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adopted and some disregarded. Still, certain measures have been inaugurated, and bave been so far tested that they seem to have become the settled policy of the Commonwealth. The State has carried out the idea of the establishment of Normal Schools for the purpose of fitting teachers of our Common Schools at the public expense. Commencing with the year 1839 previous to the year 1871, four Normal Schools had been established, and were in successful operation. In the year 1871, a fifth Normal School was established at Worcester, and in the year 1873 the State Normal Art-School was established in Boston. From the statistics of the present year, it appears that the number of scholars for the year in the various Normal Schools is as follows :
In order to show the increasing interest which is manifested in the Normal Schools of the State, the following table of the State Normal School at Salem is annexed as an illustration :
Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, .
I coor IIIIIIIIIII
139 138 130
113 115 121 124
Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, . Winter, . Summer, Winter, Summer, Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, . Winter, Summer, Winter, .
137 149 145 160 156 147 164 155 159 152 158 170 173 195 209
I Col Color! 110 111 1101 INNCON
Since 1865, the number of pupils has increased from 121 to 246.
The school building was originally constructed with seats for 120 pupils. In 1871 the house was enlarged so as to furnish seats for 210 pupils. The school now numbers 36 more than the number of seats in the main hall; hence one of the recitation-rooms must be used for a study-room.
The standard of admission has been considerably raised. For several terms, one-fourth, at least, of the applicants for admission have been rejected.
A large proportion of the applicants are graduates of High Schools. Many of the pupils have been teachers who had previously taught school several years.
The school, now at Framingham, was opened at Lexington in the year 1839, with an attendance of three scholars. The number was increased to twenty-two during the first year. It was removed to West Newton, and afterwards to Framingham. The number of pupils in the school is now 127. The statistics of the work of the graduates of the school are very interesting. Of those who graduated between the years 1840 and 1870 inclusive, 657 have been recently heard from. Of this number about 95 per cent. have taught, and their average time of teaching has been 6.33 years. From the reports of the success of these teachers, the Board is satisfied that the money expended for the establishment and support of this school has been profitably invested.
The school at Westfield was opened September 4, 1844. Between 1844 and 1846, 38 pupils attended the school. It now numbers 176.
The school has had a very great influence in Western Massachusetts in modifying the character of the schools, and it is strongly recommended by all leading educators of the country.
The school at Bridgewater commenced September 9, 1840, with 28 pupils. It now numbers 160.
The graduates of this school are occupying many of the most prominent and responsible positions as teachers in the leading schools of this State, and are found in almost every State in the Union. Eight of them are masters of Boston grammar-schools, eight are sub-masters, several are teachers, and a large number of the ladies are assistants in every grade. They are in all the large cities in Eastern Massachusetts, and they are widely scattered through the schools of the small towns of this part of the State. There are more calls for graduates every year than can be met.
The school at Worcester commenced its first year with 59 scholars. Its attendance now is 99 scholars. The building is calculated to accommodate 200 pupils, and will undoubtedly be filled.
The attendance at each of the Normal Schools is larger than ever before, and the interest in the schools is increasing constantly. The results in the Worcester School demonstrate the demand for the school in that locality, and the time is probably not far distant when another Normal School will be demanded in the western part of the State.
The Normal Schools of the State are placed by statute especially in charge of the Board, and are objects of growing interest to the friends of education. They are the result of the conviction that in order to have the children taught to the best advantage, we should, to a reasonable.extent, prepare the teachers, and fit them for their important and responsible duties. There is no occasion in this Report to argue this question. These schools are among the most thoroughly established institutions of the State, and the Board acts upon the presumption that there will be more likely to be a demand for an increase than for a diminution in their number.
The system of agencies established under the authority of the law is one which meets the approval of the Board. There are now four Agents whose special duty it is to visit the towns and cities, inquire into the condition of the schools, confer with teachers and committees, lecture upon subjects connected with education, and give and receive information upon subjects connected with education. The number of Agents should be increased, in order that the work may be done more effectively. When we consider the number of cities and towns, and the number of schools, in the State, it is clear that four Agents can do but little towards the accomplishment of the important busiuess which is involved in the work.
The statute also provides for Teachers' Institutes, when the Board of Education is satisfied that fifty teachers of Public Schools desire to unite for the purpose. These Institutes have at times been very successful in infusing new interest into the subject of teaching, and have given much valuable aid to those who have enjoyed the benefits of them. In order to make them more effective, the Board suggests whether it may not be advisable to require the teachers in the Common Schools within a certain district to be designated by the Secretary, under the authority of the Board, to attend the Institute, no deduction being made from their salaries by reason of the recess in their schools during the period of holding the Institute in case the teachers attend the meetings of the Institute during its sessions.
The Board of Education has from year to year laid before
the legislature a report of its doings, with various suggestions upon the subject specially in its charge. The subject which suggests itself most distinctly at this time grows out of the Resolve which appears in the beginning of this Report. How shall the money needed for carrying on the educational interests of the State be raised, and in what spirit should our educational institutions be sustained ? In this connection it may be well to look for one moment at the progress of the State in wealth and population.
Beginning with the year 1840, soon after the establishment of the first Normal School, we find the population of the State as follows:
Showing an increase during the last five years of 194,301, or 13 per cent. in the population of the State.
Beginning with the year 1841, the valuation of the State is as follows: