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like the short e, when followed by a consonant in the same syllable, as Dedalus, Edipus, &c. pronounced as if written . Deddalus, Eddipus, &c. The vowels ei are generally pronounced like long e.
6. Y is exactly under the same predicament as i. It is long when ending an accented syllable, as Cy'rus ; or when ending an unaccented syllable if final, as Ægy, Æ'py, &c. :' short when joined to a consonant in the same syllable, as Lyc'idas ; and sometimes long and sometimes short, when ending an initial syllable not under the accent, as Ly-cur'gus, pronounced with the first syllable like lie, a falsehood; and Lysimachus with the first syllable like the first of legion; or nearly as if divided into Lys-im'a-chus, &c.
7. A, ending an unaccented syllable, has the same ob$cure sound as in the same situation in English words; but it is a sound bordering on the Italian a, or the a in fa-ther, as Dia'na, where the difference between the accented and unaccented a is palpable. .
8. E final, either with or without the preceding con-
10. T, S, and C, before ia, ie, iż, io, iu, and eu, preceded by the accent, in Latin words, as in English, change into sh and zh, as Tatian, Statius, Portius, Portia, Socias, Caduceus, Accius, Helvetii, Mæsia, Hesiod, &c. pronounced Tashean, Stasheus, Porsheus, Porshea, Sosheas, Cadusheus, Aksheus, Helveshei, Mezhea, Hezheod, &c. But when the accent is on the first of the diphthongal vowels, the preceding consonant does not go into sh, but preserves its sound pure, as Miltiades, Antiates, &c. See the word Satiety in Walker's Pron. Dict.
11. T and S, in proper names, ending in tia, sia, cyon, and sion, preceded by the accent, change the t and s into sh and zh. Thus Phocion, Sicyon, and Cercyon, are pronounced exactly in our own analogy, as if written Phoshean, Sishean, and Sershean : Artemisia, and Aspasia sound as if written Artemizhea and Aspazhea i Galatia, Aratia, Alotia,
and Batia, as if written Galashea, Arashea, Aloshea, and Bashea: and if Atia, the town in Campania, is not so pronounced, it is to distinguish it from Asia, the eastern region of the world.
12. Ch. These letters before a vowel are always pronounced like k, as Chabrias, Colchis, &c. but when they come before a mute consonant at the beginning of a word, as in Chthonia, they are mute, and the word is pronounced as if written Thonia. Words beginning with Sche, as Schedius, Scheria, &c. are pronounced as if written Skedius, Skeria, &c.; and c before n in the Latin prænomen Cneus or Cnæus is mute ; so in Cnopus, Cnosus, &c.
13. At the beginning of Greek words we frequently find the uncombinable consonants MN, TM, &c. as Mnemosyne, Mnesidamus, Mneus, Mnesteus, Tmolus, &c. These are to be pronounced with the first consonant mute, as if written Nemosyne, Nesidamus, Neus, Nesteus, Molus, &c. in the same manner as we pronounce the words Bdellium, Pneumatick, Gnomon, Mnemonics, &c. without the initial consonant. The same may be observed of the C hard like K, when it comes before T; as Ctesiphon, Ctesippus, &c. Some of these words we see sometimes written with an e or i after the first consonant, as Menesteus, Timolus, &c. and then the initial consonant is pronounced.
14. Ph, followed by a consonant, is mute, as Phthia, Phthiotis, pronounced Thia, Thiotis, in the same manner as the naturalised Greek word Phthisick pronounced Tisick.
15. Ps :-p is mute also in this combination, as Psyche, Psammetichus, &c. pronounced Syke, Sammeticus, &c.
16. Pt, p. is mute in words beginning with these letters when followed by a vowel, as Ptolemy, Pterilas, &c. pronounced Tolemy, Terilas, &c.; but when followed by l, the t is heard, as in Tleptolemus. The same may be observed of the z in Zmilaces.
17. The letters S, X, and 2, require but little observation, being generally pronounced as in pure English words. It may however be remarked, that s, at the end of words, preceded by any of the vowels but e, has its pure hissing sound ; as mas, dis, os, mus, &c.—but when e precedes, it goes into the sound of z; as pes, Thersites, vates, &c. X, when beginning a word or syllable, is pronounced like z; as Xerxes, Xenophon, &c. are pronounced Zerkzes, Zenophon, &c. Z is uniformly pronounced as in English words : thus the z in Zeno and Zeugma is pronounced as we hear it in zeal, zone, &c.
Rules for ascertaining the English Quantity of Greek and
' Latin Proper Names. 18. It may at first be observed, that words of two syllables, with but one consonant in the middle, whatever be the quantity of the vowel in the first syllable in Greek or Latin, are always long in English: thus Crates the philosopher, and crates a hurdle ; decus honour, and dedo to give; ovo to triumph, and ovum an egg; Numa the legislator, and Numen the divinity, have the first vowel always sounded equally long by an English speaker, although in Latin the first vowel in the first word of each of these pairs is short.
19. On the contrary, words of three syllables, with the accent on the first and with but one consonant after the first syllable, have that syllable pronounced short, let the Greek or Latin quantity be what it will. This rule is never broken but when the first syllable is followed by e or i, followed by another vowel: in this case the vowel in the first syllable is long, except that vowel be i : thus lamia, genius, Libya, doceo, cupio, have the accent on the first syllable, and this syllable is pronounced long in every word but Libya, though in the original it is equally short in all.
20. When a consonant ends a syllable, the vowel is always short, whether the accent be on it or not; but when a vowel ends a syllable with the accent on it, it is always long. the vowel u, when it ends a syllable, is long whether the accent be on it or not, and the vowel i (3) (4) when it ends a syllable without the accent, is pronounced like e ; but if the syllable be final, it has its long open sound as if the accent were on it: and the same may be observed of the letter y. Rules for placing the Accent of Greek and Latin Proper
Names. ? 21. Words of two syllables, either Greek or Latin, what
ever be the quantity in the original, have, in English pronunciation, the accent on the first syllable: and if a single consonant come between two vowels, the consonant goes to the last syllable, and the vowel in the first is long; as Cato, Ceres, Comus, &c.
22. Polysyllables have generally the accent on the penultinate if it be long, as Severus, Democedes, &c.; if short, the accent is on the antepepultimate, as Deinosthenes, Aristophanes, Posthumus, &c.
GREEK AND LATIN PROPER NAMES.
A list comprising such Greek and Latin proper names, as are either to be found in the preceding Lessons, or are of... common occurrence.
'sop, Eng. A-ca'ri-a
BY As-syr'i-a As-ty'a-nax · A'te Ath-a-na'si-us Ath-e-næ'um Atlas At'ti-ca Atti-cus At'ti-la Au-gus-ti'nus Au-gus’tin Eng. Au-re'li-us Au-ro'ra A u'spi-ces
AS An-ti-nop'o-'is An-ti-o'chi-a, or
An-ti-o-chi'a An'ti-och Eng. An-tilo-chus An-tip'a-ter An-to-ni'nus An-to'ni 3 A-pel'la A-pelles A'pis A-pol'lo Ap-ol-lo'ni-a A-poth-e-o'sis Ap-o-the'o-sis Ap'pi-i Foʻrum A-quari-us Ar-a'bi-a Arabs Ar-ca'di-a Ar-che-la'us Ar-chip’pe Ar-chip'pus Arc-tu'rus A-relli-us Ar-e-op-a-gi'tæ Ar-e-op'a-gus Ar-gi'va Ar-gi'vi Ar gives Eng. Argus . Ar-is-tar chus Ar-is-ti'des Ar-is-tip'pus Ar-is-to-bu'lus Ar-is-toph'a-nes Ar-is-tot'e-les Ar'is-to-tle Eng. A'ri-us Ar-me'ni-a Ar-ta-xerx'es As'ca-lon A'si-a
Bab-y-lo'ni-a Bac'chus Bac'tra Ba'vi-us Belgæ Belgi-um Bel-i-sa'ri-us Bel-ler'o-phon Bel-lo'na Be'lus Ber-e-ni'ce Bes'ti-a · Bi'as Bi'on Bi-thyn'i-a Bæ-o'ti-a Bo'lus Bo-o'tes Bo're-as Bos'pho-rus. Bri-a're-us Bri-tan'ni-a Bru'tus By-zan'ti-um Byz'i-a
C. Cadmus Cæ-cil'i-a Cæ'sar Cæs-a-re'a Ca'i-us, and Ca'i-a Ca'i-us Cal'a-is Cal-e-do'ni-a Ca-lig'u-la Cal-lis'te Cal-lis-te'i-a Cal-lis'the-nes Cam-by'ses Cam'e-ra Ca-mil'la Ca'na Can'da-ce Can-u-le'i-us Ca-pit-o-li'nus Cap-pa-do'ci-a Cap-ri-cor'nus: Ca-rac'ta-cus Car-tha'go Car'thage, Eng. Cas'ca Cas-san'der Cas'si-us r Cas-ta'li-a Cas'tor and Pollux Cat-i-li'na Cat'i-line, Eng. Ca'to Ce'don Cela-don. Celsus Celtæ Ceres Char-i-de'mus Cha'ron Cha-ryb'dis Chi-mera Chi'on