident that he had wished something more timent truly worthy of a king, – that he who had extended, and less easy, in order that he might dis- made no progress whatever in this science, did not play the superiority of his genius and his great deserve to be considered as a rational man.' penetration. To this end he proposed to adopt
" I have the honor to be, &c., some number which should contain a square as well
“ EM. SWEDENBORG." as a cube, and which, when divided by 2, might be
First public Advertisement of Swedenborg's reduced to the primitive number i. He made
Writings. choice of 64; but we observed to him that it was too high a number, and, consequently, very incon- kind, we insert the following original advertisement by the
[For the curiosity of those who would see a document of this venient, and, indeed, that it was almost impossible printer of the second volume of the Arcana Calistie. It was to employ it ; that, besides, if we were obliged to published in parts, each containing one chapter, and accom
panied, in separate numbers, by an English translation.] reckon up to 64, before recommencing, and that upon reaching 64 times 64, or 4096, only three figures Paternoster Row, February 5, 1750. were used, calculation would be rendered immense- 499. AdvertisEMENT, by John Lewis, Printer ly difficult, especially with regard to multiplication and Publisher, in Paternoster Row, near Cheapside, and division; because it would be necessary to com- London. Be it known unto all the Learned and mnit to memory a multiplication table composed of Curious, that this day is published the First Num4096 numbers, while the common table comprised ber of Arcana Cælestia or Heavenly Secrets which only 80 or 90 numbers. However, the more we urged are in the Sacred Scripture, or Word of the Lord, our difficulties, the more he was determined to put laid open ; as they are found in the Sixteenth his idea into practice; and to show the possibility of Chapter of Genesis ; together with the wonderful what appeared to us to require long and profound things that have been seen in the World of Spirits, reflection, he undertook to devise this method him- and in the Heaven of Angels. self, and to lay down the plan of it, which he sent This work is intended to be such an exposition to us the next morning.' He had invented new of the whole Bible as was never attempted in any figures, each with its particular name. The 64 fig- language before. The author is a learned foreignures were divided into 8 classes, each being des-er, who wrote and printed the first volume of the ignated by a particular symbol. Upon a closer same work but last year, all in Latin, which may inspection, I found that these symbols or signs were be seen at my shop in Paternoster Row, as above composed of the initial and final letters of his own mentioned. name, in a manner at once so clear and exact, that And now the second volume is printing both in when the first 8 numbers were known, all the rest Latin and English ; to be published in cheap numup to 64 were attainable without the least difficulty. bers, that the public may have it in an easier manThe names of the 8 numbers of the first cla
were ner, in either tongue, than in whole volumes. very simple, and those of the others so well con- It must be confessed that this nation abounds trived, that one could easily remember them, with with a variety of commentaries and expositions on out fear of confusion. Having arrived at the nnmber the Holy Bible; yet when we consider what an in64, when it became necessary to proceed with three exhaustible fund of knowledge the Sacred Scripfigures, up to 64 times 64, he had invented new ture contains, the importance of the subjects it names, admirably arranged, and so easily and natu-treats of, and the vast concern every man has in rally varied that there was not any number, however those things they relate and recommend, we may luigli, for which there was not a name ; and this cease to wonder that so many ingenious pens have might be carried on ad infinitum, following the prin- been employed in sounding the depths of this vast ciples and rules laid down.
ocean; and he must be a very dull writer indeed, " It was to me that the king committed this plan, who does not find a pretty large number of readers in his own handwriting (the original of which I still of any work he may publish of this kind. I would preserve], in order to arrange from it a table show- be far from depreciating the merit of any man's ing the difference between this and the common performance, nay, I will allow, that it is owing to the mode of counting, both with regard to the names labors of learned and pious men, in their disquisiand the figures.
tions after truth in the Bible that we of this king* The king had also added to his plan an exam- dom have been enabled to discern truth froin error, ple in multiplication and in division; two operations and to know more of the mind and will of God in in which I had contemplated so much difficulty: his Word, than the priests of Rome were willing As it was my place to undertake the perfecting of we should. Yet give me leave to add, that these his method, I examined it thoroughly, in order to Sacred Writings are capable of speaking to the discover whether it might not be rendered yet more heart and understanding of man, by more ways easy and more convenient of application than it was. than have been thought of or put in practice; and My attempts, however, were in vain; and I much he who can discover new treasures in these sacred doubt whether the greatest matheraticians would mines, and produce from them such rich jewels as have succeeded. What I chiefly admire, is, the in- were never yet seen by the eye of man, will ungenuity shown by the king in the invention of the doubtedly challenge our strictest attention, and igures and the names, and the case with which the deserve encouragement in his pious labors. This signs may be varied ad infinitum. I was also great-then may be said of our author. He has struck out a new path through this deep abyss, which no one can guess by his writings, he knows where man ever trod before. He has left all the com- to find them. But it matters not what or who the mentators and expositors to stand on their own person is that writes, if his writings are founded footing; he neither meddles nor interferes with on truth, and agreeable to such learned men as are any of them; his thoughts are all his own; and competent judges of them. The deepest and most the ingenious and sublime turn he has given to learned, as well as most valuable pieces, are someevery thing in the Scripture, he has copied from times misunderstood and rejected many years, even no man; and therefore, even in this respect, he by learned men themselves ; to instance only three hath some title to the regard of the ingenious and performances out of the many that might be prolearned world.
duced, viz. Locke on Human Understanding, It is true, when a reader comes to peruse this Milton's Paradise Lost, and Prideaux's Connection work, if he expects to understand him with a slight of the Old and New Testament. Those who have and cursory reading, he will find himself greatly been conversant with books, especially in the tradmistaken; his thoughts are too sublime and lofty ing way, cannot be ignorant of the difficulties to be surveyed with a weak or a wanton eye; his which these valuable pieces have met with in maklanguage is quite different from the common modes ing their way into the world ; and it is as remarkof speech; and his sense is sometimes so deep and able now to observe, how they have been called profound, as not to be readily apprehended by a for and admired for many years past. common understanding. Whoever, therefore, takes How this great work of Arcana Cælestia will this book in hand, and finds passages in it not succeed in the world, is impossible at present to easily intelligible, let him not throw it by as a determine. If all men of learning were of the thing of no value, nor content himself with a bare same mind with the ingenious and pious Mr. Penny, perusal ;- but let him read it over and over again ; of Dartmouth, we need not fear success : for in his and let him study the drift and design of the au- letter to me, on the publication of the first volume, thor; and I will answer for it, that the more and are these following words :-“ I have long ardentoftener he reads it, the more instruction and de- ly wished to see the historical part of the Old light he will receive from it. The author has a Testament, which seems only to regard the Jewish depth, which if once fathomed (and it is not unfath- Dispensation, (and upon that account too lightly omable) will yield the noblest repast to a pious regarded by the major part of the Christian world) mind. But if any one imagines that I say this to proved to be as delightful, instructive, and as nepuff a book, in the sale of which my interest is so cessary for the knowledge of Christians as the New. nearly concerned, any gentleman is welcome to This, Arcana Cælestia gives me the fullest satisfacperuse it at my shop, and to purchase it or not, as tion of, &c.” A copy of this letter was printed his own judgment shall direct him.
at large in the Daily Advertiser of Christmas day, Nothing recommends a book more effectually to 1749. Now this delightful, instructive, and nethe public than the eminence and credit of its cessary knowledge, cannot be expected from this author; nothing is more notorious, than that a part of Holy Writ, unless the historical part of the weak performance, if it appears under a great Old Testament be allegorized in some such manname, shall be better received in the world than 'ner as our Latin author has here done it. And the the most sublime and ingenious productions of an great and learned as well as the inspired St. Paul, obscure person; so that it is not merit but prejudice clearly gives encouragement to this way of writthat generally governs the judgment of men. ing, Gal. iv. 24. And our author neither rejects
Though the author of Arcana Cælestia is un- nor disturbs the literal sense by his allegorical exdoubtedly a very learned and great man, and his position. works bighly esteemed by the literati, yet he is no Soon after the publication of Mr. Penny's letter less distinguished for his modesty than his great before mentioned, a grave, judicious and learned talents, so that he will not suffer his name to be gentleman was pleased to call at one of the bookmade public. But though I am positively forbid sellers where this famous Latin book was appointed to discover that, yet I hope he will excuse me if to be sold; and when he had cast his eye over part I venture to mention his benign and generous of the work, he inquired who the author was; but qualities. How he bestowed his time and labors in being told that the author would not be known, former years, I am not certainly informed ; (though I Well," (said the gentleman) “I confess that have heard by those who have been long acquainted at these years I am not fond of new acquaintance, with him, that they were employed in the same but should be extremely glad to have some conmanner as I am going to relate ;) but what I have versation with him ; for,” (continued he, with great been an eye witness to, I can declare with certain earnestness,) “ I never saw, nor heard, nor read, of truth; and therefore I do aver, that this gentle- so surprising a man in all my days !" man, with indefatigable pains and labor, spent one Any one of small judgment may guess at the whole year in studying and writing the first volume cheapness of the work, when he finds that six of Arcana Cælestia, was at the expense of two hun hundred and forty quarto pages in Latin, of the dred pounds to print it, and also advanced two first volume, are sold for no more than six shillings, hundred pounds more for the printing of this sec-unbound. But this second volume, which is now ond volume; and when he had done this, he gave publishing in Latin and English, will be unacexpress orders that all the money that should arise countably cheap, as any one may conclude, even in the sale of this large work should be given to- from the postage of the Latin copy from abroad: wards the charge of the propagation of the Gos- for the bare postage of this first number cost no pel. He is so far from desiring to make a gain of less than twelve shillings, and now it is printed, his labors, that he will not receive one farthing doth make fifty-two quarto pages in the English back, of the four hundred pounds he hath ex- tongue; and all to be sold for no more than eight pended ; and for that reason his works will come pence, which is not half the price that such a exceedingly cheap to the public.
quantity of paper and print is generally sold for. I further declare I have not the least reason in The postage of the second number came to eighthe world to believe him a bigot to any mode or teen shillings; and that of the third amounted mecnod of religion; I know not what community he to one pound two shillings; and yet these two belongs to, or whether he belongs to any; if any numbers are to be sold for no more than ninepence