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4. The “Inductive Lessons.” The principle, Use the inductive method to discover a truth, the deductive to apply it, has been closely adhered to.

5. The forms of analysis and parsing, both oral and written. The oral forms are stripped of useless words, and are expressed in plain sentences, simply and correctly constructed. The advantages of using written forms of analysis are admitted by all good teachers. The forms herein presented, which are essentially the same as those published several years ago in the author's “ Forms of Parsing and Analysis,” have been fully tested in the class-room, and found to be of great assistance to the pupil in preparing a lesson, as well as in reciting it.

6. The treatment of clauses, and especially abridged clauses. 7. The treatment of subordinate conjunctives.

8. The gradation and literary character of the sentences selected for analysis and parsing.

9. The exercises of copying and committing sentences.
10. Part III, “ Position of the Parts of Speech."
11. Classification of pronouns, conjunctive pronouns, etc.

12. The treatment of the objective case, of predicate nouns and adjectives, nouns used adverbially, etc.

13. The classes of verbs, the treatment of infinitives and participles, verbals, infinitive and participial moods, etc.

14. “ Language Tables,” and exercises in correcting errors of speech. Objections have sometimes been made to exercises in “False Syntax” in a work of this kind; but when it is remembered that incorrect modes of expression are learned, not by seeing them, but by hearing them, and that most children come to school with many incorrect expressions already learned, the use of such exercises at once becomes apparent.

15. The Course in Composition, as presented in Part V, including Letter-Writing, Business Papers, etc.

The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the works of Maetzner, Morris, Mason, Bain, and others. His thanks are due to the scholars and teachers who kindly examined the “ Advance Pages” of this work, printed for private use about two years ago. Their suggestions and criticisms have been of much service to him in the revision of the work.

In conclusion, it is proper to add that the book, both in its general plan and in its details, has been thoroughly tested in common schools and in higher institutions of learning. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, MILLERSVILLE, PA.,

January 19, 1886.

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

1. Do not have pupils begin the study of grammar before their minds are mature enough to understand the subject.

2. Bear in mind that English grammar is to be studied (1) to give culture to the powers of inductive and deductive reasoning; (2) to assist pupils in learning to read (i. e., in learning to obtain thought from written or printed words combined in sentences); and (3) to assist them in learning to use the language-and especially written language-correctly.

3. In teaching the ideas and truths of grammar, be guided by the following pedagogical principles : (1) From the known to the related unknown. (2) From particulars to the general. (3) Ideas first, then words; thoughts first, then sentences. In teaching the application of these ideas and truths, follow the principle: From the general to the particular.

4. The book is divided into two courses. The first course includes the paragraphs and exercises marked with bold-faced figures.* The second course embraces the contents of the entire book. Pupils who are beginning the study of technical grammar, and those who have but a short time in which to study the subject, should take the first or shorter course. Do not be too particular about having every definition recited verbatim in this course. It is much more important that pupils should understand what is expressed by the definitions and remarks, than that they should recite them parrot-like, without understanding them.

5. See Special Suggestions to Teachers, Appendix, p. 261.

* The paragraphs and exercises marked with italic letters belong to the second course. They are not necessarily related to the numbered articles after which they are placed. Thus Exercise (c), p. 59, is an exercise belonging to the second course : it is not related to Exercise 214, p. 56. So also, Art. 218 belongs to the first course, while Art. 218 a is part of the second course ; but the two articles are not related as principal and subordinate.

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GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.

PART I.

ELEMENTS OF SPEECH.

NOUNS.

Inductive Lesson.—No trees can be seen on Gibraltar, if it is viewed from the sea; but there are wooded glens in the nooks of the mountain. In the crevices of the rock, asparagus, aloes, and other plants grow; and birds, rabbits, and apes play on the upper parts. At its highest point it is called the Sugar Loaf. It contains a number of caves, some of which are large, and others are mere passages.

QUESTION.Can you find twenty names in the foregoing paragraph ?
The foregoing names are called nouns.
TO THE TEACHER.-See Appendix, p. 261, Suggestion 1.

1. A Noun is a word used as a name.

EXERCISES. 2. Copy the nouns in the foregoing paragraph.

3. Write five names of plants. Five nouns that are the names of animals. Five nouns that name places.

4. Point out the nouns in your reading-lesson. TO THE TEACHER.-See Appendix, p. 261, Sug. 2.

NOUNS. (Continued.) Inductive Lesson.—1. Mary and Martha are sisters. 2. The city of Chicago is in the State of Illinois. 3. Where is the city of Louisville ? 4. Is not May a pleasant month

QUESTIONS.— What particular names have the sisters ? Which of the foro going nouns are particular names ? Which are general names? How do the two kinds differ? What kind of letter does each particular name begin with?

5. The particular names given to persons, places, and other objects should begin with capital letters.

6. The names of the days of the week and the months of the year are particular names, and should begin with capital letters. The names of the seasons should begin with small letters.

EXERCISES. 7. Write the particular names (13) in the following list in one column, and the general names (7) in another. Capitalize when required.

city, louisville, philadelphia, lancaster, boy, girl, tree, john, man, johnson, alice, harold, towser, country, plato, venus, mary, england, california, planet.

8. Write the names of the days of the week. The months of the year. The seasons.

NOUNS. (Continued.)

Inductive Lesson.-1. New York is in the United States. 2. James A. Garfield was elected President in 1880. 3. Doctor Evans is a dentist. 4. Who was Lodovico Cornaro ? 5. J. A. Garfield died in 1881, and Chester A. Arthur became President of the U. S.

QUESTIONS.— Point out the names, or nouns, in the foregoing sentences. What names consist of more than one word ? In what names are initial letters, op " initials," used? How is the name United States" abbreviated?

9. A noun may consist of more than one word.

10. Each word of a particular name consisting of more than one word should begin with a capital letter.

11. An initial letter should be followed by a period (.).

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