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Hubert's resolution and he risks disobeying the king's instructions. The French under the Dauphin invade England. Arthur attempts to escape from his prison by leaping from the castle walls, but he is hurt to the death by the stones on which he falls. His body is found by

. three nobles who, already discontented with John and believing the prince murdered by his order, desert him and join the Dauphin.

ACT V

John, thinking to arrest the invasion of the French, yields to the papal demands. But Lewis refuses to turn back, claiming the crown by right of his marriage since Arthur is dead. A strongly contested battle ensues, but the result is indecisive. The English lords who had joined the French return to their allegiance in time to be pardoned by John before his death from a poison given him by a monk. The French willingly conclude a peace with the English and John's son ascends the throne as Henry III.

3

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF

KING JOHN

ACT FIRST

SCENE I

King John's Palace. Enter King John, Queen Elinor, Pembroke, Es

sex, Salisbury, and others, with Chatillon. K. John. Now, say, Chatillon, what would France

with us? Chat. Thus, after greeting, speaks the King of

France
In my behavior to the majesty,

The borrowed majesty, of England here.
Eli. A strange beginning: 'borrowed majesty!
K. John. Silence, good mother; hear the embassy.
Chat. Philip of France, in right and true behalf

Of thy deceased brother Geffrey's son,
Arthur Plantagenet, lays most lawful claim
To this fair island and the territories,

10
To Ireland, Poictiers, Anjou, Touraine, Maine,
Desiring thee to lay aside the sword
Which sways usurpingly these several titles,

P

And put the same into young Arthur's hand,

Thy nephew and right royal sovereign.
K. John. What follows if we disallow of this?
Chat. The proud control of fierce and bloody war,

To enforce these rights so forcibly witheld.
K. John. Here have we war for war and blood for

blood,
Controlment for controlment:

SO answer
France.

20 Chat. Then take my king's defiance from my

mouth,
The farthest limit of

my embassy.
K. John. Bear mine to him, and so depart in peace:

Be thou as lightning in the eyes of France;
For ere thou canst report I will be there,

The thunder of my canon shall be heard: 15. Thy nephew and right royal sovereign; as Richard I died without lawful issue, the crown in the strict order of succession would have fallen to his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany, then in his twelfth year. But the crown was then partly elective, the nation choosing from the members of the royal family the one they thought fittest for the office. Arthur held the duchy of Brittany in right of his father, Geffrey Plantagenet, an elder brother of John. Anjou, Touraine, and Maine, the ancient patrimony of the house of Anjou, were his by hereditary right. As Duke of Brittany Arthur was a vassal of Philip Augustus, King of France; and Constance engaged to Philip that her son should do him homage also for Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and Poictou, on condition that Philip should support his claim to the English crown. England having declared for John, the play opens with Philip's interference in behalf of Arthur.-H. N. H.

20. According to the Cambridge editors the line must probably be scanned as an Alexandrine, reading the first "controlment" in the time of a trisyllable and the second as a quadrisyllable. This seems very doubtful; the irregularity of the line is not remarkable; there is merely an extra syllable before the pause:

Contról ment for controlment || 80 ánswer Fránce.|--I. G. 26. "The thunder of my cannon"; the Poet here anticipates the use

.

So hence! Be thou the trumpet of our wrath
And sullen presage of your own decay.
An honorable conduct let him have:
Pembroke, look to 't. Farewell, Chatillon. 30

[Exeunt Chatillon and Pembroke. Eli. What now, my son! have I not ever said

How that ambitious Constance would not cease
Till she had kindled France and all the world,
Upon the right and party of her son?
This might have been prevented and made

whole
With very easy arguments of love,
Which now the manage of two kingdoms must

With fearful bloody issue arbitrate. K. John. Our strong possession and our right for Eli. Your strong possession much more than your right,

us. of gunpowder by about a hundred years. Thus, again, in Act ii. he speaks of "bullets wrapp'd in fire." A similar anachronism occurs in Macbeth, Act i. sc. 2: “They were as cannons overcharg'd with double cracks.” John's reign began in 1199, and cannon are said to have been first used at the battle of Cressy, in 1346. In all these cases Shakespeare simply aimed to speak the language that was most intelligible to his audience, rendering the ancient engines of war by their modern equivalents. Of course he is found fault with by those who in a drama prefer chronological accuracy to dramatic effect.H. N. H.

28. sullen presage of your own decay"; there is perhaps an allusion here to the dismal passing-bell, as Steevens suggested; according to Delius, the trumpet of doom is alluded to. There is, however, no difficulty in the thought as it stands, without these references to a secondary idea.-I. G.

34. "Her son"; Elinor's hostility to Constance is thus accounted for by Holinshed: “Surely Queen Elinor, the king's mother, was sore against her nephew Arthur, rather moved thereto by envy conceived against his mother, than upon any just occasion given in the behalf of the child; for that she saw if he were king how his mother Constance would look to bear most rule within the realm of England, till her son should come to lawful age to govern of himself.”H. N. H.

40 Or else it must go wrong with you and me:

: So much my conscience whispers in your ear, Which none but heaven and you and I shall hear.

Enter a Sheriff Essex. My liege, here is the strangest controversy

Come from the country to be judged by you,

That e'er I heard: shall I produce the men?
K. John. Let them approach.

Our abbeys and our priories shall pay
This expedition's charge.
Enter Robert Faulconbridge, and Philip his

bastard brother.

What men are you?
Bast. Your faithful subject I, a gentleman

50
Born in Northamptonshire, and eldest son,
As I suppose, to Robert Faulconbridge,
A soldier, by the honor-giving hand

Of Coeur-de-lion knighted in the field. 49. "expedition's"; first Folio expeditious; an obvious misprint.I. G.

"Bastard brother”; Richard I died without lawful issue. Holinshed, speaking of the first year of John's reign, says,—“The same year also, Philip, bastard son to King Richard, to whom his father had given the castle and honour of Coynack, killed the Viscount of Lymoges, in revenge of his father's death, who was slain in besieging the castle of Chalus Cheverell.” The old play furnished Shakespeare a slight hint towards the character:

“Next them a bastard of the king's deceas'd,

A hardie wild-head, rough and venturous.”—H. N. H. 54. "Coeur-de-lion; Cordelion”; in the Folios and old play; perhaps the spelling should be kept as the popular form of the name.

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