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4. From the glare and brilliancy of his public life, lead them to his retirement-show whither this venerable patriot, voluntarily retiring from the ardent gaze and plaudits of an admiring world—having applied his best years to the service of his country, he devoted the residue of his days to his friends, to his family, and to his God. In his character let them see the rare combination of the noblest, the most elevated attributes of the hero and the magistrate, with the industry, the economy, the exact regularity, and all the social virtues of the obedient, the useful citizen :-To close the impressive lesson, point them to the glorious consummation of his character, in bis pious resignation, and his death.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

The Unanimous Declaration of the Congress of the Thirteen

United States of America, passed July 4, 1776.* ;

* 1. When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which im pel them to the separation.

2. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed ; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the

right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new go· vernment, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its

* Philadelphia, July 5, 1776. DEAR SIR,

Yesterday tho greatest question was decided which was ever debated in America, and greater, perhaps, never was or will be decided among men. A resolution was passed, without one dissenting Colony, that these United Stetes are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.".

The day is passed. The 4th of July, 1776, will be a memorable epocha in the history of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival; it ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by so lemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games, sports, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of the continent to the other, from this time forward forever! You will think me transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of the toil, and blood, and treasure, that it will cost to maintain this declaration, and support and defend these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see a ray of light and glory. I can see that the end is worth more than all the means; and that posterity will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I hope we shall not. Yours, &c.

JOHN ADAMS.

powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safe. ty and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and accordingly all experience hath showa, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present king of Great Britain, is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having, in direct obo ject, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

3. He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

4. He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation, till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature-a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

5. He has called together legislative bodies at placeg unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the repository vi ücir public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. ",

6. He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. I

7. He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large, for their exercise, the state remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

8. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States ; for that parpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands. i * 9. He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

10. He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

11. He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers, to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

12. He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures. .

13. He has affected to render the military independent of, and superiour to, the civil power.

14. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation :.

15. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

16. For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment, for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States:

17. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world : 18. For imposing taxes on us without our consent:

19. For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury : · 20. For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended of

fences :

21. For abolishing the free system of English laws in á neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies :

22. For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments :

23. For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

24. He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against us.

25. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

26. He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries, to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyraony, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the bead of a civilized nation. · 27. He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, for to fall themselves by their hands.

28. He has excited domestio insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

29. In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.

30. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people..

31. Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connexions and correspondence. They too have been deal to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind-enemies in war, in peace, friends.

32. We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in general Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world, for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.

JOHN HANCOCK, President. New Hampshire. New-Jersey. Thomas Stone, Josiah Bartlett, Richard Stockton, C.Carroll, of Carrollton. William Whipple, John Witherspoon,

Virginia. Matthew Thornton. Francis Hopkinson,

John Hart,

.. George Wythe, Massachusetts Bay. Abraham Clark. .

Richard Henry Lee,

Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams,

Pennsylvania.. John Adams,

Benjamin Harrison,

Thomas Nelson, jr. Robert Treat Paine, Robert Morris,

:

Francis Lightfoot Lee, Elbridge Gerry. Benjamin Rush,

Carter Braxton.
Benjamin Franklin,
Rhode-Island, &c.
John Morton,

North Carolina. . . Stephen Hopkins,

George Clymer, ; William Hooper,
Wisliam Ellery. James Smith,

Joseph Hewes,
George Taylor,

John Penn.
Connecticut.. James Wilson,
Roger Sherman,
George Ross.

South Carolina.
Samuel Huntington,

Edward Rutledge, William Williams,

Delaware.

Thomas Heyward, jr. Oliver Wolcott. Cesar Rodney, Thomas Lynch, jr. George Read,

Arthur Middleton. New-York.

Thomas M'Kean. William Floyd,

Georgia. Philip Livingston,

Maryland.

Burton Gwinnett, Francis Lewis,

Samuel Chase, Lyman Hall, Lewis Morris.

William Paca, George Walton:

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, passed in Congress, July 8, 1778, between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, NewJersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Georgia.

ARTICLE 1. 1. The style of this confederacy shall be, “THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA."

ARTICLE 2. 1. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assemblcd.

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ARTICLE 3. 1. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each * other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of

them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

ARTICLE 4. 1. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and inter-course among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states; and the people of each state shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively; provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also, that no imposition, duties, or restriction, shall be laid by any state on the property of the United States, or either of them.

2. If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any state, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon the demand of the governor or executive power of the state from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

3. Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.

ARTICLE 5. 1. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the Legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November in every year, with a power reserved to each state to recal its delegates, or any of thein, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year. • 2. No state shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years ; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or any other, for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, or emolument, of any kind. "

3. Each state 'shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of the states..,

4. In determining questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote. innen

5. Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached of questioned in any court or place out of Congress; and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Con gross, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

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