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rings round their fore-legs: they also give them a As a general result, the committals in England are regular allowance of bread and meat, and take all thus in the proportion of one to 740 inhabitants; and possible care of them while alive. When they die, the in Wales, of one to 2,320. In London and Middlesex Egyptians embalm them and put them in sacred sepul- the proportion is higher than in any other county, being chres." Fortunately for the credit of Herodotus, a one committal to every 400 inhabitants; in Surrey the mummy of a crocodile has been found with his ears proportion is one to 680; in Kent, one to 730; in pierced for pendents, which fact is particularly men- Sussex, one to 750; in Essex, one to 650; in Herford. tioned by M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire *.
shire, one to 520; in Bedfordshire, one to 710. In the Strabo tells an odd story of a crocodile which he saw manufacturing districts the proportion is in Lancashire when he visited Egypt, somewhat more than 400 years one to 650; in Warwickshire, one to 480; in Gloucesafter the visit of Herodotus. " In this district they tershire (including Bristol), one to 540; in Nottingham, honour the crocodile very much, and they have a sacred one to 750; in Cheshire, one to 630. In the more one which lives by itself in the lake, and is quite tame remote counties the proportion is small, that of Norto the priests. He is called Suchus, and is fed with thumberland being only one to 2,700; of Durham, one bread, and meat, and wine, which he gets froin strangers to 2,460; and of Cornwall, one to 1,600. It should who come to see him.
Our host, who was a person be remarked, that of late, other causes than the adof importance in the place, accompanied us to the vance of crime have tended to fill the prisons, such Jake, taking with him from table a small cake, some as the Malicious Trespass Act, and the law for paying roasted meat, and a little cup full of some sweet liquor. prosecutors their expenses in cases of misdemeanour; We found the crocodile lying on the margin of the lake. and it is most satisfactory to observe that the darker The priests went up to him, and while some opened his crimes have, of late years, been less apparent than of old. mouth, another crammed into it, first the cake, then the (12.)--The number of depositors in Savings' Banks meat, and, last of all, poured the drink down his throat. in England in 1830 (including 5,904 Friendly and The crocodile, after this treat, jumped into the lake, and Charitable Societies) was 373,716, and in Wales 10,404. swam over to the other side t.” Inthe Townley Gallery The total amount thus invested was, in England, of the British Museum (Room VI. No. 88) there is a 13,080,2551., and, in Wales, 340,7211. The proportion piece of sculpture representing a man mounted on the of the depositors to the total population, is therefore back of a crocodile, in a singular attitude, which will be about 34 in every 1000, or one in 30. The average of best understood by a visit to the Museum.
the ten counties, in paragraph 2, is 25 depositors to STATISTICAL NOTES.
every 1000; of the thirteen counties, in påragraph 3, it ENGLAND AND WALES (CONTINUED).
is 33 depositors to every 1000; and of the nineteen (10.)—The sum expended for the maintenance of the counties, in paragraph 4, it is 27 to every 1000. In poor of England in the year ending March 25th, 1830, Devonshire the proportion of depositors is the highest, was 6,553,4431. For Wales, the sum for that
being 55 to 1000; in Middlesex and Berkshire it is
year was 275,5981. Although the population since 1750 50 to 1000; in Lancashire and Warwickshire, 20 to has only about doubled itself, the poor rates have 1000; in Kent, Sussex, and Dorset, 36 to 1000; and increased, since that year, more than tenfold. For
in Monmouth, Westmoreland, and Buckingham about the ten manufacturing and mining counties, men
12 to 1000 of the population. The average amount of tioned in paragraph 2, (viz., Lancaster to Salop,)
each deposit is about 341., and there has of late been a the increase has been from 107,9271. in 1750 10 considerable increase in the number of depositors of 1,337,0111. in 1830; for the thirteen counties in para- sums under 201., who amount now to 192,881. By graph 3, (Surrey to Hertford, including the Metro-some this fact is regarded as a proof of the growth of politan,) from 294,0701. to 2,666,1991.; and for the prudential habits among the mass of the working classes, nineteen agricultural counties, in paragraph 4, from it would be more exact to say so, of a small portion of 277,8631. to 2,550,3301. The sum expended for the the working classes, the fact being that 29 out of 30 of poor of Middlesex in 1930, was 675,2851.; next to this our population do not contribute to Savings Banks at all.
There are some debatable questions in regard to the in the order of population; then, Norfolk, 299,2111. effect produced by the appropriation of the funds of the though only the ninth county in population; then, Lan- Savings Banks by the Commissioners for the reduction caster, the third in population, 297,6741.; then, Essex, affect the manifest advantage to be attained by every
of the National Debt, but such questions cannot at all the fourteenth in population, and containing about onefourth of the people in Lancashire, 282,1331.; then, working man in saving his money at interest, in preference the West Riding of Yorkshire, with a population of to squandering it. 976,400, 281,1581. The ratio of the poor rates of
(13.)— It has been already seen in paragraph 3, that the ten manufacturing counties to their population is the rate of increase of the population of Middlesex (inabont as one to three; that of the thirteen metropolitan cluding the city of London) since 1700 has been 117 per and other counties, about 'one-half; and that of the cent., being 37 per cent. less than the average of the nineteen agricultural counties, as about two to thiee. rest of England. The following is a statement of the The chief burthen of pauperism, therefore, falls upon London, as compared with 1801
present population of the Metropolis commonly called the agricultural districts. (11.)—The committals for crime in the ten manufac- City of London, within the Walls 63,832
55,778 turing districts were in 1805, 1,198, and in 1829, 6,430; Ditto without the Walls
67,480 in the thirteen metropolitan and other districts, they were
City and Liberties of Westminster 153,272
Holborn Division in 1805, 2,317, and in 1829, 7,844; and in the nine
97,373 Finsbury ditto
139.2-18 teen agricultural counties, they were in 1805, 1,012, and Tower ditto .
185,508 351,617 in 1829, 4,153. In all Wales the committals decreased Ten parishes in Surrey, viz. five in Southfrom 78 in 1805, to 24 in 1829. The number of persons wark, and Bermondsey, Rotherhithe, committed for trial at Assizes and Sessions in England
Newington, Christchurch, and Lambeth, and Wales in 1830, was 18,107, of whom 12,805 were
266,499 convicted, 3,470 acquitted, and 1,832 had no bills found Total within the Bills of Mortality 746,953 1,180,075 against them and were not prosecuted. Of the con Five western parishes of St. Mary-le-bone, victed, 1397 were sentenced to death, and 46 executed.
St. Pancras, Paddington, St. Luke Chel.
Total of the Metropolis ; ; 864,755 1,453,662
Those who desire fuller information in regard to swelling violently, the master repeated his exhortations, London and its environs should consult Mr. Marshall's charged her to be calm, and not attempt to quit her station.
Topographical and Statistical Details of the Metro Fortunately, a sudden dispersion of the clouds enabled him polis; a small and cheap work, which contains a great to lash the beam fore and aft to the boat. At this moment, deal of valuable information, Mr. Marshall has also tempting to throw herself forward, she was checked by the
presence of mind forsook her, and eagerly atrecently published a more elaborate work, in quarto, oaths of the seamen, who were at length enabled to heave entitled, - Statistics, Mortality, &c. &c. of the Metro- her into the boat, but could not disengage themselves from polis.' To both these publications we are indebted for the beam till they almost reached the mouth of the Usk. some of the materials of the statements in these Statis- This being effected, not without great difficulty, they rowed tịcai notes.
to the shore, and embayed themselves till the first dawn of (To be continued.)
the morning, when they conveyed her in the boat to New
port." SINGULAR ESCAPE.
Mr. Coxe gives the names of several respectable persons The following curious anecdote is taken from Archdeacon residing in the neighbourhood, who expressly confirmed to Coxe's Historical Tour in Monmouthshire, vol. i., p. This satisfaction the truth of this narrative: he especially re101-2 :-" The frame of the wooden bridge over the fers to a clergyman, to whom Mrs. Williams often repeated Usk, at Caerleon, is not unlike the carpentry of Cæ- the story, and confirmed it on her death-bed with the most sar's bridge over the Rhine, as described by him in his solemn asseverations. Commentaries. The floor, supported by ten lofty piers, is level, and divided by posts and rails into rooms or beds Chronicles, p. 631, the following lively picture is drawn of the
Disturbed Times unfavourable to Lawyers.-In Stow's of boards, each twelve feet in length ; the apparently loose and disjointed state of the planks, and the clattering noise state of the courts of law during the performance of the trawhich ihey make under the pressure of a heavy weight, Mary in 1537:- This yeere, in Michaelmas terme, men
gedies of religious persecution and tyranny under Queen have not unfrequently occasioned alarm to those who are unused to them. Some travellers, from a superficial view bar, not two men of law before the justices. There was one
might have seen in Westminster Hall, at the King's Bench of the structure, have asserted that the planks are placed named Fostar, who looked about, and had nothing to do; loose, to admit the tide through their interstices when it rises the judges likewise looking about them. In the Common above the bridge, and which would, if they were fixed, force Pleas no more serjeants but one, which was Serjeant Benthem from the frame, and carry them away. But, in fact, lowes, who looked about him: there was elbow-room the tide has never been known to rise above the bridge, nor was the flooring constructed to obviate this inconvenience. I enough; which made the lawyers to complain of their injuries
in that terme." Forinerly the planks were fastened to each extremity by iron nails ; but the wood being liable to split, and the nails frequently forced up by the elastic agitation of the beams under
As the Italian poet, Tasso, whose misfortunes were as the pressure of heavy carriages, the planks were secured great as his genius, was on one of his journeys between from rising by horizontal rails, fastened to the posts, and Rome and Naples, he fell into the hands of banditti, who prevented from slipping' side-ways by a peg at each end immediately proceeded to plunder him and his fellow-trawithin the rail.
vellers.' But no sooner did the captain of the band, the !: The height of the water, at extraordinary tides, exceeds celebrated Marco Sciarra, of Abruzzi, hear the poet prothirty feet; but though it has never risen above the floor, yet nounce his name, than, with tokens of admiration and rethe united body of a high tide, and the flouds to which the spect, he set him at liberty; nor would he even permit his Usk is subject, have been known to carry away parts of the followers to plunder Tasso's companions. A prince of royal bridge. "An accident of this kind, which happened on the or imperial birth confined the poet in a mad-house for more 291h of October, 1772, occasioned a singular event, to which than seven years; the great and wealthy left him to a preI should not have given credit, had it not been authenticated carious life, which was often a life of absolute want; the by the most respectable testimony.
servile men of letters of the day loaded him with abusive “ As Mrs. Williams, wife of Mr. Edward Williams, bra. / and most unjust criticism; but a mountain robber, by the zier was returning from the village on the other side of the road's side, controlled in his favour the very instinct of his bridge to the town of Caerleon, at eleven o'clock at night, gang, and kissed the hand of the author of the • Gerusa. with a candle and lanthorn, the violence of the current forced
lemme! away four piers and a considerable part of the bridge, On a fragment of this mass, consisting of an entire room, with
Parini, a native of Milan, was not only cne of the first the beams, posts, and flooring, she was hurried down the poets of modern Italy, but a digrified, philanthropic, and most river; but preserved sufficient presence of mind to support amiable man. When the government of his country wa herself by the railing. After having been carried down about changed, and a republic first instituted under the protection a mile and a half the candle was extinguished: on passing of the French arms, Milan became the scene of very natural some houses at St. Julian's, near the river side, she screamed excitement, and occasionally of violence. The people had for help, and was heard by several persons, who started out been too long deprived of liberty to be able to bear their of their beds to assist her, but the violence of the stream new condition with moderation. Things even went so far had already hurried her beyond their reach. During this time that a young and beautiful girl was seen to ascend the reshe felt but little apprehension, as she entertained hopes of publican tribune, and to promise her virgin-love to the man being delivered by the boatmen at Newport; her expecta- who should bring in the head of that foe to liberty-the tions were increased by the numerous lights which she dis- poor old Pope; and the father of this virago was seen to cerned in the houses, and she accordingly redoubled her embrace her with transport and tears excited by this heroic cries for assistance, though without effect. On arriving at virtue! It was at this time that some violent demagogue Newport, which is more than three miles from Caerleon, the tried to force Parini, one night at the theatre, to join ihe fragment on which she stood being broken to pieces against mob in crying “ death to the aristocrats!" · Long live the a pier of the bridge, she fortunately bestrode à beam, and, Republic," exclaimed the poet. “ Life to the Republic, but after being detained for some minutes by the eddies at the death to no one!” In an instant tranquillity was restored. bridge, was rapidly hurried along towards the sea. In this perilous situation she at length gave up all hope of deliver- A Savoyard got his livelihood by exhibiting a monkey ance, and resigned herself to her approaching fate.
and a bear. He gained so much applause from his tricks " About a mile from Newport she discerned a glimmering with the monkey, that he was encouraged to practise some light, in a barge which was moored near the shore, and, re- of them upon the bear: he was dreadfully lacerated, and on doubling her cries, was heard by the master of the vessel being rescued, with great difficulty, from the gripe of Bruin, After hailing her, and learning her situation, he cried out, he exclaimed: “What a fool was I, not to distinguish Keep up your spirits, and you will be soon out of danger; between a monkey and a bear! A bear, my friends, is a very then leaping into the boat with one of his men, rowed to grave kind of personage, and, as you plainly see, does not yards the place from whence the screams proceeded; but understand a joke.” some time elapsed before he overtook her, at a considerable distance from the anchorage of the barge. The night was Evelyn truly remarked, that all is vanity which is not so dark that they could not discern each other, and the surf | honest, and there is no solid wisdom but in real piety.
THE BRITISH MUSEUM. No. 3.
the height of this fragment is about 8 feet 14 inch, meaOBELISKS.
sured along one of the faces.
These two obelisks have a great number of figures cut on each face, representing either natural objects, such as birds and serpents, or various other things which it is not in all cases easy to identify. They are cut deep into the stone, and, in some instances, a considerable elevation or relief is given to the parts contained within the deep incision, for the purpose of showing the
round and prominent parts of the figure. On all EgypΙΕΣ
tian monuments of an early age, animals are cut with great accuracy of outline and spirit, especially birds, of which this obelisk offers some excellent specimens in the goose, the ibis, known by his long beak and legs, and another bird in walking attitude, near the base of the south side. The execution of this last is above all praise.
It is now ascertained that the figures enclosed in oblong rings contain the titles and naines of kiugs. These are the same on the two obelisks, and they happen also to be the same as those on the great sarcophagus, No. 6,
There have been many disputes among the learned
as to the origin and meaning of obelisks, into which we lit
shall not enter here. We know that they were generally placed in pairs at the entrances of the great Egyptian temples and palaces; and there are still two standing, in their original position, before the gateway of a large edifice at Thebes. When the Romans got possession of Egypt, Augustus removed two of the largest obelisks from Heliopolis (the city of the sun) to Rome,
where they still exist, and attest the fact of their removal Pog
at that period, by a Latin inscription on the pedestal. During the troubles of the city and the disastrous period of the decline of the Roman Empire, these and other obelisks were thrown down and broken ; but they have since been set on pedestals by the enterprising spirit of some of the popes. Sixtus V., in 1586, set the first example, in which he was followed by several of his successors; and Pius VI. restored other obelisks in the years 1786, 1789, and 1792. Two have been raised since the last-mentioned date.
The largest obelisk now' at Rome, and perhaps the largest in the world, is that which stands in front of the
Lateran church. It was originally erected by the EinAn obelisk is a single block of stone with four faces, peror Constantius *, in the Circus Maximus, by means of which are not quite perpendicular, but inclined a little, a most cumbrous machinery of wood-work and ropes, each towards the opposite face, so that the width of each after having been brought from Egypt in a ship built side gradually diminishes to the top of the shaft, which expressly for the purpose, and manned with three hunis crowned with a pyramid. There are two small obe-dred rowers. Pope Sixtus V. set it up in its preJisks of basalt in the British Museum, numbered 70 and sent place in 1588, after it had lain on the ground 5. They are entire from the base upwards, but the broken in three pieces for several centuries. Though the upper part
, together with the little pyramid at the top, is shaft has sustained some damage at the base, it is still broken off. Both of them were brought from Grand 105 feet long; the width of the two larger sides at the Cairo in Egypt, where they were first taken possession base is 9 feet sf inches, and of the smaller 9 feet. It of by the French, but they afterwards came into the now stands on a kind of pedestal, quite unsuited to the hands of the English when the French army capitulated simple character of the genuine Egyptian supports. at Alexandria in 1801, and quitted the country.
The whole height at present, with its pedestal and orThe one numbered 70 was used as the door-sill of naments on the top, is about 150 English feet, and the a mosque in the castle of Cairo, where that excellent weight of the obelisk itself may probably be about 440 traveller, Niebuhr, saw it in 1762, and copied part of tons. The material is the red granite of Syene, resemthe figures. By comparing his drawing with the north bling that of the altar, No. 2, in the British Museum. side of this obelisk (as it now stands), we readily dis- It is not so much the actual magnitude of an obelisk cover it to be the same. This obelisk, besides losing its which excites our wonder, for the London monument is top and part of the shaft, has been broken into two un- 50 feet higher than the tallest of the Roman obelisks— equal pieces, which are now united. The lower part, but the simplicity of the obelisk form, which is not dishowever, is quite complete, which is evident from there figured by any irregularity, its gradual diminution tobeing a smooth unsculptured surface on all the four wards the summit, which takes away all appearance sides, to the height of about 104 inches above the base. heaviness, the beautiful sculptures with which most of In all the obelisks that have been accurately measured, them are covered, and the unity of the huge mass cut at least in all of which we have been able to procure a from the quarries of Syene, conveyed so many hundred complete account, the width of the adjacent sides is dif- miles, and then set firmly on its pedestal-all these ferent. For example, in this Museum obelisk, as it combined fill us with admiration at the boldness and now stands, the north and south sides are of the same taste of the designer, and the unwearied patience and dimensions, being about 1 foot 4] inches wide, while skill of the sculptor. the east and west sides are each about 1 foot 54 inches
* Ammianus Marcellinus, xvii. 4,
The following account of the mode in which an obe- when it is in the most flourishing condition, the prince Jisk was carried down the Nile, is preserved in Pliny's * ought never to abate anything of his usual vigilance *.” Natural History, a book containing a mass of information And thus also, extending the application of this in a very crude, and often almost unintelligible shape. familiar but striking illustration to all mankind, we
“A canal was dug from the river to the place where would say, is it with the private affairs of men of all the obelisk lay, and iwo boats were placed side-by-side, stations, from the great lord to the labouring husbandfilled with pieces of stone of the same material as the man, from the wealthy merchant to the poor mechanic; obelisk. These pieces were in the shape of a brick, and and let every one keep a steady rein when all seems fair a foot in length (or cubical pieces, each side measuring and even with him. He is pretty sure to do so, in the one foot), so that the proportion between the quantity presence of danger and difficulty, when his faculties and of matter in the obelisk and that held by the boats could energies are all kept awake, and generally strengthened be determined. The boats were loaded to twice the in proportion to the difficulty to be overcome. Indeed weight of the obelisk, in order that they might go under let any man take a review of his past life, and he will it, its two ends resting on the two sides of the canal. find almost invariably that where he has most failed will Then, as the pieces of stone were taken out, the boats of be when he allowed himself to be lulled into security, course rose, and at last supported the obelisk and car- when he suspected no crosses and was prepared with no ried it off.”
caution, when in easy confidence he had dropped the This obelisk, according to the same authority, was reins on the neck of his horse who seemed to tread on eighty cubits high, or about 120 English feet t, and was a smooth sward or a Macadamized road—but tripped erected at Alexandria by Ptolemæus Philadelphus, the and fell! To take another illustration, it is the same second Greek king of Egypt.
with “ships that go down to the great deep." It is not The obelisk in St. George's fields, London, will give generally while the storin is raging, tremendous though some idea of the figure of one of these stupendous that storm may be,—it is not while sailing along the masses, though it is deficient in accurate proportions, perilous shore, or tracking her way through labyrinths insignificant in size, and placed on an ugly pedestal. of unknown islands, or the ice-mazes of the polar re
The obelisk at Alexandria, commonly called Cleopatra's gions, that the ship is most liable to wreck or founder. Needle, stands first of all on a block of stone, which is No! the catalogue of shipwrecks and maritime calamiin height about one-ninth of the whole height of the obe- ties is swelled, for the most part, by such as were carelisk itself; and this block again rests on three rectangular lessly scudding over summer seas, with all sails set and plinths, placed one above another, the base of the lowest all hands on board, joyful and confident ;-by such as being larger than that of the stone above it, and this were sailing through channels and straits so familiar to larger than the third; so that the three plinths form three them that the lead was left idle at the main-chains, and steps on each of the four sides of the obelisk.
no precaution deemed necessary; by such as from the The following are the dimensions of Cleopatra's furthermost regions of the earth were within sight of Needle, as given by the French:
their own country; by such, even, as the Royal George,
Feet. Ins. were tranquilly anchored in their own ports, with all the Height of shast from its base to the base of the
crew given up to the enjoyment of that festivity or repose pyramidal top
63 Ditto of pyramidal top
which nothing seemed likely to trouble Height of pedestal on which obelisk stands
11 Whole height of the three steps.............
6. This is not quite the whole height of the obelisk, as the French measures do not seem to include about 3 ft. 1 in. of one side, of which they have given the dimensions.
It has been stated in the House of Commons (April 15th, 1832) that this obelisk is 64 feet long, which is exactly the height of the shaft according to the French measurement, and that it weighs 284 tons. not able to learn whether it is this obelisk that is to be brought to England, or another at Thebes, which is in a much better state of preservation. The Alexandrine obelisk is so much damaged by the atmosphere of the sea, particularly on the south side, that it is hardly worth bringing. Our climate would, perhaps, be still more unfavourable to its preservation.
It has been suggested to us that this Theban obelisk, ir it be brought to England, should be set up in some advantageous position in the metropolis, where it might not only form a great ornament, but serve the useful purpose of a centre to measure roads from-a thing, the want of which is generally known and felt.
CAUTION IN PROSPERITY. MING Tsong, an emperor of China, celebrated for his wisdom and prudence, was accustomed to say, “A state is to be governed with the care and constant attention that is required of a person managing a horse: I have often,” said he, “travelled on horseback over very rough and mountainous countries, and never got any hurt, June 5.—The anniversary of the birth of Adam Smith, always taking care to keep a steady rein ; but in the the celebrated author of the Wealth of Nations.' He smoothest plains, thinking the same precautions useless, was born in 1723, at Kirkaldy, in the county of Fife, in and letting loose the reins, my horse has stumbled and Scotland, where his father, who died, however, a few put me in danger:-thus is it with government, for months before he came into the world, was comptroller • Book xxxvi. chap. 9. + Only a rough approximation.
of the customs. He was of delicate health from his in- well be proud. In 1778, through the interest of the fancy; and in consequence, although he was put to Duke of Buccleugh, Smith was appointed to the lucraschool in his native town, he mixed but little in the out- tive office of commissioner of the customs, in conseof-door sports and exercises of his more robust compa- quence of which he removed with his mother to Edinnions; but during the hours he was not in school occu- burgh, and here he spent the remainder of his life in pied himself for the most part with his books at home. comfort and affluence. He died on the $th of July, In 1737 he was sent by his mother to the university of 1790, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. Glasgow, and three years after from thence to Baliol June 6.—This is the birth-day of Peter Corneille, the College, Oxford, on one of several exhibitions, or yearly greatest of the French dramatists, who was born at allowances, to whịch Glasgow students are entitled while Rouen in 1606. He was educated for the bar. А pursuing their studies at that college. The intention love adventure which befel him after he had pracof Smith's relations was that he should enter into orders, tised for some years as an advocate in his native city with the view of becoming a clergyman in the Scotch first turned his thoughts to dramatic composition, and episcopal church. After remaining at Oxford, however, furnished him with the subject of his comedy entitled for above eight years, he gave up all thoughts of this Mélite. The success of this piece, when it was exdistinction, and, returning to Scotland, introduced him-hibited at Paris, was so great that Corneille deterself to public notice by delivering a course of lectures on mined for the future to devote himself to writing for the rhetoric and the belles lettres in Edinburgh. The abi- stage. Şeveral of his next efforts were also comedies ; lity with which he acquitted himself in this attempt but in 1636 he produced his tragedy of Medea, and, brought him the notice and the friendship of Lord soon after, that of the Cid, compositions in which his Kames, and several other distinguished literary men genius first displayed itself in its natural region and in who then resided in the Scottish capital; and in 1751 its true grandeur. The 'Cid' was followed by a succeshe was, through their influence and his own reputation, sion of other tragedies-among which those entitled elected to the professorship of logic in the university Horace and Cinna are especially celebrated, and remain of Glasgow, which he exchanged the year following to this day unrivalled in the dramatic literature of his for the chair of moral philosophy. He held this situ- country. Corneille's reward during his life-time, howation for about twelve years, during which time the elo-ever, consisted of little else than his glory; for it is requence and originality of his lectures rendered him lated that after the death of Colbert, a pension which the chief ornament of the seminary, and attracted crowds that minister had bestowed upon him was withdrawn, of students to his class from all quarters. His mode of though he was then poor, old, sickly, and dying, and it lecturing was not to write out what he intended to say; was only on the intercession of Boileau, who generously but, after making himself completely master of his sub- offered to resign his own pension on condition of Corject, to trust to the moment for expression; and in this neille's being restored to him, that the king, Louis XIV., way, we are told, he never failed to keep up the eager was moved to make him a present of 200 louis d'ors. attention of his audience to the discussion of even the Corneille, after he dedicated himself to the drama, exhimost difficult and abstract parts of his subject. In bited a remarkable example of devotion to the path 1759 he gave to the world his first publication, the which he had chosen-studying, we are told, scarcely " Theory of Moral Sentiments.' It was an expo- anything except what bore, or might be made to bear, sition of the leading metaphysical views which he upon his favourite pursuit. This great man died on the had been in the kabit of addressing to his class, 1st of October, 1684. the design being to show that all our feelings and June 8.—The birth-day of John Dominic Cassini, a judgments with regard to the morality of different very celebrated astronomer, and the prcgenitor of a son actions arise from, and are regulated by, the prin- and a grandson of nearly equal eminence in the same ciple of sympathy, which accordingly he makes the fun- department of science. His family was noble, and he damental characteristic of our mental constitution, and was born in Piedmont in the year 1635. The acci. that without which we could not exist as social beings. dental perusal, while he was yet very young, of a This work, when it first appeared, was more applauded for work on astronomy, first inspired Cassini with a taste its ingenuity and the subtlety of thought and beauty of ex- for that study; and so extraordinary was the progress pression by which many parts of it were marked, than for he made that, in 1650, being then only about fifteen, the conclusiveness of its reasonings ; but still it brought he was, on the invitation of the Senate of Bologna, apto its author a large accession of admiration and fame. pointed to the professorship of mathematics in that In 1763 Smith was induced to resign his professorship university. Two years after this he observed with refor the purpose of accompanying the Duke of Buccleugh markable care, a comet which appeared and confirmed on a tour to France and other parts of the Continent. He the opinion which Tycho Brahe had published long was absent from England about three years, the greater before respecting the nature of these bodies, proving, part of which was spent in Paris, where he made the in opposition to the ancient doctrine, that they were not acquaintance of all the distinguished literary men of that mere meteors. He also this same year resolved an capital. After his return home, in 1766, he retired to his astronomical problem which had bated the ingenuity native town of Kirkaldy, and taking up his abode in the of the greatest of his predecessors and contemporahouse of his mother, spent the next ten years in seclu- ries, and which even Kepler had given up in despair. sion and hard study. The result was the publication, This brilliant success at so early an age was followed in the year 1776, of his ‘Inquiry into the Nature and in the case of Cassini by a corresponding eminence Causes of the Wealth of Nations,' a work which may al- in his maturer years. In 1669 he left Bologna for most be said to have done for political economy what Sir Paris on the earnest invitation of Louis XIV., and Isaac Newton's Principia did for physical science-laid was immediately inade a member of the Academy and for it, namely, that new foundation upon which all that Astronomer Royal. On the completion of the Royal Obhas since been done has been reared. But of this great servatory, in 1671, he was appointed to preside over it. work we shall present our readers with a more detailed The rest of his life was spent, as the preceding part of it account in an early number, under the head of the “Li- had been, in the service of his favourite science. Even brary.' They still, we believe, show at Kirkaldy the the loss of his sight, some years before his death, alroom in Smith's house in which the Wealth of Nations' though it terminated his actual observation of the heawas written, with the impression left upon the wall by venly bodies, failed to withdraw his mind from its the head of the philosopher as he used to lean back in wonted field of speculation. He died in 1712, at the his chair, buried in profound thought. Though but a age of seventy-seven, leaving many able works on astrosimple memorial, it is one of which his townsmen mayl nomical and mathematical subjects,