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themes and the song of songs for the progeny it longs for a heart of work in Swedenborg's of Adam. This was the end of the earliest revelations; it desires to be certified that invoyages, and the last heroism of the ancient dustry is divine and immortal; that the week heroes. For this Ulysses, emancipated from days preponderate in heaven; that beyond Circe, after so many mortal wanderings, visit- the grave the useless classes are vile; that the ed the shadowland of those dim times, where angels, like good artisans, eat because they yet immortal justice reigned, and gathered the labor. Luxurious ease, bodiless cherubs, sky perpetuation of human passions in the stern floatings, everlasting prayers or anthems, are gait of Ajax, and from sorrowful words from an offence to the great God of the six days' the great Achilles. For this he brought back work, and Swedenborg, a working man, has the hieroglyphics of the spirit, in the waters brought us the tidings. The horny hand of of Tantalus, the wheel of Ixion, and the sieve the day springs opening to the messenger. of Danaidæ. For this Eneas, Sibyl-instruct- 492. "There is however a Sabbath in both ed, descended to Avernus, and through the the worlds a day with a sacred number land beyond sleep and death, still found im- workday of the religious. And does not reperishable mankind, and present with his an- ligion coalesce with Swedenborg's informacestral spirits in their tide of prophecy, beheld tions? I marvel how any Christian man can the line of Roman glories issuing from the deride revelations in the abstract; how he closed race of Troy. O depth and breadth can deem that the day of wonders is past, unand length unending of the life of our fore- less God be past; how he dares use phrases fathers! From Virgil to Dante the arch of against Swedenborg, which applied more widelight again sits upon the spiritual world; earth ly would shatter his Bible from his hands. has no top but the poet-seer on which the Let infidelity be consistent in tearing away all eternal curve will lean. The Christian Hades revelations, let it number and compaginate vaults back to the heathen through the stern the graveyards of nature, and assiduously bind Italian song; Dante and Virgil are fellow- up the book of death; but let Christianity be travellers, all but through heaven where Christ equally true to itself, and look for Christianity alone can reign. From Dante to Shakspeare every where, for life and revelations every and to Milton is the next gird of the baser where. Even heathenism glitters with a starflood. In Macbeth and Hamlet, the poet of light of immortality. But immortality and civilization links the worlds afresh, by the in- the spirit land lie in golden lakes in the Word troduction of an infernal band of ambition in of God: they wait to be explored by human the one case, by a reappearance of the dead adventure and experience. The Prophets in the other; if nothing more, he gives his and the Apocalypse are proof and countermighty vote for the supernatural life. The proof to Swedenborg's narrations: the visions Paradise Lost is all seership; imagination of John walk the waters with his; the nineshows again that there is no play room for the teenth century begins in him to reap the harhighest efforts but the spiritual world. The vest of supernatural intercourse of which personages, professedly superhuman, are hu- Christ Himself sowed the seeds in the first. man after all. Milton, who stamped the tra- All religion in its spiritual day, in its own ditions of his church with the gold mark of his archives, and in its first founders, stretches out. own genius, and who proves how much can be the free right hand of fellowship to this last attempted, and how little can be done with the seer. And here we conclude our examination Protestant imagination, at all events completed of witnesses to the character of Swedenborg's a poetic cycle of affirmations of the spiritual world. Not one high tuneful voice is absent. 493. "Are they final, or do we look for from our list; the morning stars of song' another? A rational revelation, we reply, is are strictly choral there. The lower world, the first step to a more rational: a religion well pleased, sees them all attempt what Swe- given up to the human mind is a progressive denborg accomplished. Yet while he mounts religion. A seer whose intellect is in his above them, it is not by a greater genius, but eyes, will be succeeded by other seers with by finer harmony of character and circum- better optics because greater intellects. Sights stance with God, leading to an appreciation more improbable ever await to be uncurtained. by the humblest of realms unascended by song, and to a conjunction of this world's business with similar but sublimer industry in the spiritual heavens.
491. "For politics and morals are penetrated by the same spirit. The associative temper of the epoch runs molten from that other world where the union of the race is closer knit than on this disunited earth. The spirit of work lifting the arm with strokes incessant as the steam engine's, lives from a faith in work as the last comfort of mankind;
It is God's truth that eye hath not seen, nor
495. The appearance of Swedenborg at such a time, unfolding such truths, so calm, so deep, so perfectly possessed and assured, while dealing with such eternal and momentous realities, can be no otherwise regarded than as a most distinguished providence to a needy and benighted world. Like the northern light
high up into the atmosphere of its winter cold and darkness, so has this Seer and Philosopher of the latter ages made his appearance, with the higher light of a divinely illuminated understanding, piercing into and scattering the darkness of centuries.
496. And now, in view of all, considering the wonderful character of the day in which we live, especially in reference to the breaking up of old theologies the downfall of sectarianism - the freedom of the human mind in so many departments of knowledge which have heretofore been barred and bolted against all rational investigation, by the church's tyranny and the prevailing ignorance
494. It now remains for us to pass judg-|would reveal to us clearly the meaning of his ment upon such a phenomenon as is present- Word? Now, we most broadly and distinctly ed to us in this Life of Swedenborg. What assert, that the whole of the Theological will the world say of it? To our apprehen- writings of Swedenborg have the tendency to sion, the Divine Providence is nowhere more prove that he was commissioned by the Lord conspicuous than in raising up, at such a time, to reveal the true nature of the Gospel to such a man. Let it ever be borne in mind mankind, through the unfolding of its spirituthat Swedenborg made his appearance at a al sense, and to declare the true nature of that time a little preceding that memorable event future state to which we are all hastening." designated by him as the Last Judgment, which, he affirms, took place in the spiritual world in 1757. So that he was in the vigor and full glow of his successful life, at a little before, at the time of, and several years after, this eventful transaction which so changed the condition of the church and world, and by which the doctrines of the New Jerusalem of his own country, sending its luminous rays could be given to mankind. How marked and fitting a time, for the existence of such a man! It was then that a host of evils and falses were cleared away from the world of spirits, which had been gathering for ages, and which had so obstructed the influx of good and truth from the heavens, that but little of the pure doctrine of Christianity could at all make its way into the world; and the same may be said of natural truth, in the various departments of science and philosophy. And if any one would perceive the cause of the wonderful advances of natural science and philosophy during the last century, let him look for it in the Last Judgment, which occurred in the spiritual world at about the time of the com- and the very evident commencement of a mencement of this increase of light. Sweden- new spiritual era for mankind; in view of all borg, among the rest, came at this time. this, we cannot fail to have the most intense Here is Providence, strongly marked, which interest in the precise meaning which Swedenadapts the men to the ages. "It is also a borg embodied in his remark to Dr. Oetinger, remarkable circumstance, and should be an before quoted, in respect to what further sign instructive one, that when the doctrines of the might be given, in proof of his divine mission New Jerusalem were to be given to men, they and truthfulness. The sign given at this were revealed through the agency of one who day, (says Swedenborg) will be an illustration, stood by common consent in the first rank of and thence a knowledge and reception of the the learned men of his age." But let it ever truths of the New Church. Some speaking be remembered that it is not as the promulgator illustration of certain persons may likewise of a NEW revelation, or the preacher of a new take place; this works more effectually than gospel, that the claim is made for Swedenborg, miracles. Yet one token may perhaps still be "His office was to open the eyes of mankind given." It is well understood from what is to the glories of the old one. And is this an believed to be a report of some private conoffice, or are these advantages, which we are versation, that Swedenborg remarked, that in justified in denying without examination? Is about one hundred years from his day, (we the world so well acquainted with the mean- do not know precisely what year to date from) ing of divine revelation, that no further in- the principles and truths which he was instrustruction is necessary? Dr. Adam Clarke, mental in teaching, would to a good extent speaking of the revelation of John, says, prevail. Have we not already the brightest 'If it is a revelation, it is a revelation of omens of it? But what may be the "speaking enigmas, and requires another revelation to illustration of certain persons," and what that explain it'! And amidst the Babel of re- other "token" which may still be given? ligious systems around us, is there nothing Who does not regard with the deepest interest required to direct us in this confusion of the spiritual foretellings of such a man, and tongues? Without affirming that the Lord who does not wait, in humble confidence, for has given us any further light, we would ask the fulfilments of the coming years? the most tenacious advocate for modern secta- thing is certain. The great Providential Man rianism, Would it not be a great advantage of the church has been born, and his word is to the world if such light could be given? to "GROW CLEARER AND LOUDER THROUGH Would it not be an invaluable gift, if the Lord | ALL AGES.”
The Familiar Spirit.
[The following item should have come in at its proper place, on page 97.]
elucidation from us; but we soon found that these things were not strange to him, which put us, subsequently, more upon our guard, not to speak to 497. In the letter of D. Paulus âb Indagine, him of common or unimportant matters, nor to adreferred to on said page, No. 386, we have the fol- vance any thing doubtful in which he might have lowing testimony concerning the familiar spirit. shown us to be mistaken. The conversation turn"I cannot forbear," says he, "to tell you some- ing upon analytical and algebraical calculation, as thing new about Swedenborg. Last Thursday I well as upon what is called the regula falsi (rule paid him a visit, and found him, as usual, writing. of false position), he desired us to bring forward He told me, 'that he had been in conversation that examples, which we accordingly did, proposing same morning, for three hours, with the deceased such as made it incumbent, in order to proceed king of Sweden. He had seen him already on the agreeably to rule, to use signs or symbols, as well as Wednesday; but, as he observed that he was deep- equations. The king did not require them, and afly engaged in conversation with the queen, who is ter a few minutes' reflection, he told us, without any still living, he would not disturb him.' I allowed other aid than his own superior genius, in what way him to continue, but at length asked him, how it our examples might be solved, which we always was possible for a person who is still in the land of found to agree perfectly with our calculations. I the living, to be met with in the world of spirits? confess, that I have never been able to understand, He replied, that it was not the queen herself, but how, by mere reasoning, and without the aid of Alher spiritus familiaris, or her familiar spirit.' I gebra, he was enabled to solve problems of this asked him what that might be? for I had nei- kind. It seemed, indeed, that the king was not sorther heard from him any thing respecting appear-ry to display before M. Polheim-a competent ances of that kind, nor had I read any thing judge in these things -a penetration and power about them. He then informed me, 'that every of reasoning, equalling those of the ablest matheman has either his good or bad spirit, who is not constantly with him, but sometimes a little removed from him, and appears in the world of spirits. But of this the man still living knows nothing; the spirit, however, knows every thing. This familiar spirit has every thing in accordance with his companion upon earth; he has in the world of spirits, the same figure, the same countenance, and the same tone of voice, and wears also similar garments; in a word, this familiar spirit of the queen,' says Swedenborg, appeared exactly as he had so often seen the queen herself at Stockholm, and had heard her speak. In order to allay my astonishment, he added, that Dr. Ernesti, of Leipsic, had appeared to him in a similar manner in the world of spirits, and that he had held a long disputation with him.””
[The following is an account of the Octonary Computus, (or mode of calculating by eighths,) mentioned on page 9, No. 22.] Letter of M. Swedenborg, Assessor of the Board of Mines, to M. Nordberg, Author of the History of Charles XII.
"I will now relate to you, as I am peculiarly able to do, what arose from this learned amusement, which is as follows:- Conversing one day with the king upon arithmetic, and the mode of counting, we observed, that almost all nations upon reaching 10, began again; that those figures which occupy the first place, never change their value, while those in the second place, were multiplied tenfold, and so on with the others; to which we added, that men had apparently begun by counting their fingers, and that this method was still practised by the people; that arithmetic having been formed into a science, figures had been invented, which were of the utmost service; and, nevertheless, that the ancient mode of counting had been always retained, in beginning again after arriving at 10, and which is observed by putting each figure in its proper place. The king was of opinion, that had such not been the origin of our mode of counting, a much better and more geometrical method might have been invented, and one which would have been of great utility in calculations, by making choice of some other periodical number than 10. That the number 10 had this great and necessary inconvenience, that when di
498. "Sir,-As you are now actually engaged upon the Life of Charles XII., I avail myself of the opportunity to give you some information concern-vided by 2, it could not be reduced to the number ing that monarch, which is, perhaps, new to you, and worthy of being transmitted to posterity. I have already touched upon the subject, in the fourth part of iny Miscellanea, treating de Calculo novo Sexagenario, &c., whence M. Wolff has derived what he has said in his Elementa Matheseos Universa, relative to this new Calculus.
1 without entering into fractions. Besides, as it comprehends neither the square, nor the cube, nor the fourth power of any number, many difficulties arise in numerical calculations. Whereas, had the periodical number been 8 or 16, a great facility would have resulted, the first being a cube number, of which the root is 2, and the second a square "In 1716, when M. Polheim received the king's number, of which the root is 4, and that these numorders to repair to Lund, he engaged me to accom-bers being divided by 2, their primitive, the number pany him thither. Having been presented to his 1 would be obtained, which would be highly useful majesty, he often did us the honor of conversing with regard to money and measures, by avoiding a with us upon the different branches of mathematics, and particularly upon mechanics, the mode of calculating forces, and other problems of geometry and arithmetic. He seemed to take remarkable pleasure in these conversations, and often put questions, as if he merely propose to gain some slight
quantity of fractions. The king, after speaking at great length on this subject, expressed a desire that we should make a trial with some other number than 10. Having represented to him, that this could not be done, unless we invented new figures, to which, also, names altogether different from the an
"I have the honor to be, &c.,
"EM. SWEDENBORG." First public Advertisement of Swedenborg's Writings.
PATERNOSTER Row, February 5, 1750.
cient ones must be given, as, otherwise, great con- | ly struck with his example in multiplication; and fusion would arise, he desired us to prepare an ex- when I consider the short time in which he accomample in point. plished this, I cannot but regard him as a prince "We chose the number 8, of which the cube endowed with a genius and a penetration much root is 2, and which, being divided by 2, is reduced above those of other men; whence I have been led to the primitive number 1. We also invented new to believe that, in all his other actions, he was guidfigures, to which we gave new names, and proceed-ed by greater wisdom than apparently belonged ed according to the ordinary method; after which we to him. Certain it is, that he thought it beneath applied them to the cubic calculations, as well as to him to assume the air of a learned man, by affectmoney and to measures. The essay having been ing an imposing exterior. What he said to me, presented to the king, he was pleased with it: but it one day, regarding mathematics, expressed a senwas evident that he had wished something more timent truly worthy of a king, that he who had extended, and less easy, in order that he might dis- made no progress whatever in this science, did not play the superiority of his genius and his great deserve to be considered as a rational man.' penetration. To this end he proposed to adopt some number which should contain a square as well as a cube, and which, when divided by 2, might be reduced to the primitive number 1. He made choice of 64; but we observed to him that it was too high a number, and, consequently, very incon- kind, we insert the following original advertisement by the [For the curiosity of those who would see a document of this venient, and, indeed, that it was almost impossible printer of the second volume of the Arcana Calestia. It was to employ it; that, besides, if we were obliged to published in parts, each containing one chapter, and accomreckon up to 64, before recommencing, and that up-panied, in separate numbers, by an English translation.] on reaching 64 times 64, or 4096, only three figures were used, calculation would be rendered immense- 499. ADVERTISEMENT, by John Lewis, Printer ly difficult, especially with regard to multiplication and division; because it would be necessary to commit to memory a multiplication table composed of 4096 numbers, while the common table comprised only 80 or 90 numbers. However, the more we urged our difficulties, the more he was determined to put his idea into practice; and to show the possibility of what appeared to us to require long and profound reflection, he undertook to devise this method himself, and to lay down the plan of it, which he sent This work is intended to be such an exposition to us the next morning. He had invented new of the whole Bible as was never attempted in any figures, each with its particular name. The 64 fig-language before. The author is a learned foreignures were divided into 8 classes, each being designated by a particular symbol. Upon a closer inspection, I found that these symbols or signs were composed of the initial and final letters of his own name, in a manner at once so clear and exact, that when the first 8 numbers were known, all the rest up to 64 were attainable without the least difficulty. The names of the 8 numbers of the first class were very simple, and those of the others so well contrived, that one could easily remember them, without fear of confusion. Having arrived at the number 64, when it became necessary to proceed with three figures, up to 64 times 64, he had invented new names, admirably arranged, and so easily and naturally varied that there was not any number, however high, for which there was not a name; and this might be carried on ad infinitum, following the principles and rules laid down.
and Publisher, in Paternoster Row, near Cheapside, London. Be it known unto all the Learned and Curious, that this day is published the First Number of Arcana Cœlestia or Heavenly Secrets which are in the Sacred Scripture, or Word of the Lord, laid open; as they are found in the Sixteenth Chapter of Genesis; together with the wonderful things that have been seen in the World of Spirits, and in the Heaven of Angels.
er, who wrote and printed the first volume of the same work but last year, all in Latin, which may be seen at my shop in Paternoster Row, as above mentioned.
And now the second volume is printing both in Latin and English; to be published in cheap numbers, that the public may have it in an easier manner, in either tongue, than in whole volumes.
It must be confessed that this nation abounds with a variety of commentaries and expositions on the Holy Bible; yet when we consider what an inexhaustible fund of knowledge the Sacred Scripture contains, the importance of the subjects it treats of, and the vast concern every man has in those things they relate and recommend, we may cease to wonder that so many ingenious pens have been employed in sounding the depths of this vast ocean; and he must be a very dull writer indeed, "It was to me that the king committed this plan, who does not find a pretty large number of readers in his own handwriting [the original of which I still of any work he may publish of this kind. I would preserve], in order to arrange from it a table show-be far from depreciating the merit of any man's ing the difference between this and the common performance, nay, I will allow, that it is owing to the mode of counting, both with regard to the names and the figures.
"The king had also added to his plan an example in multiplication and in division; two operations in which I had contemplated so much difficulty. As it was my place to undertake the perfecting of his method, I examined it thoroughly, in order to discover whether it might not be rendered yet more easy and more convenient of application than it was. My attempts, however, were in vain; and I much doubt whether the greatest mathematicians would have succeeded. What I chiefly admire, is, the ingenuity shown by the king in the invention of the figures and the names, and the ease with which the signs may be varied ad infinitum. I was also great
labors of learned and pious men, in their disquisitions after truth in the Bible that we of this kingdom have been enabled to discern truth from error, and to know more of the mind and will of God in his Word, than the priests of Rome were willing we should. Yet give me leave to add, that these Sacred Writings are capable of speaking to the heart and understanding of man, by more ways than have been thought of or put in practice; and he who can discover new treasures in these sacred mines, and produce from them such rich jewels as were never yet seen by the eye of man, will undoubtedly challenge our strictest attention, and deserve encouragement in his pious labors. This then may be said of our author. He has struck
out a new path through this deep abyss, which no man ever trod before. He has left all the commentators and expositors to stand on their own footing; he neither meddles nor interferes with any of them; his thoughts are all his own; and the ingenious and sublime turn he has given to every thing in the Scripture, he has copied from no man; and therefore, even in this respect, he hath some title to the regard of the ingenious and learned world.
one can guess by his writings, he knows where to find them. But it matters not what or who the person is that writes, if his writings are founded on truth, and agreeable to such learned men as are competent judges of them. The deepest and most learned, as well as most valuable pieces, are sometimes misunderstood and rejected many years, even by learned men themselves; to instance only three performances out of the many that might be produced, viz. Locke on Human Understanding, Milton's Paradise Lost, and Prideaux's Connection of the Old and New Testament. Those who have been conversant with books, especially in the trading way, cannot be ignorant of the difficulties which these valuable pieces have met with in making their way into the world; and it is as remarkable now to observe, how they have been called for and admired for many years past.
It is true, when a reader comes to peruse this work, if he expects to understand him with a slight and cursory reading, he will find himself greatly mistaken; his thoughts are too sublime and lofty to be surveyed with a weak or a wanton eye; his language is quite different from the common modes of speech; and his sense is sometimes so deep and profound, as not to be readily apprehended by a common understanding. Whoever, therefore, takes this book in hand, and finds passages in it not easily intelligible, let him not throw it by as a thing of no value, nor content himself with a bare perusal; but let him read it over and over again; and let him study the drift and design of the author; and I will answer for it, that the more and oftener he reads it, the more instruction and de-ly wished to see the historical part of the Old light he will receive from it. The author has a depth, which if once fathomed (and it is not unfathomable) will yield the noblest repast to a pious mind. But if any one imagines that I say this to puff a book, in the sale of which my interest is so nearly concerned, any gentleman is welcome to peruse it at my shop, and to purchase it or not, as his own judgment shall direct him.
How this great work of Arcana Calestia will succeed in the world, is impossible at present to determine. If all men of learning were of the same mind with the ingenious and pious Mr. Penny, of Dartmouth, we need not fear success: for in his letter to me, on the publication of the first volume, are these following words: "I have long ardentTestament, which seems only to regard the Jewish Dispensation, (and upon that account too lightly regarded by the major part of the Christian world) proved to be as delightful, instructive, and as necessary for the knowledge of Christians as the New. This, Arcana Calestia gives me the fullest satisfaction of, &c." A copy of this letter was printed at large in the Daily Advertiser of Christmas day, Nothing recommends a book more effectually to 1749. Now this delightful, instructive, and nethe public than the eminence and credit of its cessary knowledge, cannot be expected from this author; nothing is more notorious, than that a part of Holy Writ, unless the historical part of the weak performance, if it appears under a great Old Testament be allegorized in some such manname, shall be better received in the world than ner as our Latin author has here done it. And the the most sublime and ingenious productions of an great and learned as well as the inspired St. Paul, obscure person; so that it is not merit but prejudice clearly gives encouragement to this way of writthat generally governs the judgment of men. ing, Gal. iv. 24. And our author neither rejects Though the author of Arcana Calestia is un-nor disturbs the literal sense by his allegorical exdoubtedly a very learned and great man, and his works highly esteemed by the literati, yet he is no less distinguished for his modesty than his great talents, so that he will not suffer his name to be made public. But though I am positively forbid to discover that, yet I hope he will excuse me if I venture to mention his benign and generous qualities. How he bestowed his time and labors in former years, I am not certainly informed; (though I have heard by those who have been long acquainted with him, that they were employed in the same manner as I am going to relate ;) but what I have been an eye witness to, I can declare with certain truth; and therefore I do aver, that this gentleman, with indefatigable pains and labor, spent one whole year in studying and writing the first volume of Arcana Calestia, was at the expense of two hundred pounds to print it, and also advanced two hundred pounds more for the printing of this second volume; and when he had done this, he gave express orders that all the money that should arise in the sale of this large work should be given towards the charge of the propagation of the Gospel. He is so far from desiring to make a gain of his labors, that he will not receive one farthing back, of the four hundred pounds he hath expended and for that reason his works will come exceedingly cheap to the public.
I further declare I have not the least reason in the world to believe him a bigot to any mode or method of religion; I know not what community he belongs to, or whether he belongs to any; if any
Soon after the publication of Mr. Penny's letter before mentioned, a grave, judicious and learned gentleman was pleased to call at one of the booksellers where this famous Latin book was appointed to be sold; and when he had cast his eye over part of the work, he inquired who the author was; but being told that the author would not be known, — "Well," (said the gentleman) "I confess that at these years I am not fond of new acquaintance, but should be extremely glad to have some conversation with him; for," (continued he, with great earnestness,) "I never saw, nor heard, nor read, of so surprising a man in all my days!"
Any one of small judgment may guess at the cheapness of the work, when he finds that six hundred and forty quarto pages in Latin, of the first volume, are sold for no more than six shillings, unbound. But this second volume, which is now publishing in Latin and English, will be unaccountably cheap, as any one may conclude, even from the postage of the Latin copy from abroad: for the bare postage of this first number cost no less than twelve shillings, and now it is printed, doth make fifty-two quarto pages in the English tongue; and all to be sold for no more than eight pence, which is not half the price that such a quantity of paper and print is generally sold for. The postage of the second number came to eighteen shillings; and that of the third amounted to one pound two shillings; and yet these tw numbers are to be sold for no more than ninepence