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"so that it was dangerous for children to wander in lone places." The addition was made by tying in false locks of hair, rather than by wigs. Henry VII.'s Queen paid for frontlets, £3 13s. 4d., and in Queen Elizabeth's reign we find, "Item-golden dresse fronteletes for her Majestie, thirtie shillings."

The ladies first began to wear corked shoes, or slippers with raised heels, in Elizabeth's reign. Gloves were another expensive article of female apparel, being imported from Spain, richly worked and perfumed. The Queen's minister wrote to the ambassador in Spain, to send a pair of perfumed gloves for himself, and another for his wife-they were to be scentedwith orange flowers and jasmin. But gloves, probably of a very inferior description, were made at Woodstock, where Henry VIII. paid 5s. 4d. for six pair, a price apparently extremely moderate in those days, and even in ours. Both men and women made use of large quantities of perfume. Perfumed balls pockets, scent boxes, and pomanders, were costly and abundant in the sixteenth century—as also scented oils, tinctures, and pomatums. Mary Stuart complained much of ill scents, during one of her abodes at Tilbury, and Elizabeth equally disliked bad odours. She would rate a courtier soundly for 66 a sloven" if he appeared with shoes having the smell of new leather. These ill scents may be largely accounted for, when we consider the want of proper ventilation in the streets and houses of London at that period, and—name it not the want of an ample change of clean linen raiment.

Gentlewomen commonly wore small mirrors at their girdles, or had them set in the fans they carried. These fans were expensive articles, and made of ostrich or other choice feathers. In 1578, Lord North paid for one 33s. 4d A fan presented to Elizabeth in 1589 was “of swanne down, with a maze of green velvet, embroidered with seed pearls, and a very small chayne of silver gilt, and in the middest a border on both sides of seed pearls, sparks of rubies and emeralds, and thereon a monster of gold, the head and breast mother of pearl."

In her early days Elizabeth was averse to fine clothes; and unwillingly complied with her sister Mary's orders that she should wear fine apparel. But she soon became fond of splendid garments. At her death her wardrobe contained three thousand different habits. In the list preserved of new years' gifts to the Queen, are many splendid dresses, probably many of them never worn at all. In that of 1578 we find,-" A pettecoate of tawny satten, reysed with four borders of embrawdory, silver and gold with loopes, lyned `with orange collored sarceonet. A gowne with hanging sleeves of black velvat, and with small wyer of golde, like scallop shelles, set with spangells, embrawdered with a guard, with sundry byrds and flowers embossed with

gold, silver, and silke set with sede pearls." In that year more than one hundred articles of dress were presented to the queen; and in other years at that season a yet greater number.

Starch was first introduced in this reign, for stiffening the enormous ruffs; it was frequently coloured red, blue, or purple; and the art of using it was taught at the rate of four and five pounds.

Harrison, in 1586, after describing the vanity and variety of fashionable dress, thus laments: "How much cost is bestowed now-a-daies upon our bodies, and how little upon our soules! How manie sutes of apparall hath the one, and how little furniture the other! How long time is asked in decking up of the first, and how little space left wherein to feed the latter." He then speaks of the difficulty a lady's tailor had to fit his customers, and what reproachful language he was forced to bear from them.

During the sixteenth century travelling was mostly on horseback; the state of the roads generally was too bad for wheel carriages. Females usually rode behind their servants. Even queens were good horsewomen; but such as were not rode behind their officers. Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., the young queen of Scotland, thus made her first entry into Edinburgh. She travelled part of the way from London in a litter, or close carriage, but was usually on horseback when passing a city or large town.

Both Elizabeth and Mary Stuart were good riders; the latter, on several occasions rode in man's apparel.

The food of this period was similar to that of the preceding centuries. A writer in the reign of Henry VIII., describes the higher ranks as having "the most delycat deynties and curyous mets, with subtilties of cunning appreparyng of the cooks." These "subtilties" were chiefly paste and sweetmeats in the form of castles, ships, and figures of all sorts.

The diet of the poorer classes consisted mostly of brown bread, whey, or sour butter-milk, bacon, and curds. Wheaten bread they ate when the price enabled them to procure it; it was otherwise made of oats and barley. Salted meat was a principal article of food, cattle being too valuable to be killed for general consumption. Brawn was one of the principal luxuries of the rich; a great quantity of it was found by the French when they took Calais ; but they tried in vain to make it palatable by roasting, boiling and baking it.

Tea and coffee were unknown at this period. Breakfasts in the early centuries were substantial meals of meat, with malt liquor and wine in great families. This meal took place in the higher circles about eight in the morning: the dinner would be ready at noon, or somewhat earlier, and the supper was taken about six in the evening.

A French author, in 1553, says,--“The_English_are fond of eating with their beer soft saffron cakes stuffed with raisins.”

Beer was the principal drink of all classes of society, though at this period fifty-six sorts of French and other small wines, with thirty of Spanish and strong wines were known, besides mead and various mixed liquors, as clary and hippocrass, made from wine and spices. The poorer classes were extremely fond of bracket, which was ale boiled up with honey and pepper.

The importance of a proper supply of malt liquor is thus spoken of by the Earl of Leicester, in a letter written in 1575, during one of Elizabeth's progresses. "At her first coming here, being a marvellous hot day, not one drop of good drink for her; but we were fain to send to London with bottles, to Kenelworth, to divers other places where ale was. Her own here was such that there was no man here able to drink it; and yet was it laid in about three days before her majesty came. Hit did put her very farr out of temper, and almost all the company beside so; for none of us was able to drink either beer or ale here. Synce, by chance, we have found drink for her lyking, and she is well again; but I feared greatly, two or three days, some sickness to have fallen by reason of this drynk.”

We shall conclude this sketch of the manners and customs of the sixteenth century by describing the articles of dress worn by persons of exalted rank. The instructions given to a chamberlain "how to dress his soverayne lord and master" at the commencement of this period, are as follows :-" At morne, when your soverayne will arise, warm his shirte by the fyre, and see ye hav a fote shete made in this manner: fyrst set a chayre by the fyre, with a cushion under his fete; then sprede a shete over the chayre, and see that there be ready a kerchife and combe; then warm his peticote, his doublet, and his stomachere; and then put his hosen on and his shone, or slippers; then stryke up his hose mannerly, and tye them up; then lace his doublet hole by hole, and lay the necke clothe, and komb his head; then look yew have a basyn and towele, washe his hands; then kuele upon your knee, and ask your soverayne what robe he will were, and put it upon him; then do his gyrdell about him, and take your leve mannerly." The obsequious chamberlain was then to go to church or chapel, and on his return to make the 66 soverayne's closet ready; then to the chamber, and make the bed; to beat the feather bed well, but loke ye waste no feders." The ceremony of putting to bed was much the same; but concluded with master chamberlain's being recommended "alwaye to take and drive oute dogge or catte."




After that Nuno Salido had permitted the young men to depart alone, in opposition to his advice, and despite the ill augury exhibited, he reflected to himself: "Certes, if death is to take any one, it is better that it should be me than these children, so young. I should gain a bad name; and I, who have been accounted honourable in my younger days, should suffer an old age of disgrace." Thus communing with himself he retraced his steps and followed the seven sons.

He arrived where Velasquez was; and there was a great dispute going on, for Nuno Salido was insulted, and Gonçalo Gonçalez would not allow of it, but killed one of Ruy Velasquez' vassals with a blow of his poignard. As he was about to strike the old man, the cry,-"To arms !" was raised, and great rage exhibited on both sides. Then Don Ruy once more feigned to be loyal and on good terms with his seven nephews.

And afterwards, when all appeared arranged in love and harmony, they went towards Almenar. Don Ruy and his people placed themselves in ambuscade, and ordered the sons of Lara to scour the country.

The Moors being previously informed of this movement, soon appeared with more than ten thousand spears and banners. "Nephews," said he, “ this is nothing; all my courses in the plains have proved successful; do not be afraid, and if it is necessary I will come to your succour." Then the crafty Ruy went towards the Moors to speak to them of the attack and of his seven nephews.

And it is related that Nuno Salido having glided behind him and seen him speak to the Moors, cried out in a terrible voice,—“O, traitor! man of no faith! God has given thee but little comfort; for so long as the world lasts, thy base treachery shall be spoken of and remembered." No sooner had he spoke these words than he rode towards the seven sons at full speed: "Arm yourselves, my children, for Ruy Velasquez and the Moors are resolved to take your lives."

And the sons when they heard his words armed themselves with the greatest haste; but as the Moors were extremely numerous they made fifteen halts, and running towards the sons surrounded them on every side. Now, Nuno Salido encouraged them, saying,—“My children! O, my children! fear nothing; the auguries are always good to strong men. I speak to you in good sooth. I will be the first to attack that first band of Moors. God pro

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tect you afterwards." So saying, he sprang into the midst of the enemy, killed many, but as they were extremely numerous, he was himself killed. The combatants harrassed each other as long as they could, and the Christians fought with such good heart that they killed many more of the enemy than they lost on their own part. But, alas! the two hundred cavaliers that accompanied the seven sons all bit the dust, and they remained without any fresh company of men to assist them afterwards.

And when they perceived that nothing else was left them but to con quer or to die, they invoked the aid of the Apostle St. Jago, and dashed against the Moors. Feran Gonçalez then said to his two brothers,-" Be of good courage, brothers; let us fight with good heart, for should no one come to our aid, God alone can help us. Now that our brave tutor is dead, with so many brave lancemen, let us revenge them or die, my brothers."

They fought like enraged lions, and every blow carried death; then retreating to a rising piece of ground, they washed their faces from the dust and blood that blinded them. Looking around they missed Feran Gonçalez their brother, and naturally concluded that he was either dead, a prisoner, or badly wounded.

And the sons of Lara determined to send and demand a truce of Viara and of Galve, the Moorish chiefs, that they might inquire of Ruy Velasquez if he intended to succour them. The Moors granted the truce required, and Gonçalo Gonçalez was chosen to go and speak with Don Ruy..

But when he had spoken, Don Ruy replied," I do not understand what you are asking, my nephew."

"Don Ruy, do us the courtesy to send to our succour, as you promised you would do, for the Moors are too numerous for us to combat. They have killed Feran Gonçalez your nephew, and with him two hundred brave lancemen that we commanded; in truth, if you will not help us on our own account, do it for God's sake, for we are good Christians."

And Ruy Velasquez slily answered," My friend, return and complete your joyous adventure,-remember the wedding feast of Donna Lambra! You are good chevaliers, and strong to defend yourselves."

When Gonçalo heard these words he bit his lips in silence and returned to his brothers; they were very sorrowful that no assistance was forthcoming in the fight. But God inspired the hearts of some Christians who were with Ruy Velasquez, and about three hundred gallant cavaliers decided voluntarily to join the brothers. Ruy wished to prevent them, but on the first halt, seeing this horrible treachery, they departed three by three and four by four, vowing to kill Ruy if he any longer opposed their departure, for they were men of good courage, and proud bearing, not easily to be put down.

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