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is buttoned down the front, and edged with fancy trimming. The same garniture is contiuued down the front of the skirt. Long sleeve of an easy width; very deep cuff. Fawn-coloured gros de Tours chapeau; a long brim, rather close; the trimming is composed of ribbon to correspond, and a bouquet of green foliage.

No. 6.

'Green satin robe; the corsage, high at the back, and opening a little on the bosom, is ornamented with a pelerine lappel finished at each edge with a trimming of the same material à la vielle. Long tight sleeve, the lower part trimmed en suite. Five rows of a similar garniture decorate the skirt. Pink satin chapeau; a short round shape, the interior trimmed with ribbon, the exterior with feathers.

No. 7.

Fawn-coloured striped silk robe; a half-high corsage, and long tight sleeve. The skirt is trimmed with festooned flounces put three together; there are three rows placed at a little distance from each other. Muslin canezon en cœur trimmed with lace. Long demi-large sleeves. Chapeau Pamela of pink crape, the interior trimmed with tulle of the same hue, and long floating brides of pink and black shaded ribbon; the interior with nouds of the same. Cashmere scarf. We need only observe that it is a public promenade dress.

No. S.

Dark green striped levantine robe; corsage of the habit form, terminated by a jacket. Sleeve of a three-quarter length, and arched at the bottom. Fancy straw chapeau ; a small close shape trimmed, with shaded ribbon, and a black ace veil.






NEAR the end of the Emperor Paul of Russia's reign,—that is, about the middle of the first year of the nineteenth century,-as four o'clock sounded from the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, whose golden arrow pointedover the fortress ramparts, a motley crowd were seen assembling in front of Count Tehermayloff's house. He was the ex-military commandant of a considerable town in the government of Pultava. The attention of the first passengers was called by seeing preparations making in the middle of the court-yard, for the punishment of the knout, about to be inflicted on one of the general's slaves, who filled the station of barber to the general. Although this description of punishment was by no means uncommon at St. Retersburg, it nevertheless always attracted a great number of idle persons in the neighbourhood where it occurred.*

The amateurs of these exhibitions had not long to wait for the gratification they sought;-about half-past four o'clock a young man, apparently about twenty-four years old, elegantly dressed in the uniform of an aide-de-camp, and his breast covered with military decorations of merit, appeared on the little steps raised at the bottom of the court-yard, frouting the grand entrance of the count's apartments. When there, he stopped for a moment, fixed his eyes inquiringly on a particular window hermetically sealed by

***To the honour of the present Emperor of Russia, by a very recent ukase, the punishment of the knout is entirely abolished. And it is to be hoped that such an example may shame our English legislators into the abolish. ment of the no less inhuman and degrading punishment of flogging, our brave fellow creatures in the army.

Nov. 1845.


silk curtains, which totally precluded the possibility of his curiosity being gratified, whatever it was. Finding it useless to continue so occupied any longer, he beckoned a bushy red-bearded man, who was standing at some distance, at the entrance door of the servants' quarter of the building. The door opened, and about twenty of the household slaves were seen advancing, who where compelled to witness the punishment of their fellow-servant, as an example likely to deter them from a similar offence and expiation. Next came the executioner of the law, and behind him the unfortunate culprit. The former was the count's coachman; the latter, as we have stated, his barber. It is probable that the coachman's skill in handling the whip upon the horses, had raised him to the honourable office of flogging men ; for in general, that part is assigned to some miserable object, who undertakes the degrading employment to save himself from starving, by the receipt of a handful of small copper coin, amounting to sixpence of English money. Notwithstanding the coachman having this duty imposed upon him, it did not lessen him in the esteem of his fellow-servants; their friendship for him remained undiminished, as they well knew that his office was compulsory, and that the hand of Ivan, not his heart, was concerned in the punishment of a comrade; moreover, they well knew that hand, heart, body and all were his master's property, and consequently could be disposed of in any way the general thought fit. Another circumstance gave him some satisfaction, as well as the other servants: correction administered by Ivan was always more mild than from the hands of a paid stranger. The coachman was a good-hearted fellow, and always contrived to smuggle one or two stripes in the dozen; or if he was so narrowly watched as to be forced to give full measure, he made up for it by contriving that the plank upon which the culprit was extended should receive the greater weight of his whip, so that the painful percussion fell where it could not be felt. Ivan, in his character of executioner, was not exempt from a similar punishment, and had more than once, at former periods of his life, been the patient, and not the physician. He practically knew what was the greatest sting of the lash, and as one good turn deserves another, was laying up a stock of good-will on his own account in the event of a mutatis mutandis friendly flogging. Great as the torture was, a recollection of it rarely lasted beyond the moment ;-the knouter and the knouted were, before night, as good friends as ever;discussing over their pipes and brandy the skilful management exhibited in modifying the morning's misery.

He upon whom Ivan was this day to exercise his address and moderation, was a man about thirty-six years of age, with black flowing hair and beard; his stature about middle size. His look betrayed a Greek origin, and that

habitual cunning combined with cowardice so characteristic of the lower orders of that people. Arrived at the place of punishment, he earnestly looked up at the window which had already more than once drawn the eyes of the aide-de-camp that way:-it remained as before, entirely closed by the curtains. He next took a circular view of the crowd assembled round the court-yard, and then, with a painful shrug of the shoulders, examined the plank upon which they were to be so quickly bound. This shudder did not escape the little grey blinking eyes of Ivan, who drawing near to take off the culprit's striped shirt, whispered to him :

"Come, Gregory! have courage my boy."

"You know what you promised me, Ivan," answered the patient, with an undefinable expression of entreaty.

"Not for the first blows, Gregory,-dont calculate on that. The aide-decamp will have his eyes on me then, and I shall catch pepper myself; but towards the latter end, I will endeavour to steal a trifle for you."

"Oh! Ivan, above all, keep off the point of the whip!"

"Hold your tongue, Greg-you know me well enough to be certain that I will not hurt you more than I can help, with any decency."

"I can't help myself," sighed Gregory, "so must trust you." "Well, sir, what is this delay about?" inquired the officer.

"I am just ready, your nobility," replied Ivan.

"Oh! one moment more, your lordship of high origin (vache vousso korodie)," exclaimed Gregory; "I think there is some one at the Countess Alexandrina's window. Please to look up, your lordship."

The young captain quickly raised his eyes to that window, but not the least sign of life appeared within.

"You mistake, fellow," observed he, as his looks were withdrawn," apparently somewhat disappointed himself. "Pray what can your noble mistress have to do with your punishment?"

"Pardon, your excellency," continued Gregory, each time thinking to gratify the aide-de-camp with some new title of honour,—“ I think—that is, I believed my lady countess might perhaps take pity on a poor servantand-"

"Enough, man," answered the captain in a tone of voice that made it clear he wished it had been so, as much almost as the culprit,-" enough!. proceed in the punishment."

"One moment, your nobility," said Ivan,-then turning towards Gre. gory," come keep up your spirits, my boy; I will be as gentle with you as I can."

Poor Gregory heaved a deep sigh, took a last look at the window, and

finding it remain in exactly the same state, at length made up his mind that he must lie down on the fatal plank. At this moment, two other slaves, chosen by Ivan as his assistants, stretched out Gregory's arms, and attached them by the wrists to two posts placed at a short distance, so that the culprit formed the figure of a cross; his neck was next encircled in a fixed iron ring, and finally his legs secured at the ancles. Once more the aide-decamp stole a look at the countess' inexorable window, but seeing no hope from that quarter, he angrily raised his hand towards Ivan, and exclaimed in an authoritative tone--" Now, sir!"

"One moment's patience, your nobility; there's a knot in the knout, and Gregory would have a right to blame me if I left it in ;-it is so confounded tight, I cannot undo it just yet, your nobility."

The instrument in question is certainly unknown to most, if not all of our readers; some description of its form, therefore, appears necessary to explain its horrid properties,-not that we luxuriate in such scenes, or have a view of harrowing up the gentle feelings of our readers, but that all may now rejoice at the total abolition of this horrid punishment. The knout is a species of whip, whose handle is about two feet long; to this is attached a strip of flat leather, two fingers wide, and four feet long; this strap is terminated by a copper or iron ring, to which is affixed another strap of leather in continuation with the first, two feet long, and diminished to a point from two inches and a half breadth at the point of junction. This is repeatedly soaked in mare's milk, and dried in the sun, so that, thanks to that process, its extremity becomes rigid, and sharp as a knife-blade; but as the blood congeals upon it, and softens its cutting perfection, this leathern lash is changed for a dry one every six cuts. When the punishment is intended to be very severe, the point of the lash cuts the flesh in long slices that hang from the sufferer's back.

With all the awkwardness and ill-will applied intentionally by Ivan, in undoing the hard knot, it was evident it could not be delayed for ever; the spectators began to murmur at the delay, and the aide-de-camp seemed roused from the reverie into which he had fallen; and turning once more towards Ivan, desired him to proceed, in a tone that admitted of no further trifling.

Ivan had now no choice left, but taking his stand, and rising on the points of his toes, the terrible lash hissed round his head as he let it fall instantaneously on Gregory's shoulders. With such dexterity was the stroke delivered, that the leather lash wound round the culprit's body like a serpent's coil; but Ivan had justly calculated his distance, and the force of the blow, so that the fatal point should strike the plank, and not the sufferer's writhing

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