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exploration and the biographies of heroes are left out. i We frankly hold that, if pupils know little or nothing about Columbus, Cortes, Magellan, or Captain John Smith by the time they reach the high school, it is useless to tell the same stories for perhaps the fourth time. It is worse than useless. It is an offense against the teachers of those subjects that are demonstrated to be progressive in character. I

In the next place we have omitted all descriptions of battles. Our reasons for this are simple. The strategy of a campaign or of a single battle is a highly technical, and usually a highly controversial, matter about which experts differ widely. In the field of military and naval operations most writers and teachers of history are mere novices. To dispose of Gettysburg or the Wilderness in ten lines or ten pages is equally absurd to the serious student of military affairs. Any one who compares the ordinary textbook account of a single Civil War campaign with the account given by Ropes, for instance, will ask for no further comment. No youth called upon to serve our country in arms would think of turning to a high school manual for information about the art of warfare. The dramatic scene or episode, so useful in arousing the interest of the immature pupil, seems out of place in a book that deliberately appeals to boys and girls on the very threshold of life's serious responsibilities.

It is not upon negative features, however, that we rest our case. It is rather upon constructive features.

First. We have written a topical, not a narrative, history. We have tried to set forth the important aspects, problems, and movements of each period, bringing in the narrative rather by way of illustration.

Second. We have emphasized those historical topics which help to explain how our nation has come to be what it is to-day.

Third. We have dwelt fully upon the social and economic aspects of our history, especially in relation to the politics of each period.

Fourth. We have treated the causes and results of wars, the problems of financing and sustaining armed forces, rather than military strategy. These are the subjects which belong to a history for civilians. These are matters which civilians can understand — matters which they must understand, if they are to play well their part in war and peace.

Fifth. By omitting the period of exploration, we have been able to enlarge the treatment of our own time. We have given special attention to the history of those current questions which must form the subject matter of sound instruction in citizenship.

Sixth. We have borne in mind that America, with all her unique characteristics, is a part of a general civilization. Accordingly we have given diplomacy, foreign affairs, world relations, and the reciprocal influences of nations their appropriate place.

Seventh. We have deliberately aimed at standards of maturity. The study of a mere narrative calls mainly for the use of the memory. We have aimed to stimulate habits of analysis, comparison, association, reflection, and generalization — habits calculated to enlarge as well as inform the mind. We have been at great pains to make our text clear, simple, and direct; but we have earnestly sought to stretch the intellects of our readers — to put them upon their mettle. Most of them will receive the last of their formal instruction in the high school. The world will soon expect maturity from them. Their achievements will depend upon the possession of other powers than memory alone. The effectiveness of their citizenship in our republic will be measured by the excellence of their judgment as well as the fullness of their information.

C. A. B.
M. R. B.

New York City,
February 8, 1921.

A SMALL LIBRARY IN AMERICAN HISTORY

SINGLE VOLUMES:

BASSETT. J. S. A Short History of the United State*
ELSON. H. W. History of the United States of America

SERIES:

•• EraTM Of American History," Edited Bt A. B. Hart

HART, A. B. Formation of the Union

THWAITES, R. G The Colonies

WILSON. WOODROW. Division and Reunion

"Riverhde Series." Edited by W. E. Dodd

BECKER, C. L. Beginnings of the American People
DODD, W. E. Expansion and Conflict
JOHNSON, A. Union and Democracy
PAXSON, F. L. The New Nation

CONTENTS

PART I. THE COLONIAL PERIOD

CHAPTER PAGE

I. The Great Migration To America 1

The Agencies of American Colonization ... 2

The Colonial Peoples 6

The Process of Colonization 12

II. Cqvnial Agriculture, Industry, And Commerce 20

-jj^VThe Land and the Westward Movement ... 20

Industrial and Commercial Development ... 28

III. Social And Political Progress 38

The Leadership of the Churches 39

Schools and Colleges 43

The Colonial Press 46

The Evolution in Political Institutions ... 48

IV. The Development Of Colonial Nationalism . . 56

Relations with the Indians and the French . . 57
The Effects of Warfare on the Colonies . . .61

Colonial Relations with the British Government . 64

Summary of Colonial Period 73

PART II. CONFLICT AND INDEPENDENCE

V. The New Course In British Imperial Policy . . 77

George III and His System 77

George Ill's Ministers and Their Colonial Policies 79

Colonial Resistance Forces Repeal .... 83

Resumption of British Revenue and Commercial Policies 87

Renewed Resistance in America 90

Retaliation by the British Government ... 93

From Reform to Revolution in America ... 95

VI. The American Revolution 99

Resistance and Retaliation 99
CHAPTER \ PAQB

American Independence 101

The Establishment of Government and the New

Allegiance . . . 108

Military Affairs 116

The Finances of the Revolution 125

The Diplomacy of the Revolution 127

Peace at Last 102

Summary of the Revolutionary Period .... 135

PART III. FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNION AND
NATIONAL POLITICS

VII. The Formation Of The Constitution .... 139

The Promise and the Difficulties of America . ^ 139

The Calling of a Constitutional Convention . . - v'

The Framing of the Constitution .... 146
The Struggle over Ratification .... ^^^157

VIII. The Clash Of Political Parties 162

The Men and Measures of the New Government . 162

The Rise of Political Parties 168

Foreign Influences and Domestic Politics . . . 171

IX. The Jeffersonian Republicans In Power . . . 186

Republican Principles and Policies . . . . 186

The Republicans and the Great West .... 188

The Republican War for Commercial Independence 193

The Republicans Nationalized 201

The National Decisions of Chief Justice Marshall . 208
Summary of Union and National Politics . . .212

PART IV. THE WEST AND JACKSONIAN
DEMOCRACY

X. The Farmers Beyond The Appalachians . . 217

Preparation for Western Settlement .... 217
The Western Migration and New States . . .221

The Spirit of the Frontier 228

The West and the East Meet 230

XI. Jacksonian Democracy 238

The Democratic Movement in the East . . . 238

The New Democracy Enters the Arena .... 244

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